MRI

MRI of the Fetal Brain

Advancements in MRI are giving us an unprecedented look at the fetal brain.

Until approximately a decade ago, what researchers knew about the developing prenatal brain came primarily from analyzing the brains of aborted or miscarried fetuses. But studying postmortem brains can be confounding because scientists can’t definitively pinpoint whether the injuries to the brain occurred before or during birth. 

Over the years, however, improvements to MRI are finally enabling researchers to study the developing brain in real time. With these advancements, researchers are just beginning to understand how normal brains develop, and how abnormalities can manifest over the course of development. Scientists cataloguing typical infant brain development with the mini-MRI hope to use it eventually to study the brains of premature babies, who have a high risk of brain damage. Ultimately, clinicians hope to intervene early with therapies, if available and approved, to prevent developmental disorders when there are signs of brain damage in utero or shortly after birth.

Read more here in Nature Medicine. 

anonymous asked:

Is there a difference between MRI and fMRI?

Yep there is! The two techniques produce two different kinds of images, so they have different uses in both the research and clinical world:

MRI IMAGE

fMRI IMAGE

As you can see, MRI focusses on the anatomy, so can therefore be useful in clinical settings to diagnose brain injury, or general structural abnormalities. 

On the other hand, the f in fMRI stands for functional, so it shows how the brain is used.fMRI measures blood flow around the brain. During a given task, areas of tissue which are more active are respiring more, so require more oxygen and therefore an increased blood flow. This distribution can then be mapped out on a computer to distinguish areas of  a brain responsible for a particular behaviour or task. For this reason, fMRI is mostly used in research. 

A new startup is making a cap that lets you read people’s minds

  • Mary Lou Jepsen, formerly of Facebook’s virtual reality team, is trying to make mind reading possible with her new project, Openwater.
  • It would take place through a beanie-style hat — and she thinks it could become reality within just eight years, with prototypes due next year.
  • We won’t know much about how such a device would work until the company has filed for patents, but the basic idea is to shrink a room-sized MRI machine down to a wearable size. Read more (7/10/17)

follow @the-future-now

instagram

#Repost @neuroradiology
This is the highest resolution Brain MRI ever obtained..😍😍
#tesla #MRI

How does an MRI scan differ from a CT scan?

There’s no ionizing radiation (X-rays) involved in producing an MRI scan. MRI scans are generally more detailed, too.

This is because they are more capable of illustrating all soft tissues and higher density tissues, such as bone.

For this reason an MRI is preferred over a CT scan for imaging structures such as joints, the brain, and the spinal cord, where clearer and more anatomically detailed images are required. CT scans should therefore not be used if fine detail of soft tissues is needed.

The difference between normal and abnormal tissue is often clearer on the MRI scan than on the CT scan, because the anatomical differences between these types of tissues is seen more clearly.

It is also possible to differentiate cystic lesions from malignant tumours, to identify areas of infection and inflammation and for assessment of joint tendon tears.

MRI scans are also more costly than CT scans, and take longer to complete. The length of the MRI scan depends on the region of the body being imaged. MRI scans may be indicated in those patients who are not able to have a CT scan.

For example patients with surgical clips, metallic fragments, cardiac pacemarkers, and for female patients who are pregnant.

It is also possible to produce images in any plane without having to move the patient when using an MRI scan.

@@@ tag your friends @@@
#ctscan
#radiology
#radiologist #radiography
#video #instavideo #usmle #doctor #doctordconline #nhs #nurse #nursing #hospital #neurology #neuroscience #neurosurgery @doctordconline

Made with Instagram
I'm sorry

Firstly, I’d really like to apologize for the lack of art lately. At least, the lack of decent quality art. I don’t know if the crappy scribbles count towards anything. Also for the lack of fics and fic updates. I haven’t been able to write very well ever since things started going super fast down hill. (Dyslexia meet starvation.)

But, I really am sorry. I know that’s why you follow my blog, I know people are getting sick of my personal posts, I know people are switching fandoms or losing interest in stuff. I know, it’s a mess, and my blog is slagging behind being useless. Trust me, I understand being useless. 😞

I don’t know what to say, though. I’m stuck. Things will not get better in their own, and the professionals are slow to help, if they help at all.

If only one good thing came from the most recent stint at the stupid hospital, It’s that I now know why I get so messed up when drawing at the computer these past few months. I’m hoping, after the MRI (I’m going to panic myself to death in there. Glass plastic box of emotion), that they’ll actually do something about ASAP, because I really really really miss drawing and colors and stuff. I mean. If I can even afford the MRI. I don’t know. This is crazy and I feel like shit.

