Neurotoxins

Requested by captainquadri

If yesterday was all brawn, today is all brain. Slowking, upon evolving, gains super-intelligence, speech, and so on, just from the venom given by the Cloyster that decided to chomp on his head.

Neurotoxins are defined as a “poison which acts on the nervous system”, which the brain is part of. Clearly, Cloyster’s neurotoxin is being injected straight into Slowking’s brain, making it super effective.

Although neurotoxins are poisonous, many of them can have positive side effects as well. There’s several studies being done on using neurotoxins as treatment to Parinkinson’s or Alzheimer’s Disease.

Even though Neurotoxins sound so technical and laboratory-manufactured, they’re more natural than you’d think. A lot of insect venom contains neurotoxins, and in particular today we are going to discuss a peptide toxin found naturally in bee stings, called Apamin.

Apamin blocks certain channels in the brain, which can lower blood pressure, increase your heart rate, cause convulsions or respiratory paralysis, but also, strangely enough, will increase hyperexcitabalilty in the brain. Specifically, apamin increases your learning and memory.

How does it do that? In scientific vernacular, apamin selectively blocks SK channels in the brain. SK Channels are responsible for strengthening and weakening synapses. You can think of synapses as bridges between different parts of your brain. The more you think of a certain memory, the stronger that synapse will become and the easier the thing will be to remember.

So Cloyster’s apamin (or similar venom), injected in large amounts directly into Slowking’s brain, turn all the synapses in Slowking’s brain into super-synapses, increasing his ability to learn and memorize exponentially. 

Of course, there’s no way to inject knowledge directly, but I’m sure with his newfound abilities, Slowking would have no trouble learning fluent English in a matter of hours.

If the Shelder falls off, the apamin stops coming. All of Slowking’s strengthened  synapses crumble, and Slowking becomes once again a Slowpoke.

Cloyster injects a neurotoxin such as apamin directly into Slowking’s brain. This drastically increases the strength of Slowking’s neural pathways, giving him a super-power-like ability to learn and memorize very efficiently.

I’d like to know how he avoids the convulsions and respiratory failure.

Okay so I am not sure if the neurotoxins are implimented by the government, but there are definitely neurotoxins in a lot of pillows. So be careful and remember to change your cases!

The Toxins That Threaten Our Brains

Leading scientists recently identified a dozen chemicals as being responsible for widespread behavioral and cognitive problems. But the scope of the chemical dangers in our environment is likely even greater. Why children and the poor are most susceptible to neurotoxic exposure that may be costing the U.S. billions of dollars and immeasurable peace of mind.

Read more. [Image: Jackie Lay]

Brain may flush out toxins during sleep

NIH-funded study suggests sleep clears brain of molecules associated with neurodegeneration

A good night’s rest may literally clear the mind. Using mice, researchers showed for the first time that the space between brain cells may increase during sleep, allowing the brain to flush out toxins that build up during waking hours. These results suggest a new role for sleep in health and disease. The study was funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), part of the NIH.

“Sleep changes the cellular structure of the brain. It appears to be a completely different state,” said Maiken Nedergaard, M.D., D.M.Sc., co-director of the Center for Translational Neuromedicine at the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York, and a leader of the study.

For centuries, scientists and philosophers have wondered why people sleep and how it affects the brain. Only recently have scientists shown that sleep is important for storing memories. In this study, Dr. Nedergaard and her colleagues unexpectedly found that sleep may be also be the period when the brain cleanses itself of toxic molecules.

Their results, published in Science, show that during sleep a “plumbing” system, called the glymphatic system, may open, letting fluid flow rapidly through brain. Dr. Nedergaard’s lab recently discovered the glymphatic system helps control whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear liquid surrounding the brain and spinal cord, flows through the brain.

“It’s as if Dr. Nedergaard and her colleagues have uncovered a network of hidden caves and  these exciting results highlight the potential importance of the network in normal brain function,” said Roderick Corriveau, Ph.D., a program director at NINDS.

