Middle ages

Copy of a written Pact with the Devil by Christoph Haizmann from 1669.

Pact with the Devil is a cultural motif, best exemplified by the legend of Faust and the figure of Mephistopheles, but elemental to many Christian folktales. According to traditional Christian belief in witchcraft, the pact is between a person and Satan or a lesser demon. The person offers his or her soul in exchange for diabolical favours. Those favours vary by the tale, but tend to include youth, knowledge, wealth, fame or power.
Written pact consists in the same forms of attracting the demon, but includes a written act, usually signed with the conjurer’s blood.
It was usually thought that the person who had made a pact also promised the demon to kill children or consecrate them to the Devil at the moment of birth (many midwives were accused of this, due to the number of children who died at birth in the Middle Ages and Renaissance), take part in Sabbaths, have sexual relations with demons, and sometimes engender children from a succubus, or an incubus in the case of women.

The Ogham Tree Grove.

Ogham is an Early Medieval alphabet used to write the early Irish language (in the so-called “orthodox” inscriptions), and later the Old Irish language (scholastic ogham). According to the High Medieval Bríatharogam, names of various trees can be ascribed to individual letters. According to the Damian McManus, the “Tree Alphabet” idea dates to the Old Irish period. Its origin is probably due to the letters themselves being called feda “trees”, or nin “forking branches” due to their shape. 

The Ogham Trees have been objects of veneration, sources of wisdom, inspiration and medicine for unknown centuries. Each of the twenty British native trees and shrubs has particular powers of its own which may be useful in improving any magical rituals. Each has its own moon cycle span of twenty-eight days and an Ogham letter symbol. There is no definitive proof about the origin of this alphabet, but it can be certain that the Druids, in the late Iron Age and beyond - last century BC and the first and second centuries AD - used this system in the form of a calendar, based on the thirteen cycles of the Moon, and the celebration of the four Solstices. The word ‘Druid’ itself comes either from the Celtic name for the oak - 'duir’ - or from the Welsh - 'derwydd’  - meaning oak-seer.

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Ancient Alphabets.

Thedan Script - used extensively by Gardnerian Witches
Runic Alphabets - they served for divinatory and ritual purposes, as well as the more practical use; there are three main types of Runes; Germanic, Scandinavian/Norse, and Anglo-Saxon and they each have any number of variations, depending on the region from which they originate 
Celtic and Pictish - early Celts and their priests, the Druids, had their own form of alphabet known as “Ogam Bethluisnion”, which was an extremely simple alphabet used more for carving into wood and stone, than for general writing, while Pictish artwork was later adopted by the Celts, especially throughout Ireland
Ceremonial Magick Alphabets - “Passing the River”, “Malachim” and “Celestial” alphabets were used almost exclusively by ceremonial magicians




Rothenburg ob der Tauber is a town on the Romantic Road in Bayern (Bavaria), Southern Germany, about halfway in between Frankfurt and Munich. It’s known for its medieval center (Altstadt), seemingly untouched by the passage of time, encircled by the undamaged 14th century town wall. In the Middle Ages, it was a free imperial city, reaching its apex of prosperity under Bürgermeister Heinrich Toppler in the 15th century with a large population of 6,000 - much larger than Frankfurt and Munich at the time. Now it’s a small town and tourist attraction.