Anyway, my sincere and deepest apologies for… me, I guess. I really do hope that I can bring you guys art and writing and silly stuff as soon as possible. I hope, but I can’t promise.

Sorry.

2

In 2001, tragedy happened when 6 years old Michael Colombini was struck and killed at Westchester Medical Center by a 6-pound metal oxygen tank when it was pulled into the MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) machine while he underwent a test. He began to experience breathing difficulties while in the MRI and when an anesthesiologist brought a portable oxygen canister into the magnetic field, it was pulled from his hands and struck the boy in the head.

Cooper : You don’t believe we went to the Moon?

Ms. Kelly : I believe it was a brilliant piece of propaganda, that the Soviets bankrupted themselves, pouring resources into rockets and other useless machines…

Cooper : Useless machines?

Ms. Kelly : And if we don’t want to repeat of the excess and wastefulness of the 20th Century then we need to teach our kids about this planet, not tales of leaving it.

Cooper : You know, one of those useless machines they used to make was called an MRI, and if we had any of those left the doctors would have been able to find the cyst in my wife’s brain, *before* she died instead of after, and then she would’ve been the one sitting here, listening to this instead of me, which would’ve been a good thing because she was always the… calmer one.

Interstellar (2014)

photo credit : NASA Apollo Archive

anonymous asked:

Sea fam. I have to get an MRI tomorrow. Does the MRI show my self harm scars? What will I have to wear? Please momma. Post public if you need to. But I need advice.

Hello, M.O.D. here!!!!

An MRI is a bit of an undertaking! You can really wear anything you want since they will probably supply you with a hospital gown to wear. You will have to remove anything metal from your person-  jewelry, glasses, watches, etc. 

 Scar tissue rarely if ever shows up in an MRI scan. 

 It will be a small and enclosed space, and if that makes you anxious some places can give you medication to make you feel sleepy and less stressed.The procedure is painless, but the machine will make some noise. You may ask for earplugs or music in most places. 

There will be a microphone in the room to pick up your voice so you can talk to the people controlling the machine. You’ll also be asked to stay very still for the whole time since movement can blur the image!

 It’s going to be okay. MRIs can last anywhere from 15 minutes to over an hour depending on what and how things are being scanned. If it’s a functional MRI, you may be asked to perform simple tasks such as tapping your thumb against your fingers and answering easy questions. In some cases, they may need to hook you up to an IV drip containing galium so that they can see high contrast images of your veins.

All in all, as long as you stay calm, it should be a relatively easy process. 

 M.O.D. and Momma believe in you!!!

 

So there’s loads of different neuroimaging methods out there that are used depending on what it is you’re looking for! I’ve had the privilege of actually studying it and there’s so so many different types more than just functional MRI that people don’t really know about so here are a few and what they’re used for an how they work.

MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging

The most commonly used form of neuroimaging and for good reason. MRI uses the body’s tissue density and magnetic properties of water to visualise structures within the body. It has really incredible spatial and temporal quality and is predominantly used in neuroscience/neurology for looking for any structural abnormalities such as tumours, tissue degeneration etc. It’s fantastic a fantastic form of imaging and is used in numerous amounts of research.

Functional MRI (fMRI)

These images are captured the same way as MRI but the quality is a little bit lower because the aim is to capture function (those blobs you can see) as quickly and accurately as possible so the quality is compromised a little bit. Nonetheless, fMRI usually uses the BOLD response to measure function. It measures the amount of activity in different areas of the brain when doing certain things, so during a memory test for example, and it does that by measuring the amount oxygen that a certain area requires. The increased oxygen is believed to be sent to an area where there is more neuronal activity, so it’s not a direct measurement but rather we’re looking at a byproduct. There are numerous studies trying to find the direct link between the haemodynamic response and neuronal activity, particularly at TUoS (where I’m doing my masters!) but for the moment this is all we have. This sort of imaging is used a lot for research and checking the general function of the brain, so if you were to have had surgery on your brain, they may run one of these just to see which areas might be affected from it and how, or in research we’ve used this a lot to research cognition - which areas are affected during certain cognitive tasks (ie my MSc thesis - Cognition in schizophrenia and consanguinity). 

