MUST-OWN

Prompt #22 (Monster): Child’s Fear

((Yay Thanksgiving shenanigans and makeup days))

When she was a very little girl, a monster lived in Dark Autumn’s room.

Her father didn’t believe this, and told her it was only her imagination. He opened the closet before tucking her in for the night, to show her nothing was inside. He looked under the bed with her, to show her nothing was there.

She couldn’t convince him that it came in through the window after the lights went out, slithering in along the wall and lurking in the corners, just waiting. He merely shrugged and made sure the window was latched, and considered the problem solved.

Her mother fashioned small lights, one at the window, one on the stand by her bed, to keep the monster away. Father thought this was a waste of time, and only prolonged the fear.

“If she must face it,” Mother said. “It must be on her own terms, when she is ready. The light will help, for now.”

Her older siblings were mostly busy with their own childhood troubles, and the younger ones were too small to be a concern. Dark was on her own in this.

One night, after upsetting one of her brothers over dinner, he snuck in as she was drifting off to sleep. He turned off the light by the window before opening it, and then turned off the light by the bed, rousing Dark. “I hope the monster eats you,” he hissed.

It was a childish sort of mean, one he wouldn’t remember the next day, but for Dark it was terrifying, and she let out a screech as he dashed out, closing the door. By the time she reached it, she heard the click of the lock outside. She grabbed the doorknob and rattled it, to no avail.

She heard a skittering behind her, and her angry shout became a whimper.

Maybe if she didn’t turn around. Maybe then it would be all right. Just pretend it didn’t exist.

There was a shuffle noise, and a tiny squeak as the light by the window clattered over.

Dark prayed to Nophica for aid. She could maybe get the light by the bed back on, if she could get to it. But that meant turning around, and moving across the room, and maybe the monster would get her.

No other choice, though.

Dark swallowed and turned, knowing it was four whole steps to her nightstand. Her eyes were adjusting to the darkness, but she couldn’t see or hear anything now. She just knew she wasn’t alone in the room.

One step. Two. Three.

Something was on the bed. She was sure of it. She stood, just an arm’s span away from the stand, trembling. If she could just get to the light…

Dark took a deep breath, and made the final step.

The monster squeaked and she heard it land on the floor and skitter to the wall.

Dark fumbled with the little light, until it finally glowed softly, not illuminating much, but just enough. She held it up. “Oh-okay, vilekin!” she said as loudly as she could manage. “Get out!”

The dust bunny—its ears not yet grown out entirely, its body not nearly the size of a full spriggan yet—squeaked again, and tried to jump up onto the chest under the window to escape.

Dark stared. Outside, she heard her father ask her brother about the commotion—it had been only a few minutes, though to the little girl it had felt forever—and the door unlocked.

Light from the hallway spilled into the room and the dust bunny shrieked and fled.

“Well I’ll be damned,” Father said. “Dark, go sleep with your mother tonight. I’ll go clear out whatever nest that little bugger came from. And I’m going to need an assistant.” He glowered down at the brother who had locked Dark’s door, the boy’s face getting a bit ashen.

Dark went to her parents’ room, her mother sitting in bed reading. She looked up. “Everything all right, dear?”

As Dark climbed into the bed, she explained what had happened. Mother listened, and hugged her tightly. “Well, I’m glad that’s all this monster was; it’s a good thing your father’s taking care of it now. You were very brave, Dark.”

“It’s just a little baby spriggan. It didn’t even have its teeth yet,” she said, yawning as she curled next to her mother.

“Still more dangerous than I like in my house, and near my children. But you shone the light on it, and scared it away. Remember that, Dark, no matter how bad things get.

The little girl nodded sleepily, the words taking on an echoing quality, until it didn’t even sound like her mother’s voice anymore, but something far bigger.

“The light will always be there when you need it.”

Don’t get me wrong, I want new lore just as much as the next person. But for me, seeing lore we already know brought to life is wonderful in itself.

Like, I had no real concept of just how tragic and inspiring Mei’s background story is. Watching her mourn the loss of her friends, then be filled with hope under the Aurora and set off across the Antarctic to help save the world, it gave her character so much more depth, and I love that.

