All the officially described species of Tyrannosauridea, with the exception
of Tyrannosaurus rex are grouped in this compilation.

Other tyrannosaurid genus have been described like Bagaraatan but they are either too fragmentary
or too dubious and so I decided not to include them.

But this is not the last you will see of this paleo-portrait series, I assure you.

Warning: Those portraits are not to scale.

EDIT: I made a new version of Tarbosaurus’s profile since the first one was relatively innacurate.

EDIT 2: I made new, more accurate versions of Lythronax and juvenile Gorgosaurus.

Lythronax argestes 

Was feeling less like death today, so I did a speedpaint of this critter, which is a new tyrannosaurid from America. 24 ft/8m long, probably weighed 2 tons or so, lived 95-70 million years ago. Favorite food: anything it could swallow. Favorite color: orange. 

Anyways, take it with a grain of salt - I’m not a professional and I’m just working from a couple of photos and having some fun on a sick day,

  • Lythronax is the earliest Tyrannosaur ancestor found in what was Laramidia, an island of swampy land stretching from Mexico to Alaska.  Illustration:Andrey Atuchin.
  • Skull of Lythronax, the earliest known Tyrannosaurid dinosaur. Illustration: Lukas Panzarin.
  • Reconstruction of the skull of Lythronax argestes. Illustration: Lukas Panzarin.

Lythronax argestes: ‘King of Gore’ joins T rex family tree.

Discovery of Lythronax argestes pushes back story of the dinosaur group that led to Tyrannosaurus rex by 10m years.

A newly-discovered dinosaur, which has been christened “King of gore” by the scientists who have studied it, is the oldest known member of the dinosaur group that gave rise to the mighty Tyrannosaurus rex.

The 80m-year-old fossil of Lythronax argestes was found in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in the desert of southern Utah. The two-legged carnivorous beast was eight metres long and weighed around 2.5 tonnes. It had a head full of sharp teeth and lived during the Late Cretaceous period, between 95m and 65m years ago.

Lythronax, which derives from the Greek words lythron (gore) and anax(king), had a short, narrow snout, forward-pointing eyes and a wide back to its skull – similar in shape to its later relative T rex. The second part of the animal’s name, argestes, is derived from the Greek poet Homer's south-west wind, a reference to the geographic location of the fossil.

Palaeontologists had thought that this type of tyrannosaurid dinosaur only evolved around 70m years ago, but the Lythronax discovery pushes the earliest appearance of these creatures back at least 10m years.

“The width of the back of the skull of Lythronax allowed it to see with an overlapping field of view – giving it binocular vision – very useful for a predator and a condition we associate with T rex,” said Dr Mark Loewen, a research associate at the Natural History Museum of Utah and a lead author on the study, which is published in the journal PLOS ONE.

Dr Corwin Sullivan at the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology in Beijing, who was not involved in the study, said: “It’s always great to meet a new Cretaceous tyrant, and Lythronax might just be a particularly noteworthy one. Despite being the oldest known tyrannosaurid, it’s by no means a primitive member of the group, which tells us two interesting things: that tyrannosaurids started their evolutionary radiation sooner than we thought, and that a fair bit of their early record is still missing.”

The animal lived in a place scientists call Laramidia, an island of swampy, subtropical land that stretched from Mexico to Alaska. It formed on the western side of a sea that flooded the central region of North America between 95m and 70m years ago.

That sea isolated the western and eastern portions of the North American continent for millions of years, and scientists think that separation allowed different species to evolve in different places, each in relative isolation. Lythronax is the earliest member of the tyrannosaurid group found from Laramidia.

Co-author Prof Randall Irmis, also at the Natural History Museum of Utah, said that Lythronax and other tyrannosaurids diversified between 95m and 80m years ago, at a time when North America’s interior sea was at its widest extent.

“The incursion of the seaway onto large parts of low-lying Laramidia would have separated small areas of land from each other, allowing different species of dinosaurs to evolve in isolation on different parts of the landmass,” he said.

Isolation of populations of organisms often leads to their evolving into new forms – such as the finches discovered by Charles Darwin that evolved into numerous different species on the various islands of the Galapagos. The separation of Laramidia into numerous different regions might have similarly assisted the diversification of the tyrannosaurids. While Lythronax and its closest relatives are found in Utah and surrounding regions, new lines arose in the north including animals such as the slender-snouted Daspletosaurus and eventually Tyrannosaurus, which is known primarily from Montana in the US and Alberta in Canada, and its nearest relatives, which spread to Asia via Alaska.