Initially the researchers studied the system by injecting dye into the CSF of mice and watching it flow through their brains while simultaneously monitoring electrical brain activity. The dye flowed rapidly when the mice were unconscious, either asleep or anesthetized.  In contrast, the dye barely flowed when the same mice were awake.

“We were surprised by how little flow there was into the brain when the mice were awake,” said Dr. Nedergaard. “It suggested that the space between brain cells changed greatly between conscious and unconscious states.”

To test this idea, the researchers inserted electrodes into the brain to directly measure the space between brain cells. They found that the space inside the brains increased by 60 percent when the mice were asleep or anesthetized. 

“These are some dramatic changes in extracellular space,” said Charles Nicholson, Ph.D., a professor at New York University’s Langone Medical Center and an expert in measuring the dynamics of brain fluid flow and how it influences nerve cell communication.

Certain brain cells, called glia, control flow through the glymphatic system by shrinking or swelling. Noradrenaline is an arousing hormone that is also known to control cell volume. Treating awake mice with drugs that block noradrenaline induced sleep and increased brain fluid flow and the space between cells, further supporting the link between the glymphatic system and sleep.

Previous studies suggest that toxic molecules involved in neurodegenerative disorders accumulate in the space between brain cells. In this study, the researchers tested whether the glymphatic system controls this by injecting mice with radiolabeled beta-amyloid, a protein associated with Alzheimer’s disease, and measuring how long it lasted in their brains when they were asleep or awake. Beta-amyloid disappeared faster in mice brains when the mice were asleep, suggesting sleep normally clears toxic molecules from the brain.

“These results may have broad implications for multiple neurological disorders,” said Jim Koenig, Ph.D., a program director at NINDS. “This means the cells regulating the glymphatic system may be new targets for treating a range of disorders.”

The results may also highlight the importance of sleep.

“We need sleep.  It cleans up the brain,” said Dr. Nedergaard.

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FOOD–ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS:  Yes, Pesticides Are Likely Killing Birds…New Research Findings

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Farmers can buy seeds that come preloaded with neonicotinoid coatings…This lock, stock, and barrel approach to crop protection means that no matter where a pest likes to nibble—the root, the stem, the flower—the invader winds up with a bellyful of neurotoxins. 

Unfortunately, neonicotinoids are dangerous even if not ingested…so birds and bees are also ending up on the receiving end of these toxic chemicals.

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Second Silent Spring? Bird Declines Linked to Popular Pesticides

National Geographic

Pesticides don’t just kill pests. New research out of the Netherlands provides compelling evidence linking a widely used class of insecticides to population declines across 14 species of birds.

Those insecticides, called neonicotinoids, have been in the news lately due to the way they hurt bees and other pollinators. (Related: “The Plight of the Honeybee.”)

This new paper, in Nature, gets at another angle of the story—the way these chemicals can indirectly affect other creatures in the ecosystem…

The Dutch scientists say neonicotinoids are negatively affecting bird populations. Bayer CropScience says neonicotinoids are safe when used correctly. Whom do we trust?

Maybe an independent group that just completed a review of over 800 scientific studies on the effects of neonicotinoids on wildlife. The Task Force on Systemic Pesticides, composed of 29 multidisciplinary scientists, recently released its landmark report titled Worldwide Integrated Assessment of the Impact of Systemic Pesticides on Biodiversity and Ecosystems.

Overall, the scientists concluded that even when neonicotinoids were used according to the guidelines on their labels and applied as intended, the chemicals’ levels in the environment still frequently exceeded the lowest levels known to be dangerous for a wide range of species—and were “thus likely to have a wide range of negative biological and ecological impacts.”