Honestly.

Give me Angela Ziegler losing her parents in the face of war and deciding there is still good in humanity by training to become a doctor.

Give me a young Hanzo Shimada being told by the clan elders that he must kill his own brother, and the heartbreak as he stands over Genji’s lifeless body.

Give me Genji Shimada’s thirst for revenge as he wipes out the entire clan that rejected him, all while he is struggling to accept his new body.

Give me Zenyatta taking Genji under his wing and teaching him to love himself again.

Give me Gabriel Reyes leading humanity to victory, fighting side by side with his best friend in the Omnic Crisis, only for him to be cast aside when Jack is given the role of Strike Commander.

Give me seventeen year old Jesse McCree giving up all hope in a small jail cell on Route 66 when a stranger walks in and gives him another chance.

Give me Hana Song being thrown into stardom, then put on the frontline to fight for her country - all when she is nineteen.

Give me a young Satya Vaswani being plucked from the slums to become one of the best Architechs Vishkar has ever seen.

Give me Lúcio Correia dos Santos, international star, using his fame to rally together his fans and fight for the freedom of this world.

Give me Fareeha Amari learning of her mother’s death and the grief that fills her as she beats herself up for drifting apart from the woman who raised her.

Give me Aleksandra Zaryanova choosing to give up all prospects of becoming a world champion to fight for her country and protect her family.

Give me a brainwashed Amélie Lacroix killing the love of her life in his sleep.

Give me the usually bright and bubbly Lena Oxton on the brink of losing all hope as she flits in and out of existence.

There is so much potential within this wonderful cast of characters, and I for one can’t wait to see who we learn about next.

6

FAIRY TAIL: 02ND AUG 06 - 26TH JUL 17. THANK YOU, HIRO MASHIMA.

“Even if we walk on different paths, one must always live on as you are able! You must never treat your own life as something insignificant! You must never forget the friends you love for as long as you live! Let bloom the flowers of light within your hearts.”

Women must find their own answer. That’s the important thing. I’m no longer interested in books about women written by men. Even if I could believe in their objectivity, I just can’t find their opinions relevant. Now I will only believe what a woman has to say about women, because even if it’s not entirely true, it’s her struggle and she’s on the way to the answer.
—  Marguerite Duras
Farewell...

One: You must never reveal sensitive information about Fairy Tail to others for as long as you live.

Two: You must never use former contacts met through your being in the guild for personal gain.

Three: Though our paths may have diverged, you must continue to live out your life with all your might, you must never consider your own life to be something insignficant , and you must never forget about your friends who loved you.

But…

This isn’t goodbye. Not for good.

The journey is over, but that doesn’t mean the fun has to stop. We’ll go on more adventures together. We may find others to keep us amused, we may start to create for other characters, but…

“Even if I can’t see you, I’ll always be looking your way.”

That’s a promise, no matter how far I’ll go, there will be none to captivate my heart like you…

Fairy Tail.

Originally posted by navi-the-annoying-fairy

why some teens believe everything the light of their internet-capable device touches is their kingdom

(‘what about that shadowy place over there?’

‘that’s pornhub, simba. you must never go there.’)

we all see plenty of posts about how adults on the internet need to remember that ‘kids’ (read: teens) are around and we must bear that in mind. and these posts are not entirely without merit. It’s important to keep conversations being held with teens carefully teen-friendly and appropriately distant. but the entirety of tumblr and twitter aren’t designed to cater to the safety of minors, and all the adult self-policing in the world won’t make all the kid-unfriendly content go away.

not all teens believe the internet should have gutter bumpers for them, either. but those that do have mystified me for a while … until I started to understand just how pervasive ‘helicopter parenting’ is in parts of American (and UK) culture, and how that affects the adolescents and young adults of today.

anonymous asked:

a thing worth noting re anyone who pulls the ‘you can’t blacklist on mobile, minors can still see it’ thing to say even tagged content isn’t okay: even if washboard didn’t exist, the tumblr app is rated 17/18+ in app stores. if people under that age get on the app and see things they shouldn’t, that’s on them and their parents/guardians, because they shouldn’t actually have been using the app in the first place.

agreed.

