Mouro Island is a small, uninhabited island in the Bay of Biscay. The only structure on the island is a 19th century lighthouse, which was occupied by two lighthouse keepers up until 1921. Due to the lighthouse often being isolated by large storms, the work for the lighthouse keepers was very dangerous, with at least three workers having been killed on the island. Due to these dangers, the lighthouse is now automated.
The water surrounding the island has a high biodiversity of fish and marine animals, and was declared a marine reserve in 1986. The island is also an important home for a number of bird species, including European Storm Petrels, and European Herring Gulls.
Você me pede um conselho e atrevidamente eu dou o Grande Conselho: seja você mesmo, porque ou somos nós mesmos ou não somos coisa nenhuma. E para ser si mesmo é preciso um trabalho de mouro e uma vigilância incessante na defesa, porque tudo conspira para que sejamos meros números, carneiros de vários rebanhos - os rebanhos políticos, religiosos, estéticos. Há no mundo ódio à exceção - e ser si mesmo é ser exceção. Então, nada nada de imitar seja lá quem for! Temos de ser nós mesmos. Ser núcleo de cometa, não cauda. Puxar fila, não seguir! Exceder-se, construir.
Is the shape of a nature spirit given form over time by a culture and its linguistic perception of that spirit or is it formed in a more immediate way through the prism of cultural perception in the individual having the experience, defined by that culture’s language?
When we look at the cultures of the world, both classic and contemporary, we see a spectrum of belief in “spirits” that is prevalent in all cultures continuously throughout history. In some form or another the concept of spirits is as wide ranging as language itself. An instrumental part of the development of all socities, the nature of these spirits takes on a wide variety of roles depending on the culture in which they have blossomed.
From the ancient jinn of the east, to the nagas of Asia, the fae and sidhe of the Celts, the ancestor spirits of Africa and her diaspora in the new world, the German goblins, Norse trolls, the Vodoun lwa, the saints and demons of Judeo-Christian pantheons, the world over is full of the belief in beings whose form is transitory yet whose power is recorded as often enormous in scale. Who exist at the edge of temporality and are supplicated with offerings, orisons and rituals.
Yet while the concept of spirits is one that is universal, little contemporary thought has been given to the nature of these beings and their origins on a practical level. Relying heavily on pre enlightenment ideas of corporeality the contemporary magician is often working under conditions that have proven to be obscure at best, fraudulent at worst.
What then is the nature of these beings with whom all magicians the world over interact? How are we to express in terms scientific and yet openminded, those entities with whom our craft is indebted? Where are we to find the headwaters of these beliefs and their origins in human culture?
To say that nature is the source of all life is axiomatic, for nature is itself all life, the very mathematic formula that drives evolution on all its scales. While the boundaries of what makes up life may be little understood its form, as we perceive it, tends toward that which is measurably obvious to the viewer. As mankind has developed intellectually over the past few centuries our understanding of the complexities and subtleties of living beings has grown immeasurably. From the first understanding of the nature of germs to CRISPR gene editing in under two centuries mankind is just now beginning to scientifically understand the fields of energy that surround us that have long been overlooked.
The electromagnetic fields of all living things stretch far beyond the boundaries of their physical masses. The electromagnetic field of the earth itself functioning like an engine driving our planetary variables, steering tectonic plates, controlling weather systems. The interplay of these electromagnetic forces, coupled with energies we are barely able to understand that exist in quantum interactions and dimensional concepts too complex for a blog post, are just now being looked at, let alone fully grasped at this stage in our intellectual enlightenment.
It is in this realm, of complex energies, vibratory frequencies, and misunderstood quantum mechanics, that we find the root of those beings who can be grouped into the categories of “spirits”. From Grecian daemons to Galician mouros, lwa to kitsune, wight to ghost, the patterns of energy that make up these beings are all drawn from that stream of energies which is invisible to mankind, though slowly being revealed under the lens of contemporary technology.
“If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.” ― Nikola Tesla
While this river of energies may be just now coming into focus through accepted scientific practice the craft finds its very roots at the base of this tree of knowledge. The varieties of dealing with these spirits are as complex as the cultures that bore them. The negotiations of these relationships across the world playing similar tunes, yet varied in their composition to reflect the variables and practicalities at hand.
Yet we must wonder at the nature of these manifestations against the cultures in which they are perceived. What causes such a diverse narrative and a motley assortment of creatures that have long interacted with mankind? How are we to know wight from lwa? What defines the differences and commonalities of these beings? How can a river of energies so universal manifest so differently among disparate cultures, while retaining distinct core similarities in their nature?
I propose that these manifestations are given form via the specific language a practitioners understands and communicates in. That the culture whose folk narrative has given form to these spirits is manifesting the boundaries of said beings through the use of language itself.