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Journal source: Declines in insectivorous birds are associated with high neonicotinoid concentrations, Hallmann, C., et al. Nature (2014), doi:10.1038/nature13531

Flame retardant exposure linked to lower IQs – study

A new study involving Simon Fraser University researchers has found that prenatal exposure to flame retardants can be significantly linked to lower IQs and greater hyperactivity in five-year old children. The findings are published online today in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

The researchers found that a 10-fold increase in PBDE concentrations in early pregnancy, when the fetal brain is developing, was associated with a 4.5 IQ decrement, which is comparable with the impact of environmental lead exposure.

SFU health sciences professor Bruce Lanphear is part of the research team that measured the levels of flame retardants, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers, (PBDEs) in 309 U.S. women at 16 weeks of pregnancy, and followed their children to the age of five.

Researchers say their results confirm earlier studies that found PBDEs, which are routinely found in pregnant women and children, may be developmental neurotoxicants.

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FOOD–ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS:  New York City Bans Polystyrene for Food Containers

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Kudos, New York.  Now if the rest of the U.S. regions would just follow your lead.

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NYC To Begin Banning Plastic Foam Containers From Food Establishments In July

New York City will begin banning food establishments from using plastic foam containers starting July 1.

Mayor Bill de Blasio’s administration announced the ban on Thursday.

The ban applies to single-use foam items such as cups, plates, trays or clamshell containers used at food service establishments, stores and manufacturers.

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Why you should care

Polystyrene contains the toxic substances Styrene and Benzene, suspected carcinogens and neurotoxins that are hazardous to humans… Styrene primarily exhibits its toxicity to humans as a neurotoxin by attacking the central and peripheral nervous systems. The accumulation of these highly lipid-soluble (fat-soluble) materials in the lipid-rich tissues of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves is correlated with acute or chronic functional impairment of the nervous system. … Why you should always avoid Styrofoam/Polystyrene food containers Hot foods and liquids actually start a partial breakdown of the Styrofoam, causing some toxins to be absorbed into our bloodstream and tissue. Polystyrene food containers leach the toxin Styrene when they come into contact with warm food or drink, alcohol, oils and acidic foods causing human contamination and pose a health risk to people. Avoid drinking tea with lemon, coffee with dairy cream, fruit juices, alcoholic beverages and wine from Styrofoam cups. Red wine will instantly dissolve the Styrene monomer. Do not eat oily foods from Styrofoam containers. Do not microwave food in Polystyrene containers. . Source: “Polystyrene Fact Sheet,” Foundation for Advancements in Science and Education, Los Angeles, California / The Dangers of Polystyrene
Food--Environmental Chemicals: Pesticides and Brain Damage

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Study: Common pesticide affects developing brain
CNN (blog)
Chlorpyrifos, a common pesticide, may be subtly influencing brain development in children, according to a new study. The brain abnormalities, found among a very small population of school-aged children, may have occurred while they developed in utero.

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Pesticide exposure linked to brain changes: study
Medical Xpress
A farmer sprays his eggplant plantation with pesticides in 2010. When pregnant women are exposed to moderate levels of a common pesticide, their children may experience lasting changes in brain structure linked to lower intelligence, a US study said …

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Insecticide Linked to Brain Abnormalities in Kids
U.S. News & World Report
… April 30 (HealthDay News) – A new, small study links maternal exposure to a commonly used insecticide to unusual changes in the brain structures of young children, although the research doesn’t definitely prove that the pesticide is at fault.

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Why You Shouldn’t Give Honey to Babies (aka How Botulism Works and Why Botox Freaks Lauren Right the Eff Out)

So a poster on another page was told by her “doctor relative” that mercury is no longer contained in vaccines, particularly those intended for children.

Right. Vis-a-vis vaccines, the ignorance of most doctors is a wonder to behold - and relatives ain’t that far behind ‘em. :)

Reality:

Influenza vaccines are administered at 6 months, and again at 24 months, and then every year thereafter. In some circumstances 2 doses are actually recommended to be given within 4 weeks. Several of the vaccines are available in multi-dose vials, which contain the full dose of thimerosal, 25 mcg, literally equivalent to 125 times the mercury concentration labeled as hazardous waste by the EPA. It is true that, were one of those vials to break, technically speaking a hazmat unit would have to be called in to clean it up. It’s insane to inject it into anyone, let alone infants and toddlers. One of the brands contains a trace of thimerosal in the single dose vaccine - continue reading, I explain a trace a little further on.