Honestly, though, the argument has moved past this in some ways. It’s not so much about whether or not teenagers are allowed to see this thing or that thing; it’s a well-known fact that most teenagers will break rules if it suits them and they can get away with it, and internet time is a prime space wherein they can do so.

What’s happened is that some adolescents - teens with parents that are overly protective and crowd their schedules with supervised activities, usually - have been taught by their life experience that:

  • all adults in their vicinity are there to protect them. and no wonder: the large majority of their contact with adults will have been as supervisors. Teachers, teacher assistants, instructors, daycare employees, and coaches are all adults who are paid to watch their activity and will be held responsible for the teen’s wellbeing by their guardians. when have they ever spent time with adults who aren’t in charge of making sure they’re safe?
  • any space they are in will be designed and maintained with their safety and comfort in mind (no matter how they obtained access). all spaces they enter are specifically meant to revolve around them: schools, sports, playgrounds, etc. The few occasions that they have to enter spaces not meant specifically for them (stores, etc) they are closely watched by adults and any harm they experience will be blamed on adults as a result.
  • if they can get access, it must be a space that’s safe for them. Having spent very little of their lives unsupervised, they have always been actively prevented from entering spaces that are not meant for them. They’ve never had to learn to set boundaries for themselves, so they naturally reason that if a boundary is not actively enforced, it must actually be a space they’re meant to enter.
  • they are not responsible for themselves. adults around them are responsible for them. if they come to harm, it’s because an adult wasn’t doing their job properly.

for teens of this mindset, ‘18+ ONLY’ warnings are merely a suggestion. Nobody is stopping them, after all, and it has never been their job to stop themselves. and if they can get access, the space is now theirs - because all spaces they are in are theirs. they couldn’t get there unless it was meant for them; that’s how it works, right?

This is why some teens are utterly flabbergasted by the idea that adults on the internet want to interact with fellow adults on an adult level in a space the teen can access. They’re here! That means the space is specifically meant to cater to them! The adults are automatically tasked with their safety! If teens do get into trouble, it’s because the adults weren’t responsible enough! that’s how this has always worked.

And when adults say ‘no, I do not take responsibility for your actions, the internet is full of things that may frighten or harm you and you must set your own boundaries,’ it’s distressing and scary all at once.

(no wonder so many people in their late teens/early 20′s want to still be considered as children.)

EDIT (10/9/2017, 4 days after originally posting): if you’re seeing this post in its original form, I hope you’ll read some of the excellent reblogs disagreeing with it. I think that this post kind of misses the point, which is: some of it may be emotionally invaded teens, but some is just that teens who grew up around this kind of behavior from their parents and adults have learned that they can use their minor status as a kind of power play and thus stand up to demand coddling in fandom spaces.

the culprit that I still maintain is the heart of the problem is the structure of sites like tumblr and twitter, which knocked down all barriers and moderation in fandom and made fandom feel chaotic and uncontrollable. we’re all looking for ways to control our experience in an environment of this kind; some find it by demanding others change what they produce, and others do it by curating what what they see of the production of others. this post doesn’t reflect that well, however, and I apologize for talking down to teenagers who have the agency to think for themselves no matter how their parents behaved. 

Some Chiron Proses

Chiron is the healing asteroid which talks about past wounds and how to heal them. 

Aries Chiron- Voice has been stolen like he was a mermaid. Self-esteem and self needs buried under heavy soil. The journey is to the self. He needs to find his fire and go the path of the warrior. 

Taurus Chiron- She was pulled up by her roots and then cast aside. All she sees are fallen petals and a frail stem but forgets she came from powerful Gaia. 

Gemini Chiron- No one listens, words never come out right, misunderstandings seem to be the only perception between him and others. His voice drowns in the wind and eyes are always peering at him from behind the bushes. He must share his own language and speak louder than any storm. 

