Long Branch

Runes tutorial  (Elder Futhark)

1) Get a wooden cylinder or a thick branch, long enough to make 24 runes, preferably from a tree that bears fruit (runes don’t need to be perfect or uniform) 

2) Cut slices of the thickness you want.

3) Depending on the tool you use, the edges will be rough and harsh, to avoid that you’ll need a sandpaper.

4) Once you get the edges soft and smooth, you’ll need a pencil to mark the symbols to guide the carving. 

5) This step is optional but recommended according to some books, bathe your runes in hot olive oil, in a pot or pan.

6) It’s time to apply the paint, Some experts say that it is advisable to mix the paint with a little part of your blood to seal the runes with your energy and give them life, in this way they won’t be loaded with other energies, from a consultant, patient, etc.

paint isn’t the only way to make the symbol clearer, you can burn the symbol with a soldering iron, it’s up to you (some people sing the rune name while doing this) 

7) Applying varnish to the wood is another optional step, but I did it because I think it protects the wood and the paint of the symbol.

And that’s it, now they only have to be activated :) 

If there’s one thing I like about the catholic tradition, it’s the braided palm branches on palm sunday. I think it’s linked to the Jewish holiday of Sukkot/Soukkhot, about which I’m not qualified to speak so I’m linking wikipedia.

It’s a very old tradition (first records date back to the middle ages).

They’re used to remember the crowd saluting Jesus when he entered Jerusalem.

And there is a very refined technique going into making them.

To make them as white as possible, the palm tree is tied up, so the light can’t reach the “heart” of the plant.

After the “heart” is cut up, the palm tree can’t be used again for two or five years (depending on the place).

Consider if you would for a moment that not everything is 100% better when everyone gets back to the village, consider it still being hard for Branch to open up and sing and dance without caring like everyone else. Consider the sound of a hug time bracelet going off still making him feel like he can’t breathe (and everyone knowing this so no one tries to hug him, also everyone knows Poppy is the one exception.) And even consider him having relapse of going grey (Poppy comes over for a surprise visit and finds him sitting in his bunker in the dark and she knows what’s going on before he even turns around because she can hear him sniffling and even with the lights off she can see his color is gone, and when he finally does realize she’s there he can’t stop apologizing. “I- I’m sorry Poppy I didn’t mean to I just-” “you can leave I’m sorry i know I’m just being stupid” “I swear I’ll be b- better soon I’m sorry I’m sorry-” but she doesn’t accept any of the apologize because he has nothing to be sorry for in her eyes. So she just sits next to him, let’s him cry, gets him water, sings to him, gives him hugs if he asks for them, because she knows what to do. Because this isn’t the first time, and it won’t be the last. But she doesn’t care, all she cares about is being with him in times like this, no matter how long it will take.

Consider this does take a long time. Longer than anyone cares to keep track of.

Now consider Poppy being woken up to Branch opening the curtains to let in the sun and shaking her because “Poppy, Poppy, POPPY GET UP” “the party’s tonight and we still have so much to do!!” “Its not everyday guy diamond has a birthday you know” “and I was just at the bakery, and you’ll have to go down and talk to them because they think I’m just being picky, but no way do those cupcakes have enough edible glitter let me tell you” “also Dj changed the music mix without telling me and I’m not sure I like the new one as much-” the only thing that stops his well-planed rambling is the light musical ping of her and his very own hug time bracelet. And he is immediately beside her bed with his arms out and a light blush on his cheeks. Poppy can’t help it, she jumps out of bed so fast they both go tumbling to the ground.

youtube

As a neonatal intensive care nurse, Lauren Bloomstein had been taking care of other people’s babies for years. Finally, at 33, she was expecting one of her own. The prospect of becoming a mother made her giddy, her husband Larry recalled recently— “the happiest and most alive I’d ever seen her.”

Other than some nausea in her first trimester, the pregnancy went smoothly. Lauren was “tired in the beginning, achy in the end,” said Jackie Ennis, her best friend since high school, who talked to her at least once a day. “She gained what she’s supposed to. She looked great, she felt good, she worked as much as she could” — at least three 12-hour shifts a week until late into her ninth month. Larry, a doctor, helped monitor her blood pressure at home, and all was normal.

On her days off she got organized, picking out strollers and car seats, stocking up on diapers and onesies. After one last pre-baby vacation to the Caribbean, she and Larry went hunting for their forever home, settling on a brick colonial with black shutters and a big yard in Moorestown, N.J., not far from his new job as an orthopedic trauma surgeon in Camden. Lauren wanted the baby’s gender to be a surprise, so when she set up the nursery she left the walls unpainted — she figured she’d have plenty of time to choose colors later. Despite all she knew about what could go wrong, she seemed untroubled by the normal expectant-mom anxieties. Her only real worry was going into labor prematurely. “You have to stay in there at least until 32 weeks,” she would tell her belly. “I see how the babies do before 32. Just don’t come out too soon.”