Most influenza vaccines are given from multi-dose vials, because parents aren’t aware of the greatly increased mercury threat, they’re not always advised by the pediatrician, and they’re cheaper - the pediatric practice simply makes a larger profit by using them.

The DTaP is administered at 2, 4 and 6 months, again at 15 months, and again at 4 years. One of the available vaccines, Tripedia, contains thimerosal. While the amount is listed as a trace, that doesn’t mean it has no effect. The truth is that there are no known lower safety limits for injected mercury - the figures they use for supposed limits were extrapolated from studies of populations mercury poisoned through contaminated drinking water, or pollution from industrial smokestacks. Injection is very different from ingestion or inhalation; elicits a very different immune response. Even 1 mcg of thimerosal - which is 1,000 ppb - parts per billion - is still 5 times greater than than the EPA’s limits for hazardous waste.

Regarding mercury, and considering that we literally should never inject it, this is the appalling reality:

Several years ago the folks who ran a website called h.a.p.i., sent four vaccine samples to a lab to be tested for mercury content. Two of the vials contained a trace of thimerosal, as per the label, and two contained none. Mercury was detected in all four vaccines. In the two labeled as containing zero thimerosal the amount detected was equivalent to only 3 ppb - but the EPA lists water containing 2 ppb or more as unfit for drinking. Critical: it’s not the quantity that matters, but the concentration. You simply do not want to inject something you can’t ingest, because the great bulk of the immune system, including defense against toxins, resides in the gut.

So even if you read labels, there’s absolutely no guarantee that a vaccine is mercury-free. And finally, regarding mercury, this, from the current H.A.P.I. website:

“If thimerosal is used during the manufacturing process at all, this should be disclosed in the product insert even if it is not being used as a preservative. HAPI takes this position because thimerosal breaks down into ethylmercury which then binds to the antigenic protein in the vaccine therefore making it impossible to “filter out” 100% of the mercury.”

In light of all the above, the doctor relative’s claim that the vaccines they have now, especially for children, no longer contain mercury, is particularly ignorant. Again, no mercury should ever be injected. It is generally regarded as the second most toxic substance on the planet.

Aluminum must be considered as well, because it greatly increases the neurotoxicity of mercury, and is contained in about half the vaccines on the schedule, as adjuvant, which are commonly given along with the mercury-containing vaccines - which, as established above, could be any vaccine, even if thimerosal isn’t listed as an ingredient. Aluminum’s found in:

Every DTaP vaccine - 4 shots in the first 18 months, again at 15 months, and again at 4 years;
PedvaxHIB - Hib vaccines given at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months;
Both Hep B vaccines - 3 shots in the first 18 months, starting on the day of birth;
Prevnar 13 - 4 shots, at 2, 4, 6 and 15 months.

The first link below is to the CDC’s recommended vaccine schedule.
Second link: the CDC’s current list of vaccine ingredients.
Third link: the current H.A.P.I. website.
Fourth link: a study titled Mercury toxicity: Genetic susceptibility and synergistic effects, which includes a description of the effect of aluminum on the toxicity of mercury.

http://www.cdc.gov/…/downloads/child/0-18yrs-schedule.pdf

http://www.cdc.gov/…/appendices/B/excipient-table-2.pdf

http://hapihealth.org/vaccine-testing/

http://www.help4chemicalsensitivity.org/…/mercury…

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Getting High Injecting Snake Venom

The hemotoxins which attack human blood cells in a tree viper’s venom can result in an agonising death in less than 30 minutes. The neurotoxins in a cobra bite can kill a person in half that time. for the past 20 years Steve Ludwin has been sticking all this lovely deadly snake juice in a syringe and mainlining it all the way to immortality. Privately milking an array of deadly snakes including rattlesnakes, monocled cobras, and a few casual vipers thrown in to the mix, Steve has been injecting what would for any normal human be fatal amounts venom into his body since the late 80s.