Cancer Chiron- She feels the emptiness and crush of being abandoned. Nurture was ripped away from her in the coldest way. She is fragile, wants tenderness, self-healing like the ocean, tough shell always, she is self-sustaining in her emotions. 

Leo Chiron- He was meant to bask in the sunlight but someone tore that away. Loved one cast a shadow too far. His pride is his strength and his strength has been broken down. He is the sound of bravery, spirit of empowerment, and the wall of dignity.

Virgo Chiron- All she sees are flaws in the mirror. Worry is an obsession. She thinks judgment is natural. There is a lit path of acceptance and tolerance that she has to find. 

Libra Chiron- All he wants is love. He weeps in his own wilted garden, water and sunlight for it to thrive exist in his heart and mind. Crush of the hopeless romantic and a desire for approval. Once he can water his own garden can he bask in others. 

Scorpio Chiron- There is a shadow in the corner of her bedroom, it is heavy and always follows her. What is behind that locked door? She fears many things but mostly her past and herself. She must walk thru the flames, face the darkness, and rise. 

Sagittarius Chiron- What is right and what is wrong? He thought he knew strongly but was disillusioned, led astray. He feels like a puppet with a corrupt master. He will rebel, he will form his own rules. 

Capricorn Chiron- She knows what coldness truly is. Ice is her shield, the scabs on the wounds. Authority was always taken from her, she wants to scream but holds her mouth back, softness and kindness tries to escape out apathetic eyes. She must find the reins of power and drink compassion. 

Aquarius Chiron- He just wants to be part of society, to join the collective. He can’t stand his own skin, he hates the sound of his own voice. By accepting and loving the alien he becomes more human. 

Pisces Chiron- Her soul has either weakened or is hiding in the mist. She is on a journey to join spirit and body. She leaves behind the victim becomes the savior, she learns to be the survivor and knows that is enough. 

3

Bonus:


Noctis Lucis Caelum - Prompto Argentum - Gladiolus Amicitia - Ignis Scientia

-

@ffxvweek

FFXV Week Day 4: Favorite Pairing/Bromance // Recipeh // Ravus Nox Fleuret

When Ignis has caught a cold, the other Chocobros must resort to their own skills…

[Ah I was not sure I was going to be able to make something for FFXV week because of my doujin work for another series, but my younger brother came up with this idea and I had to make it! I am sorry it is kind of detail heavy, please click the images to better see them, if you like! Recreating the game UI was very hard to accomplish in my manga style, but I really tried! Poor Iggy just wants good food again! The other campers are helpless without Mama-Ignis (´▽`;)ゝ  haha anyway, please take care and have a good day/evening! I hope you can enjoy my work!]

Characters belong to Square Enix

I wonder what Steve’s inner monologue was when this Eleven kid just showed up and fucking marched into the house.

Probably like: “Oh fucking great another kid. Another one. Another pure angsty kid in need of my protection. Another young, innocent child that I must protect with my own life no matter what. And this one’s a fucking punk.”

lilith-eves-last-stand  asked:

Sorry if this comes off ignorant, I don't mean it... My son is 4 1/2 and was diagnosed two years ago. I try to do the best I can and let him be him 💕 but while he's in speech therapy (he's still moving into the idea of talking), schools in the area (private) push ABA for students with autism. But I see young adults like yourself saying ABA is NOT good. I'm more inclined to listen to someone on the spectrum than those not, but what is the issue with ABA?

First, I want to say that I am so glad that you are turning to the autistic community for help. This isn’t an ignorant question at all. There is so much conflicting information out there about ABA that it can be hard to even know where to begin. It sounds like you really want to help your son as best you can which is admirable. 

To start off, not all therapy labeled as ABA is actually ABA. I’m going to explain what the issues are with true ABA and then explain how to figure out if the therapy they are trying to push on your son is ABA or not. 

ABA stands for Applied Behavioral Analysis. It is a scientific method that involves observing the individual in order to identify “target behaviors,” i.e. behaviors that are undesirable to the parents/therapist. Next, aversives, rewards, and operant conditioning is used to eliminate these behaviors and encourage wanted behaviors. Overall, this may not sound like a bad thing, so let’s get into why this therapy is harmful. 