Dr Thomas Holtz, an expert in tyrannosaur evolution at the University of Maryland, said Lythronax represented a previously unknown phase of tyrannosaurid evolution, which would lead palaeontologists to rethink their ideas about the history of these giant dinosaurs. “Prior to its discovery it seemed that we could trace the origin of the truly giant, massive-toothed, broad-snouted forms such as T rex and Tarbosaurus bataar through medium-sized, smaller toothed, less-rounded snouted tyrants, such as Daspletosaurus of 75m years ago. Lythronax shows thatDaspletosaurus is not on the main line to Tyrannosaurus, and represents its own branch of the family tree.

"Instead, Lythronax shows that the massive-toothed round-snouted forms go quite far back in the tyrant lineage. This means that the extremely powerful puncture-and-pull feeding apparatus of T rex was already well developed by 80m years ago, rather than arriving late on the scene.”

Sullivan said he was intrigued, but not yet fully persuaded, by the suggestion that the high sea levels around Laramidia stimulated the diversification of tyrannosaurids. “That kind of geographic splitting can certainly create opportunities for speciation, so it’s a plausible mechanism, but I’d like to see a more extensive and fine-grained review of the evidence than Mark and his coauthors could cram into their paper – one that gets into the nitty-gritty of where the basins were, when the marine barriers between them would have appeared and disappeared, and what lived in them.”

source:  The Guardian.

Lythronax argestes

Source: (Andrey Atuchin)

NameLythronax argestes 

Name Meaning: Clearing Gore King

First Described: 2013

Described By: Loewen et al. 

ClassificationDinosauria, Saurischia, Eusaurischia, Theropoda, Neotheropoda, Averostra, Tetanurae, Orionides, Avetheropoda, Coelurosauria, Tyrannoraptora, Tyrannosauroidea, Tyrannosauridae, Tyrannosaurinae

Requested by Lythronax-Argestes-the-Gore-King!

Lythronax is famous for being one of the earliest known tyrannosaurids, and also being fairly morphologically similar to T. rex. Lythronax lived between 80.6 and 79.9 million years ago, in the Campanian age of the Late Cretaceous, and lived in the Kaiparowits Formation of Utah. This region is part of Laramidia. It, like T. rex, had forward facing eyes, giving it binocular vision – a huge advantage for a predatory dinosaur, as it would have allowed it to judge distances. It also had very large, banana-esque teeth in its jaws, meaning they were round  and curved back toward the throat. These teeth were well adapted for crunching through bone, rather than slicing through flesh like in carnosaurs. Its teeth were also serrated, making it an efficient hunter.

Source: (Danny Cicchetti)

During the time that Lythronax was active, the inland sea in North America was at its widest, cutting off Lythronax’ habitat from the rest of the North America, allowing Lythronax and other tyrannosaurids to develop specialized predatory features, such as its powerful jaws. It has been suggested that Laramidia is the original home of the tyrannosaurid group. Lythronax was probably the largest predator of its ecosystem, living near lakes, floodplains, and rivers in a wet and seasonal climate. It lived alongside the hadrosaur Acristavus, the ceratopsian Diabloceratops, and some ankylosaurs and pachycephalosaurs. It also lived alongside many types of fish, rays and sharks, turtles, crockodilians, and mammals. Trace fossils from this region indicate that maniraptorans were also in the area, and that predatory dinosaurs did feed on mammals. It is very likely that Lythronax was feathered.


Shout out goes to lythronax-argestes-the-gore-king

Update on the internet connection situation: Slowly working through the problems. I know whats wrong now (it has to do with university internet.) I’ll try to be more regular with updates but this semester is going to be busy for me with applications and everything. Bear with me guys! I love you all 

Lythronax by Vitor-Silva

Lythronax does not roar. His song is a series of clicks and booms punctuated by hisses, like drums within a steam engine, or like the muffled thunder and sizzle of distant fireworks. In the open, his voice resonates, ripples around the trees, echoes off the hills. He waits twenty seconds between each verse, listening for a challenger’s double-thrum reply or the springtime staccato song of a receptive female, her voice dipping from bright to dusky, like the sound of a slowly opening door.

Teratophoneus curriei. Following the study of Loewen et al. , there has been an artistic explosion regarding this tyranosaurid. Obviously I could not refrain from this and the superb illustration made by Lukas Panzarin gave me the right push to try my best. It was not only a great way to keep in shape, but also to make some progresses and experiments with the material at my disposal. Although light years away from a gifted monster like the aforementioned Panzarin, I was surprised at how much you can achieve with a handful of markers and colored pencils. It must also be said that the special Letraset sheets allow you to achieve effects not possible with plain paper.

