These sauropod specimens are drawn from the Museum’s extensive paleontology collection and include dozens of fossil bones, along with elements of the very first dinosaur fossil collected by the Museum more than a century ago. Most of these fossils are from the Museum’s legendary Big Bone Room, where fossils of sauropods and other large dinosaurs are stored on open shelving. 

The earliest fossil find on display—an incomplete skeleton of the long-necked, plant-eating dinosaur Diplodocus longus—was unearthed by legendary Museum dinosaur hunter Barnum Brown along with Henry Fairfield Osborn in 1897 at Como Bluff, Wyoming.

Pokémon in our Biomes pt. 3

I’ve recently decided to make a series of posts with hypothetical thinking and analyzing of what Pokémon species could potentially be found in the world’s biomes. Not at all relative to the games, I will be focusing primarily of the elements, design, and relativity to real life flora and fauna of Pokémon to depict where different species would roam on our big blue marble.

This is my third Pokémon in our biomes post, and this time I will be focusing on savannas. I will be including grassland and forest savannas, and will be basing my post mainly around the African Savannas. Growing up as a kid, I never really found African animals all that interesting. Lions, hyenas, elephants, for some reason large mammals just never really appealed to me. BUT! For the sake of Pokémon and biology, I find the concept intriguing as there is a diverse array of life in savannas, all evolved to adapt for different things.

If you’ve ever seen The Lion King, you know what to think of when you hear African Savanna. Not a lot of trees, open grasslands, fairly dry. Potentially a harsh environment but as we all know, animals and people thrive in these conditions just like any other. 

Let’s get started!

Keep reading

Today is Edward Drinker Cope’s birthday. This notorious paleontologist was one of the parties that led the great Bone Wars of the 19th century, where competitors would blow up sites to save prestige. During this time, Cope named 64 species of dinosaurs, 9 of which are still valid today. This list includes the Camarasaurus, one of the famous long-neck dinosaurs of the Jurassic.

anonymous asked:

Lady helix, I'd really like for you to talk to me about rampardos

Well, Rampardos and it’s pre-evolution Cranidos, are based on Pachycephalosaurid (Pachy = thick, cephalo = headed, = saurid = lizard) dinosaurs. These are of course the famous headbutting dinosaurs, but how well does the design and behaviour of these Pokémon match up to what we know about these dinosaurs?

First of all, lets talk about Pachycephalosaurs. This is a clade (taxonomic group) within the Ornithischian dinosaurs, which is one of the two major dinosaur groups, containing other well known clades including the Ceratopsians (e.g. Triceratops - and Bastiodon), the armoured dinosaurs, or Thyreophora (e.g. Stegosaurus and Ankylosaurus) and the Ornithopods (e.g. Iguanodon and the Duck billed dinosaurs). Long necked dinosaurs (Sauropods) and the bipedal carnivores that would give rise to T.rex, velociraptors, and of course, birds, are placed in the other major dinosaur group, the Saurischians, but that is a story for another time. 

Back to Pachycephalosaurs. They include about 16 fossil species, and are united by a distinctively thick skull roof, often surrounded by bony spikes. In some species, in particular, the most famous species Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis, the skull roof is domed and inches thick, and it is this characteristic skull and species that the skull fossil and thus our Pokémon in question are based upon. 

Pachycephalosaurs were relatively late on the Dinosaur scene, arising between 90 million years and 65 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous, with P. wyomingensis being one of the very last dinosaur species before the KT mass extinction, living between 70mya and 65mya ago. This is the first discrepancy with the description of our Poké Pals, as  many of Cranidos’ pokedex entries state that it lived 100 million years ago, placing it towards the early end of the Cretaceous. 

Now, both Cranidos and Rampardos are described as The Head Butt Pokemon, and indeed many of their pokedex entries describe head butting behaviour, either at obstacles, for hunting prey (even though pachycephalosaurs, as well as most Ornithischians were herbivores, so this is discrepancy #2), and of course, for head on collisions with each other, a nod to what P. wyomingensis is best known for, or at least what we thought we knew about them.

First of all, it may be that not all P. wyomingensis had domed skulls. Flatter headed Pachycephalosaur species, such as Dracorex hogwartsia (which is the coolest fucking name, it literally means dragon king of hogwarts, and the palaeontologist who discovered it says he visualised it as “a slightly less pyromaniac Hungarian Horntail”) have now been proposed to be juvenile and female P. wyomingensis, with the domed skull only developing in adult males, a sexual dimorphism, just as antlers would develop in male deer, to be used in intra-specific competition, i.e. male/male combat for females later in life as we see in many modern animals, such as deer. 