We are linguistic beings by nature. Our entire world perception is defined through the language we speak, and not all words in all languages easily translate across linguistic boundaries. We may speak in one language of emotions and concepts that are entirely alien to the thoughts of a native speaker in another language. The sounds of one culture’s joy may be the sound of aggression in another culture and its linguistic palette.
Thus as a culture has become defined throughout time, like the polishing of the facets of a jewel, mankind’s perception of these entities that exist at the boundaries of our perception have come to reflect the inherent peculiarities of a given culture. Our fears as a people, our inhibitions and immoralities, our taboos and desires projected onto these entities we encounter in the natural world.
Thus the differences that have grown between cultures are the differences in mankind’s pantheon of spirits the world over. Some are to be feared, as that culture is one of fearfulness, others to be befriended, as that culture is one of openness and sharing.
Though as much as there are differences, more striking still are the commonalities between cultural perceptions of nature spirits. That their roles remain often identical in light of their polarized appearances, that they are more common among the untouched places of the natural world, that they can be bound, threatened, supplicated, bribed.
When in the course of the practice of the craft a magician of any ilk encounters a spirit, through accident or intention, it’s best to be aware of the shape that they manifest in relation to our perceptions and expectations. That their form is one that easily fills the container of our language and its inherent biases and preconceptions about the nature of reality. We give to these spirits as much of their form and power as they themselves, much the way we give to our rulers the power over us that we must yield in order for them to rule.
While much research in this field has yet to be done the current of this form of spirit anthropology is just now awakening. Considerable historic documentation exists to outline the ever evolving relationship between mankind and that other. Yet a fuller look at the extent of human participation in spirit interaction may be a decade or more in the making.
It would do well for the practitioner to keep in mind that the nature of the spirit catalogues of antiquity are that of slow evolution, where names shift over time via generations of misspelling and misappropriation. Recent research has been done in tracking these changes, yet the full scope of how the spirit is given specific form by the language, and thus the perception of reality that the practitioner holds, has yet to be done.
To they whom traffic in the boundaries of the landscape, know that your expectations place you in a precarious position. Those beings with whom you court and barter, supplicate and invoke, are more than your perception of them. They are merely being given form by your expectation of their presence. When the magician commands the demon to appear in a “comely form” it is to oneself the words are spoken. For the eyes only deceive us in our dealings with that world, no truth can be had in the illusion that is sight. The lies our eyes tell us have names made of the words we have been raised with, a set of linguistic boundaries on which perception is given form by that great deceiver that is culture.
Join us on a cinematic roadtrip through the south of Portugal. We start our journey in Lisbon, make a short stop at the beautiful palaces of Sintra and then travel all the way south, following Portugal’s magnificent coastline.
This video was created for our travel video channel ‘Wingspreader’
Postei alguns dias as qualidades de Ogum no candomblé, hoje postamos uma ressalva sobre Ogum dentro do culto da Umbanda. Vamos as Definições e Histórias de Ogum:
Primeiramente, precisamos entender que quando falamos dos “Oguns” ou de todos os Ogum que baixam nos Templos de Umbanda rodando suas espadas no ar, não são o próprio Orixá Ogum, pois o Orixá não baixa na Umbanda, muito menos são Caboclos de Ogum, os caboclos de Ogum são índios que fazem cruzamento com este Orixá. O Povo de Ogum que baixa nos terreiros são espíritos de homens que fora ligados ao militarismo de alguma forma, estes espíritos por afinidades astrológicas e energéticas trabalham nessa linha são Guerreiros Romanos, Gregos, Espartanos, Mouros, Gauleses, Bárbaros, Hititas, Egípcios, Malês, Sarracenos, Templários, Britânicos, Chefes Indígenas, Beduínos, Persas, Macedônios, Chineses, Samurais, Babilônicos, enfim vários países e territórios. Vamos a explicações:
Ogum Matinata: Veste Vermelho apenas, é a linha mais pura de Ogum, sando chamado por Ogum Guerreiro.
Ogum Beira-Mar: Veste Vermelho e Azul Claro, ligado as praias de Iemanjá, conhecido como o Sentinela de Maria.
Ogum de Lei (Ogum Delê): Ligado a Xangô usa Vermelho e dourado, cor de sua armadura trás uma balança nas mãos ligado a execução da justiça.
Ogum Yara: Ligado a Ibeji e Oxum, usa vermelho e Azul escuro trabalha nas nascentes dos rios.
Ogum Malê ou Malei: Ogum ligado a Oxalá,patrono das entidades do Oriente e de Cura, cuida de todos espíritos dos médicos astrais, usa Vermelho e Branco, não usa capacete.
Ogum Megê: Serventia de Obaluaê, regula os Exus, trabalha muitas vezes dentro da Calunguinha, veste Preto, Vermelho e Amarelo, usa bandeira e lança como arma,alguns usam espadas, sempre representado montado num cavalo branco.