The basic principle - laid out by pioneer herpetologist, Bill Haast, who died last year at the age of 100 - is that regular exposure to the venom results in the body developing an immunity. Steve claims to not only never get ill, but that cobra venom is the ultimate pick me up, with effects lasting a days after injecting, making Steve stronger, faster and more resilient. Finally it looks like mainstream scientific research might be catching up.

Researchers Developing Tissue Chip to Screen Neurological Toxins

Read the full article Researchers Developing Tissue Chip to Screen Neurological Toxins at NeuroscienceNews.com.

A multidisciplinary team at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the Morgridge Institute for Research is creating a faster, more affordable way to screen for neural toxins, helping flag chemicals that may harm human development.

Image: Inside wells about a fifth the size of a dime, the team grew neural tissues from a combination of cell types that represent the main components of a developing brain. This image shows the entire structure formed in the well, with nuclei in blue, neurons in green and glial cells in red. Credit Michael Schwartz.

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FOOD–ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS:  Pesticide Exposure Linked with Autism

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Association Found Between Maternal Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Autism

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Pregnant women who lived in close proximity to fields and farms where chemical pesticides were applied experienced a two-thirds increased risk of having a child with autism spectrum disorder or other developmental delay, a study by researchers has found.

Certain commonly used pesticides are neurotoxic and may pose threats to brain development during gestation, potentially resulting in developmental delay or autism.

The study examined associations between specific classes of pesticides, including organophosphates, pyrethroids and carbamates, applied during the study participants’ pregnancies and later diagnoses of autism and developmental delay in their offspring.  The associations were stronger when the exposures occurred during the second and third trimesters of the women’s pregnancies.

The large, multisite California-based study  is published online in Environmental Health Perspectives.

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Journal Reference:Janie F. Shelton, Estella Marie Geraghty, Daniel J. Tancredi, Lora D. Delwiche, Rebecca J. Schmidt, Beate Ritz, Robin L. Hansen, Irva Hertz-Picciotto. Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticides: The CHARGE Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2014; DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1307044

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You know

all this talk of a Blue Sky musical is great and all

and imagining the Geekenders’ involvement

but have you truly understand?

the full repercussions??

of what such a thing would entail???

like how certain characters are killed by meteors in the first chapter????

DO YOU

I can take any amount of Chelley feels but I don’t think my heart can handle any hurt to this precious cinnamon roll

… it wasn’t arrogance that had killed him, it was ignorance. Also, it was ignorance which must be forgiven, for the facts underlying his death were to remain unrecognized to all, scientists and lay people alike, literally for decades.

[…]

Had McCandless’s guidebook to edible plants warned that Hedysarum alpinum seeds contain a neurotoxin that can cause paralysis, he probably would have walked out of the wild in late August with no more difficulty than when he walked into the wild in April, and would still be alive today.

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How Chris McCandless Died”, John Krakauer, The New Yorker (Sep 2013).

Writers Krakauer and Ronald Hamilton suggested last year that wild potato seeds are potentially toxic. This suggestion was “met with no small amount of derision, especially in Alaska”. A few months ago Avomeen Analytical Services verified the seeds contain a neurotoxin that those malnourished, stressed with acute hunger are especially susceptible to.

Two species of cone snail, Conus geographus (left) and Conus tulipa (right) attempting to capture their fish prey. As they approach potential prey, the snails release a specialized insulin into the water, along with neurotoxins that inhibit sensory circuits, resulting in hypoglycemic, sensory-deprived fish that are easier to engulf with their large, distensible false mouths. Once engulfed, powerful paralytic toxins are injected by the snail into each fish.

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