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)

This is my current favourite type of NI right now! DTI is beautiful, unique and revolutionary in this day and age, it’s almost like sci-fi stuff! DTI measures the rate of water diffusion along white matter tracts and with that calculates the directions and structural integrity of them to create these gorgeous white matter brain maps. They are FANTASTIC for finding structural damage in white matter - something that is making breakthroughs in research lately ie. schizophrenia, genetics and epilepsy. It measures the rate of diffusion which tells you about possible myelin/axonal damage and anisotropy, so the directions and if they are “tightly wound” or loosely put together - think of it like rope, good FA is a good strong rope, poor FA is when it starts to fray and go off in different directions - like your white matter tracts. My current research used DTI and it was honestly surreal to work with, the images are also acquired through an MRI scanner so you can actually get these images the same time you’re getting MRI’s done, functional or otherwise! 

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

One of the “controversies” (if you could call it that) is the use of radioactive substances in PET scanning. It requires the injection of a nuclear medicine to have the metabolic processes in your brain light up like Christmas! It uses a similar functional hypothesis to BOLD fMRI, in that it is based on the assumption that higher functional areas would have higher radioactivity and that’s why it lights up in a certain way. It depends on glucose or oxygen metabolism, so high amounts of glucose/oxygen metabolism would show up red and less active areas would show up blue, perfect for showing any functional abnormalities in the overall brain. However it has incredibly poor temporal resolution and due to it’s invasive nature, MRI is chosen more often. (The pictures are gorgeous though!) 

Electroencephalography/Magnetoencephalography (EEG & MEG)

These are not “imaging” types in the stereotypical sense. They create a series of waves that you can physically see (think of the lines you get on a lie detector!). Electrodes/Tiny magnets are placed on the scalp/head in specific areas corresponding to certain brain structures. EEG picks up on electrical activity which is the basis of neuronal function, whereas MEG picks up on magnetic fields - the same property that is utilised by MRI. One of the biggest issues with EEG is that deeper structures passing through tissues get distorted, whereas MEG doesn’t because it only measures the magnetic properties. I’ve not had a lot of experience with either of these but I do know EEG is used in a lot of medical procedures to measure brain activity, from measuring seizures and sleep disorders to measuring brain activity in a coma. It’s fantastic and if you can actually figure out how to conduct and interpret results it’s an invaluable tool into looking at electrical activity. 

My IRL angst is at least 10% worse than the average langst!fic

Hokay, kids! Sit down; it’s BIOLOGY TIME!!! 

So this is my IRL brain (CRYPID CONFIRMED. TELL KEITH MOTHMAN IS REAL).

In the center of your brain, between the two hemispheres is something called a pineal gland. It is part of the endocrine system and it has a lot of important functions in the regulation of hormones, such as melatonin, (which helps regulate sleeping patterns) and reproductive hormones.

As you can see from the images above, I have a pineal gland cyst. It was first discovered back in 2008 as an “incidental finding” on an MRI. At the time, I was told by a neurologist to not worry about it. Fast forward to 2017 and it turns out that I’ve had an increase in unpleasant symptoms due the damn thing GROWING in size. 

Beware the Brain Lint, Slav!! 

As of right now, I do not know if I’m going to need surgery to either drain the cyst or remove it completely. Or go with the “wait and see” approach (meaning more MRIs over time). 

The waiting is slowly killing me. Lance, you know that feeling, right??

Originally posted by spacekidpidge

Either way, my life may get messy for a little bit and I just thought I’d let y’all know. 

Hopefully I’ll get a verdict from the neurosurgeon later this week. 

Am I a bit scared? Not really. I know that sounds weird, but I think I’d actually appreciate going through a brain surgery experience. I like to think it’d give me more perspective on life and living. Plus, consider ALL THE SUPER TRENDY UNDERCUT HAIRSTYLES!!! EEEEeeeee!!!~

A massive brain tumor with what appeared to be adult teeth embedded in it which was found in the brain of a four month old infant. An MRI was ordered to investigate why the infant’s head was rapidly outgrowing its body and extremities. What they found was a so called craniopharngioma, a benign type that can grow to the size of a golf ball. This is the first time in recorded history that not only were human teeth found in a craniopharngioma, but also that the teeth were fully grown adult teeth.

Wobbler Disease - Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM)

This infographic gives an overview of this particular company’s treatment for ‘wobbler disease’. The MRIs, supplied by the company, were colorized to highlight the symptoms of the disease and progression of treatment. Comparisons of the healthy and unhealthy postures of a dog suffering from this syndrome are included in this graphic.