The groundwork of ABA therapy is the idea that autistic people are broken and in need of fixing. Our natural, non-harmful behaviors, such as stimming or lack of eye contact, are targeted as behaviors in need of fixing. The main focus of ABA is making a child “indistinguishable from peers,” i.e. to make the child seem “normal.” 

This often includes things like getting rid of stimming (often with the phrase “quiet hands”) and forcing eye contact in order to make the child less noticeably autistic. The problem with this is that stimming is a coping mechanism for autistic people. We stim to regulate our emotions/senses, cope with stress, and express ourselves. Eye contact can be uncomfortable or even painful for us and being forced to perform it can be just awful. 

Further, changing these behaviors does nothing that is truly beneficial for the child. Instead of being trained out of behaviors that are non-harmful, an autistic child should be taught ways to manage their autistic traits in a way that is useful and productive for the child. For instance, if a child is uncomfortable making eye contact, learning to look at a person’s forehead or nose is a great alternative as most people can’t tell the difference. 

Further, due to the focus on making a child indistinguishable from peers, there is often a push towards verbal speech even when atypical methods of communication like sign language or AAC would work better for the child. 

ABA therapy operates by using rewards/reinforces and punishments/aversives to train a child to perform wanted behaviors and to stop unwanted behaviors. Rewards are withheld until the wanted behavior is performed and aversives are used when an unwanted behavior is performed. Often, foods, such as gummy bears, candy, or other tasty treats, are used as rewards as well as praise or affection, access to a comfort object, break time, stickers or stamps that can be traded for privileges/rewards, or access to a special interest. Additionally, some therapists make use of a clicker, a device that makes a loud click sound originally used for training animals, to indicate that a wanted behavior has been performed and that a reward is coming. 

For aversives, the removal of a comfort object, withholding of snacks, removal of reward items, or prevention of engagement in a special interest are often used. Some therapists also use “taste aversives” like pickle juice, vinegar, hot sauce, or other bad tasting edibles, as well as “tactile aversives” which would be making the child touch something that sets off tactile defensiveness or distress. Withholding praise or affection is also used as an aversive. 

In DTT (Discrete Trial Training), a form of ABA that is considered to be kinder than other versions of ABA, the therapist will not look at, engage with, or respond to the autistic child until the desired behavior is performed. Similar methods are employed when unwanted behaviors are displayed. 

As a treatment, ABA is centered around compliance training, in other words, making a child compliant to the desires of the adults in their lives. Rather than focusing on how to help a child live the best autistic life they can, the focus is put on making the child seem “normal” no matter what the cost to the child. This serves only to make parents more comfortable and does little to help the autistic child as they progress through life. 

Using aversives on a child ranges from bad to cruel depending on the aversive used. Withholding rewards from the child, particularly when those rewards are food or other necessities, creates insecurity in the child. Further, by training a child in this way, the child becomes more vulnerable to victimization. When you are told by all the adults in your life that you must ignore your own pain and discomfort for the sake of adults, how is a child to know when they are being abused? How is a child to know that the adult touching them in that way is wrong when they are forced into hugs which are painful for them? 

You may have noticed that what was described here sounds an awful lot like dog training, and that’s because it is. ABA trains a child in the same way you would train an animal which is dehumanizing. Autistic children are not animals whose behavior should be crafted to suit those around them. Autistic children are unique individuals who need support and care. 

Finally, ABA therapy is often a full time job for the autistic child. Often, 40 hours a week or more of therapy is recommended for optimal results. It is ridiculous to put a child through such a strenuous routine. 

So what are you to do instead? Obviously you want to help your child live the best life possible which is wonderful. There are plenty of therapies that can be very helpful to autistic children. Speech therapy, which you’re already doing, can be great for children who are struggling with verbal speech, though methods of AAC should be provided until the child is able to communicate verbally (and even then, AAC should still be available for times when the child goes nonverbal/semiverbal). 