If this is true, then this could be discrepancy #3, as Cranidos and Female Rampardos shouldn’t have domed heads (though to be fair, DP was released in 2006, and this theory was proposed first in 2009) 

We do think that the domed skull was used for combat. The bone type is a special kind of bone, called fibromellar, which contain cells that specialise in wound healing and new bone deposition. Furthermore many skulls have been found with not only lesions, but evidence of healed osteomyelitis, a type of bone infection that results from trauma. The presence similar injuries in many specimens that in most cases heal is a pattern found in modern species that undertake such combat. 

However, could these guys have fought via head-on collisions, a behaviour most commonly shown in popular media, including our Pokédex entries? Unlike modern animals who fight in this way, such as mountain goats and musk oxen, domes are not the best structures for hitting against each other, as the rounded surface means a reduced surface area for hitting, and any impact would be deflected and glanced off the other dome. We also know that the structure of the neck vertebrae mean that these dinosaurs would have held their necks in an S or U shaped curve. Goats and musk oxen can lock their head, neck and body in a horizontally straight position in order to transmit stress to the head, concentrating the power of the blow to this point and avoiding neck injury etc., however no known dinosaur, including any Pachycephalosaur could straighten their neck in this manner. Furthermore it is argued that the skull still would not be thick enough to protect from head on impact with another skull. Thus, discrepancy number #4, head on collisions, plus ramming through objects such as trees and buildings as described in the Cranidos and Rampardos pokédex entries would have been unlikely. 

It is now thought that they may have used side on, flank butting swinging and ramming their spiked heads into the side of their competitor (supported by the relatively wide and sturdy build of the body which would have helped protect internal organs from such blows). 

A dex entry for Cranidos mentions that it uses it’s head to fight against Aerodactyl, and indeed it is suggested that Pachycephalosaurs would have used their spiked and thickened heads to defend against predators too, as well as male/male competition, as would many modern herbivores with such weaponry, such as horns. Also, many of the dex entries for Rampardos mention a small brain, and indeed, Pachycephalosaurs, along with many other Ornithischians would have had relatively tiny brains. 


Cranidos and Rampardos are described as Pokémon who lived 100 million years ago, and used rock hard domed skulls for head on collisions with others of their species, for ploughing through obstacles such as trees, for defending from predators, and for hunting prey. 

In reality, the dinosaur they are based on, Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis, lived between 70 million and 65 million years ago, is unlikely to have been able to sustain head on head butts (with other P. wyomingensis, and as an extension, large objects such as trees) but would still have used their heads as weapons for fighting each other and predators, and they were herbivorous. Furthermore, we think only adult males would have had domed heads. Like Rampardos however, they did have tiny brains. 


[Pictured: The first (1st) picture is an image of a person wearing high waisted light wash jean shorts and a tucked in black shirt. Her hair is a buzzcut. She is making a pissed face and her middle finger is raised. She is holding her cellphone that is in an orange case with a blue long neck dinosaur on it. The image is a selfie taken in a mirror. The second (2nd) picture is an image of the same person, this time wearing a lowcut tshirt with gengar on it. She is smiling sadly. Her shirt is pulled down to show her central line. In the background is her decorated IV pole. The image is a selfie taken with the front camera of her phone.]

Ableism at Forever 21

Guess who was denied the accessible fitting room (the ONLY fitting room with a bench!) at Forever 21 today!!! This kid!!!!!!

I am disabled, chronically ill, and mentally ill (the whole shebang). But I guess I just didn’t look disabled enough. Hey lady at the dressing room, here’s a picture of me after I returned home hooked up to my IV medication that I have to run every other day(twice a day). I was wearing a shirt that covered my central line (for those who don’t know, it’s basically a semi-permanent IV. I mean it’s as permanent an IV as possible, next to a port. I literally have a tube sticking out of a hole in my chest. I’ve had it for five months and I will most likely have it for three more months.), but that shouldn’t have to be shown for people to let me into the accessible dressing room when I ask. (And yes, I have a wheel chair and yes, it was at home. But still, that shouldn’t be a requirement)

[Storytime begins!!]

I was having a pretty good day and my joints weren’t as bad as they normally are and my pain was pretty low and my vertigo wasn’t too bad, but trying on clothes really wipes me out so I knew it’d be best for me to have a seat while doing it (I’ve had fitting room horror stories where I end up pulling something and ending up on the floor in pain almost crying). And since I was having a good day I made sure to check if anyone else was in line who would require the room. There wasn’t. So when I got to the front of the line I asked if the handicapped accessible dressing room had a seat in it (because if it didn’t I wouldn’t need to go in because what I needed was only the seat.) and she looks at me and rudely says “Those are only for women who have children with them who have strollers” and then sent me to a regular dressing room. But not before actively and angrily telling me I had five items when I told her I had six items(I had six items)!!! So from then on I guess she was just pissed at me and she treated me rudely for the rest of the time.