I now know that the reported tyrannosaurid gular skin isn’t croc-like and the scaly skin face (not the one on the oral margin) might be inaccurate too. Oh well, next time I’ll be more careful.

A Murderous Monster, 2014.

Coloured with Tria Markers and pencils. Acrylics were used for some light effects.

Paper size: A4. Made on Letraset’s Bleedproof Marker Pad.

Loosely based on: ornate hawk-eagle, emu, crocs and gators.

References: Scott Hartman.

New Tyrannosaur Species, 'King of Gore,' Reveals Origins of T. Rex

External image

The oldest known direct ancestor of Tyrannosaurus rex has been discovered in southern Utah, throwing light on the evolutionary history of the famous predator, and providing crucial clues to the puzzling diversity of dinosaurs throughout the Ancient West. READ MORE>>


Lythronax argestes: Tyrannosaurines are back!

Though I’m not usually a big fan of talking about tyrannosaurines on this blog because they’re a bit overrated, I still love talking about them because of how cool they can be. Recent discoveries like Yutyrannus and Guanlong are very compelling, and this post covers yet another addition to the tyrannosaur roster. This addition is named Lythronax argestes, whose generic name translates to “king of gore.”

It’s not just his name that’s cool, though. Lythronax fills in some interesting gaps in our understanding of the tyrannosaurs of the Late Cretaceous of North America, which are the most famous tyrannosaurs (obviously) of all. This dinosaur is known from a partial skeleton (Skeleton A above), mostly known from the skull. The remains are of an adult animal who, in life, would have been about 26 feet (8 meters) long. Its skull is overall most similar to that of Tyrannosaurus and its close relative, Tarbosaurus. The rest of his body pretty closely matches that of other tyrannosaurids, such as Daspletosaurus and TyrannosaurusLythronax is just another piece in the puzzle of the tyrannosaurs and their distribution. 

You see, one hypothesis for said distribution is that tyrannosauroids moved multiple times between North America and Asia via the Bering Strait. Now, we think that these lineages didn’t move around as much, with the possible exception of Tyrannosaurus, Zhuchengtyrannus, and Tarbosaurus, Late Cretaceous tyranosaurs from North America and China, respectively. Besides these three, which I believe to be rather closely allied, there are three distinct lineages of tyrannosaurid. The first is the lineage of rather poorly-known Asian tyrannosaurs, including Alioramus and Alectrosaurus. The second is the most famous, containing Northern North American tyrannosaurs like Tyrannosaurus and its Asian relatives, Tarbosaurus and Zhuchengtyrannus. I’m not sure whether or not DaspletosaurusAlbertosauruscompany should be included in this group, but I read somewhere that Daspletosaurus may have actually been an ancestor of Tyrannosaurus, so I’m saying that here. The third group contains Teratophoneus, Lythronax, and Bistahieversor, all of which are tyrannosaurs found in the southern or “nether” regions of the United States. The group within the Tyrannosaurinae containing Lythronax and company has been identified as the sister taxon of the group containing Zhuchengtyrannus and company, so the two groups developed side by side during the Campanian Stage of the Late Cretaceous, when both Lythronax and Zhuchengtyrannus were around. By the Maastrichtian, however, it seems that the group of tyrannosaurines containing Tyrannosaurus and Tarbosaurus was the only group left on earth, possibly because this group was more advantageous in the size and power department than other tyrannosaurs.

However, there’s more about Lythronax itself to cover. As if it weren’t already obvious that this creature was a carnivore, we can deduce that, because of the forward-facing position of its eyes, it had overlapping vision like us humans. This is a sign of a predator. It also had a short, narrow skull that grew wider towards the back. Tyrannosaurus rex had a similar anatomy to Lythronax, even though it lived over 10 million years later. As long as we’re comparing Tyrannosaurus to Lythronax, it’s pretty safe to say that Lythronax was the apex predator of what would become southern Utah’s Wahweap formation, occupying a similar niche to Tyrannosaurus.

The Wahweap formation was also home to the hadrosaur Acristavus, unnamed ankylosaurs and pachycephalosaurs, and ceratopsians whose remains have been assigned to the genus Diabloceratops. The Wahweap formation also shows a substantial amount of invertebrate activity. Huge fossilized crabs litter the deposits, and are some of the most common animals in the formation. Almost 2,000 fossilized snails have also been found in this area (though I’d hate to be the one to have to count that), and have been referred to four genuses. Lungfish and stingrays have also been found here.

So that’s my post on Lythronax. I find it very interesting that the tyrannosaurs weren’t as cohesive a group as we thought they were, and that apex predator traits emerged in multiple lines of tyrannosaurine.



New Tyrannosaur Announced - Natural History Museum of Utah