Ogum Rompe-Mato: Ligado a Oxossi, cuida das entradas das matas e florestas, usa Verde escuro e Vermelho, uma espada de São Jorge na mão, alguns usam fitas na cabeça.
Ogum Sete-Espadas: Ligado a energia pura de Ogum, vibra com Ogum Matinata, usa uma espada na mão e outras seis cruzadas na capa, Usa vermelho e prata.
Ogum Sete-Ondas: Vibra com Ogum Beira-Mar, trabalha nas ondas do mar,ligado a Iemanjá usa Azul Royal e Vermelho, se veste com capacete de conchas.
Ogum das Pedreiras: Guarda as pedreiras de Xangô de armadura dourada e penas marrons, vibra com Ogum de Lei quase não se desloca grande executor não aceita ordens.
Ogum Caiçara: Vibra com Ogum Yara, usa Vermelho e Azul bebê, se desloca pelo templo cuida do fundo da foz dos Rios.
Ogum do Oriente: Vibra com Ogum Malê, com ligações árabes traz um turbante, vibra com as cores vermelho, branco e dourado.
Ogum de Ronda: Trabalha com Ogum Megê trabalha nas entradas da Calunguinha, corre sua ronda a Meia-Noite.Usa Preto, Vermelho e Verde. Trás cruz de Malta no peito.
Ogum das Matas: Usa Verde e Branco são espíritos Indígenas, usam espadas e bradam muito.
Ogum Sete-Lanças: Ligado a Ogum Matinata e Sete-Espadas usa vermelho apenas, roda cruzando o terreiro.
Ogum Sete-Mares: Ligado a Ogum Beira-Mar e Ogum Sete-Ondas, cuida dos Mares usa azul bem escuro e vermelho.
Ogum de Ouro: Trabalha com Ogum de Lei e Ogum das Pedreiras, Usa Vermelho e Amarelo. Vibra com Iansã.
Ogum Menino: Vem com Ogum Yara e Ogum Caiçara trabalha nos lajeados e barrado de corais. Usa Vermelho e Azul.
Ogum da Lua: vibra com Ogum Malê e Ogum do Oriente, trabalha nas vibrações lunares, nos campos abertos do Humaitá. Usa Vermelho e branco.
Ogum Xoroquê: Trabalha com Ogum Megê e Ogum de Ronda vibra muito com Exu, ligado a Obaluaê também, é o Ogum mais negativo. Usa Preto, Vermelho e Branco.
Ogum dos Rios: Trabalha com Ogum Rompe-Mato e Ogum das Matas usa verde água e vermelho apesar do nome trabalha nas Pontes.
Além desses ainda existem outros Oguns: Ogum Naruê (trabalha na calunguinha), Ogum da Estrada (Trabalha na estrada), Ogum Rompe Folha (trabalha na mata) Ogum Bandeira (trabalha no Humaitá), Ogum Gererê (ligado à Xangô).
[ I’ll copypaste only a few big points of my HC Timeline where Roy was involved, even before becoming Fuhrer].
-First Ishvalan City, Urdam, is rebuilt and founded.
-Railway line East City-Ishval finished.
-Military Statute Reform (Law 1020)
Fraternization Policy reform: Allows regulated commercial associations and marriage as long as it doesn’t interfere with regular labor performance, military command chain and moral values between other aspects.
State Alchemists program is abolished.
Stablishes the “Social Brigade” in replacement of the State Alchemist program for State Alchemists voluntary reallocation.
Stablishes an income tax (with a high limit that only affects high ranked military personnel).
-Foundation of the SSDAS, “Society for Study and Development of Applied Sciences”.
Second program of reallocation of State Alchemists under the management of Roy Mustang and the direction of Edward Elric. As its name indicates, the group is aimed to gather scientific and intellectual individuals that can contribute innovatively to the common social good in the fields of medicine, tecnology, engeenering, chemistry, psychology, agriculture and animal husbandry, urbanism, natural environment protection and any other field that helps to imprve the life quality of Amestris citizens.
Founder group: Edward Elric ; Margaretta Landin; Viktor Keller ; Tsung Chang ; Tim Marcoh.
-Amestris National Institute is founded in Central City by Roy Mustang
(subsequently head institutes in North, East, West and South City are founded in 1925, 1926 and 1927 respectively).
-Educational and alphabetization reform (Law 7040):
Education is free till high school level and free and obligatory till middle school level.
-War breaks up between Aerugo, Mouros and Creta.
-Roy becomes Fuhrer. -Roy establishes “The day of National Liberty”
-International conciliation project.
-First semi-presidential elections in Amestris.
Roy wins elections and becomes president, Olivier becomes Prime Minister
-Fight from officialism party against the project of obligatory military service.
(this HC is exclusive of this blog and same goes with non-canon characters names. Quotation requires credit).