I was mostly fine in the dressing room. I alternated between sitting on the floor (which is very hard for me because I have trouble getting up on my own, and also it makes my vertigo worse.) and leaning against the wall. When I was exiting the dressing room she asked if I was done with it, I told her yes, and she replied (in a very nasty tone) “good”. I almost cried.

After leaving the dressing room I realized I had left my bag from a different store somewhere and I had no idea where (I have short term memory loss.) I was hoping it was left in the dressing room and I was frantically searching around. I had already felt like melting down and crying from the woman being rude to me, but this happening made me worse. I was panicking so much, not because I was upset about losing my money (that I spent on the stuff), but because I was angry at myself for forgetting. My memory’s been worse lately and it was terrifying that I literally forgot something important so quickly. I ran back to the dressing room and I bypassed the line because all I needed to do was knock on the door of the dressing room I had used and ask the person in there if a bag had been in there when they went in. And also I needed to move fast so if it wasn’t in there I’d be able to check other place’s I’d been. But I felt I needed to ask the woman permission before entering the dressing room area. I asked if I could go in and check, and she completely ignored me. She completely ignored my presence until the line had been finished. She let me go in and check, I had assumed she’d help me knock on the people’s doors (because there was no line left) because I didn’t think I’d be allowed to, but she didn’t. I’m very lucky my best friend was there because my anxiety kept me from being able to knock on the doors and ask myself. The ending of this part isn’t really important to the story, but the bag wasn’t in there and I ended up going to the register and asking if someone had brought it to the front, and someone had! So I got my stuff back!

After calming down from this I went back to shopping and moved up to the second level of the Forever 21. After finding more clothes I went back to the dressing room to try on the clothes I had gotten (I was extremely scared to go back to the dressing room and have to be in contact with the woman again.) When we got to the front of the line the same woman (in her same rude tone which she was only using with me and none of the rest of the customers) asked “are you together”. And I was like “yes” because I assumed she would put us in dressing rooms that were next to each other (because it’s always awkward to have to run across the room to show your friend what you’d tried on and we had had to do that earlier and I’m sure she saw.) But instead she put us in the same dressing room. Please note that Forever 21 has a strict 1-person-per-dressing-room policy, and even mothers aren’t allowed in with their children. But I didn’t say anything (and I asked my friend not to say anything) because I didn’t want to anger the woman even more and also my pain level and vertigo level had increased from earlier and I wanted to make sure I had someone to lean on so I wouldn’t fall.

That’s where the story ends. Like we went and payed and left and stuff.

I told one of my friends and they are contacting the district manager, because no one should have to deal with the ableism that I dealt with today.


If someone requests the handicapped accessible fitting room it is most likely because they need it. You can’t always tell how sick or disabled someone is just by looking at them and you should not assume that they are able bodied and healthy because they don’t have an assistive device with them or because their illness/disability is not visible.

Ah. There’s my story. I hope no one else has to deal with this, and if you have I am sending my heart and solidarity to you. You all are wonderful and important. Stay safe and well, my friends.


One subject in the vast study of Cryptozoology is the thought of living dinosaurs (or dinosaur-like creatures). Living dinosaurs would be dinosaurs that have survived the supposed extinction of the species eons ago. While the thought of dinosaurs like the ones we all know of to be surviving to this day is difficult to imagine, there are many different kinds that have been spotted by witnesses. Many people around the world claim to see surviving dinosaurs, be it as sea monsters in the form of plesiosaurs or a megaraptor like the Burrunjor of Australia. 

One of the most famous living dinosaurs is the Mokèlé-mbèmbé of Africa. This creature is thought to be a sauropod, a long necked dinosaur like a brontosaurus. Sightings of this massive creature have been reported for more than 200 years and more than 30 documented expeditions to try and find it have taken place. The Mokèlé-mbèmbé is reported to be extremely dangerous despite the fact that it is a herbivore; it is often said that it kills hippos that wander into its territory.

Other notable living dinosaurs include:

  • Loch Ness Monster
  • Nguma-monene 
  • Arica Monster 
  • Mbielu-Mbielu-Mbielu 
  • Partridge Creek Beast

18 plushies are still looking for homes!

Currently available are:
1 foozle ($40)
3 bats ($20 each)
9 dinosaurs ($15 each)
5 elephants ($17 each)


Prices above do not include shipping.  Please check out my etsy shop for these plushies’ listings (which include better pictures).  I will happily remake a plush in a specific color (if I had said color of fabric) if you do not see what you’re looking for!  However, I charge an extra $5 for custom orders.  Or you can suggest colors for future batches if you don’t mind waiting.

(One light blue dino has not been listed yet, but I will list it for you if you want him!  Just message me.)

Signal boosts are very appreciated!  I need money to buy Chirstmas presents and such.