Occupational therapy to help with sensory integration or motor difficulties or other areas in which the child is struggling. There are also play-based therapies like floor time which can be very beneficial to autistic children. No matter which therapies you utilize to help your child there are a few things to keep in mind. 

First, therapy should be supplemental according to the child’s need rather than the central aspect of their life. If the therapy schedule would be exhausting for an adult, it’s not appropriate for the child. Next, does this therapy help the child live the best autistic life they can or does it focus on making the child appear to be “normal”? Normalization is for the benefit of parents while good therapy focuses on helping the child with things that the child finds problematic such as learning to cope with sensory issues or learning better communication (whether that’s verbal communication or AAC). 

So how do you figure out is what is being presented to you is true ABA or something else masquerading as ABA? There are some questions you can ask to help sort this out. First, though, we need to go over why there are therapies that aren’t ABA calling themselves ABA. In the US, most insurance plans will ONLY cover ABA for autistic children. As such, many therapists who perform other therapies have resorted to labeling themselves ABA in order to be covered by insurance. This allows them to work with children that otherwise wouldn’t be able to access these therapies. As such, what is being pushed for your child may not be true ABA. 

Here are some questions to ask:

  • What is the goal of the therapy? As we’ve discussed, ABA focuses on making the child “indistinguishable from peers” or normalization. If you hear that phrase, turn away and don’t look back. Even if the therapy isn’t ABA, the goal of making a child appear “normal” is not a useful goal for the child and can be detrimental. 
  • Does the therapy make use of rewards and aversives? We’ve discussed why aversives and rewards can be damaging to a child. A good therapy for your child will use other means to discourage harmful behavior. 
  • Does the therapy emphasize compliance? Compliance makes for a “well-behaved” child but does not lead to a healthy, independent adult (which I’m sure is what you’re hoping for in your child’s future). Therapies should focus on helping a child manage any harmful traits they have without forcing them to be compliant to an adults wishes. Just like all children, autistic children will not always be obedient or follow adults’ wishes. This is how it is supposed to be. Children need the space to make their own mistakes and learn and grow. Compliance teaches a child to shutdown their own needs and desires to fit the desires of another. 
  • Does this therapy discourage non-harmful behaviors? Autistic children will sometimes engage in behaviors that are harmful to themselves or others. These behaviors definitely need to be addressed and worked on. For instance, a child’s stims may physically hurt another person such as grabbing onto other people to stim. This behavior is not ok and a parent/therapist should work with the child to redirect the behavior. However, ABA often focuses on stopping behaviors that are not harmful. For instance, most stimming does not hurt anyone. It may be atypical behavior, but it generally does not hurt the child or anyone else. If a child is being bullied for their stims, that should be addressed with the school to change the harmful behavior of the other students rather than stopping the child from engaging in behaviors that are useful for self-regulation and expression. A good therapy will focus only on discouraging harmful behaviors. 
  • Are you allowed to observe the therapy as you please? In non-harmful therapies, you will generally be allowed to observe the therapy whenever you wish as they have nothing to hide. If a therapy will not allow you to observe what is being done, then it may be harmful to your child. However, even some therapies that are harmful may allow observation, so, when you do observe, make sure to really pay attention to how they treat your child. 

If the therapy being presented to you passes all of these questions, then it is not true ABA and could potentially be helpful for your child. As we’ve discussed, there are many therapies that can be beneficial to autistic children. Some useful goals of therapy could include:

  • Changing harmful behaviors- if a child is causing harm to themselves or others, the behavior needs to be addressed and the child should be provided with alternatives to help redirect the behavior. For instance, if a child is playing with their own poop, the child needs to be taught that this is unsanitary and provided with playdoh or other sensory tools to use to redirect the need for sensory input. Similarly, if the child hits others while melting down, one alternative may be providing the child with a pillow or stuffed animal to hit instead. 
  • Communication- While many therapies focus on speech, the true goal should be improved communication. This may include speech as a goal if that is within the child’s abilities, but it should also include forms of AAC to be used for communication either until the child is able to learn verbal speech or instead of verbal speech if speech is too difficult for the child. AAC can include letter boards, picture boards, text to speech apps, among others. Sign language can also be useful in facilitating communication. 
  • Managing Sensory Input- Many autistic children are hyposensitive and/or hypersensitive to sensory input. As such, it is important to teach the child ways to manage their sensory sensitivities. This may include managing their sensory diet by setting aside time for sensory play, use of sensory defenders like headphones/ear defenders/ear plugs, sunglasses, or other methods of regulating sensory input, and stimming as a method of regulating sensory input. 
  • Anything that causes the child distress- If a child is struggling in an area and it causes them distress, that is a good thing to work on in therapy. For instance, if the child is having frequent meltdowns, one of the goals of therapy should be to figure out why the child is having so many meltdowns and find ways to accommodate the child to prevent meltdowns. Similarly, if the child struggles with socializing with other children and is upset by this, social skills classes may be beneficial. If something is upsetting for the child, then it is likely a good goal for therapy. However, if the child is not bothered by something, therapy likely isn’t necessary (unless it is causing harm to the child or others).

So this got super long. I hope I’ve addressed everything you needed covered. If you have anymore questions, you are welcome to send me more asks or check out @autism-asks to get more info about autism. 

Finally, I’m going to leave you with some links that cover ABA from other perspectives:

I hope this helps you and your son! 

-Sabrina

nytimes.com
Opinion | Are Christians Supposed to Be Communists?
I recently translated the New Testament. I learned a few things.
By David Bentley Hart

As best we can tell, local churches in the Roman world of the apostolic age were essentially small communes, self-sustaining but also able to share resources with one another when need dictated. This delicate web of communes constituted a kind of counter-empire within the empire, one founded upon charity rather than force — or, better, a kingdom not of this world but present within the world nonetheless, encompassing a radically different understanding of society and property.

It was all much easier, no doubt — this nonchalance toward private possessions — for those first generations of Christians. They tended to see themselves as transient tenants of a rapidly vanishing world, refugees passing lightly through a history not their own. But as the initial elation and expectations of the Gospel faded and the settled habits of life in this depressingly durable world emerged anew, the distinctive practices of the earliest Christians gave way to the common practices of the established order.

Even then, however, the transition was not quite as abrupt as one might imagine. Well into the second century, the pagan satirist Lucian of Samosata reported that Christians viewed possessions with contempt and owned all property communally. And the Christian writers of Lucian’s day largely confirm that picture: Justin Martyr, Tertullian and the anonymous treatise known as the Didache all claim that Christians must own everything in common, renounce private property and give their wealth to the poor. Even Clement of Alexandria, the first significant theologian to argue that the wealthy could be saved if they cultivated “spiritual poverty,” still insisted that ideally all goods should be held in common.

As late as the fourth and fifth centuries, bishops and theologians as eminent as Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, Ambrose of Milan, Augustine and Cyril of Alexandria felt free to denounce private wealth as a form of theft and stored riches as plunder seized from the poor. The great John Chrysostom frequently issued pronouncements on wealth and poverty that make Karl Marx and Mikhail Bakunin sound like timid conservatives. According to him, there is but one human estate, belonging to all, and those who keep any more of it for themselves than barest necessity dictates are brigands and apostates from the true Christian enterprise of charity. And he said much of this while installed as Archbishop of Constantinople.

Baekho was too shocked to move. Ren was about to cry but so soon as he saw Aron cry he stopped himself and comforted Aron. Aron cried straight away he couldn’t hold it in, Peniel and Mark hugged him tight. JR’s was so shocked his brain malfunctioned and it took him 5 mins to collect himself and finally speak, with tears in his eyes.

The realest reaction, they must have underestimated their own power, because they did not expect to win at all.

After 6 years of suffering YOU deserve this. I’m so friggin proud you NU’EST. In 2019 we will get ot5 win as well.

Originally posted by nuestx

Best Boys Ciel (?) Phantomhive

However far I fall as long as there’s so much as a thread left I will use it to climb. I’ll take hold of it. I refuse to give up while I’m still human I can do that much. But every person must decide on his own whether to grab it.