When she reached 39 weeks and six days — Friday, Sept. 30, 2011 — Larry and Lauren drove to Monmouth Medical Center in Long Branch, the hospital where the two of them had met in 2004 and where she’d spent virtually her entire career. If anyone would watch out for her and her baby, Lauren figured, it would be the doctors and nurses she worked with on a daily basis. She was especially fond of her obstetrician/gynecologist, who had trained as a resident at Monmouth at the same time as Larry. Lauren wasn’t having contractions, but she and the ob/gyn agreed to schedule an induction of labor — he was on call that weekend and would be sure to handle the delivery himself.

Inductions often go slowly, and Lauren’s labor stretched well into the next day. Ennis talked to her on the phone several times: “She said she was feeling okay, she was just really uncomfortable.” At one point, Lauren was overcome by a sudden, sharp pain in her back near her kidneys or liver, but the nurses bumped up her epidural and the stabbing stopped.

Inductions have been associated with higher cesarean-section rates, but Lauren progressed well enough to deliver vaginally. On Saturday, Oct. 1, at 6:49 p.m., 23 hours after she checked into the hospital, Hailey Anne Bloomstein was born, weighing 5 pounds, 12 ounces. Larry and Lauren’s family had been camped out in the waiting room; now they swarmed into the delivery area to ooh and aah, marveling at how Lauren seemed to glow.

Larry floated around on his own cloud of euphoria, phone camera in hand. In one 35-second video, Lauren holds their daughter on her chest, stroking her cheek with a practiced touch. Hailey is bundled in hospital-issued pastels and flannel, unusually alert for a newborn; she studies her mother’s face as if trying to make sense of a mystery that will never be solved. The delivery room staff bustles in the background in the low-key way of people who believe everything has gone exactly as it’s supposed to.

Then Lauren looks directly at the camera, her eyes brimming.

Twenty hours later, she was dead.

Focus On Infants During Childbirth Leaves U.S. Moms In Danger

when people are like “where has michelle branch been since 2003″ and i’m just like

first of all lets just not forget that michelle didn’t just disappear *in* 2003, that was when “hotel paper” came out, which btw is a multiplatinum selling album that she toured the hell out of and had 2 hit singles and then 1 single that sort of faded away and did not get a video BUT she speaks french in that song so its VERY GOOD. also the single artwork is like… holy fuck M A J O R B A B E A L E R T omg.

then michelle branch formed a country band called the wreckers with her backup singer and friend jessica harp. jessica sang on michelle’s album “hotel paper” and that album has a country song (”love me like that” with sheryl crow) so it kinda seemed inevitable. “the good kind” was on the one tree hill soundtrack in 2004 and you know they appeared in the show (michelle loves to appear in shows i guess including buffy, charmed and –as leslie gore– on american dreams). anyway she could have just kept being michelle branch feat. my friend and backup singer but michelle is a GOOD PERSON who was like NO LETS DISTRIBUTE THIS POWER and RECOGNIZE EACH OTHER AS ARTISTS and DO THIS THING TOGETHER which is extremely cool and good.

in 2005 the wreckers released a song with santana (called it’s called “i’m feeling you” but literally whatever) and then a single called “leave the pieces” dropped in 2006. it debuted at #1 on the billboard hot country charts. it was the first time a female country duo was #1 since the 1950s. it was nominated for a grammy. the single sold over a million copies. that is a successful fucking song goodbye.

anywhere they dropped an album and it has some great country pop singles that were sort of a pre-taylor swift thing and the album sold over 850,000 copies so that’s pretty cool. they had some other singles including “my oh my” which has a frankly insane video which i will just not embed here. i guess the album did well and stuff, they released a live album/DVD as well that was recorded at the bowery ballroom and i did not go but i did see them earlier on the wreckers’ tour and it was the first time i met michelle so that was very nice.

then the band ended which doesn’t seem that crazy considering it was a side project and i can only imagine the record label the entire time was like “AGH COUNTRY WHY ARE YOU DOING THIS TO US” not to mention a bunch of her fans were like that too including me but then I FUCKING GOT ON BOARD.

she did a song called “together” that was in sisterhood of the traveling pants 2 because OF COURSE SHE DID lol lets not forget that she basically owned teen girl feelings in the 2000s. her music was used in tons of and tons of trailers and it’s like GOOD FOR YOU GET THAT MONEY GIRL. anyway this has been a fun “teen girl vibes” interlude.

she also did this joni mitchell “a case of you” cover for a covers compilation album that her label put together. over the next few years she also covered the rolling stones’ “play with fire”, radiohead’s “creep” (it got used in a something?? amazon music also gave away an exclusive acoustic version in some promo) and let’s not forget she covered bowie’s life on mars for a GAP compilation and then was put on a japanese album reissue i think. she actually has done a lot of covers in her live shows including lit, elvis, joni’s “river”, and her first demo album from when she was like 14 has a rickie lee jones cover. michelle branch likes music itself a lot. she has also done guest vocals on a bunch of artists’ songs including *cough*hanson*cough*.

so now it’s 2008-2009 and michelle was still like doing country music and recorded a full album and blah blah blah it got shelved and shoved around and it was truly the beginning of what seems like a bunch of shitty label issues that resulted in a lot of music remaining unreleased. she played some shows to support the album in 2008 and it just did. not. happen. 

fuck the label i mean i swear to god i could have been listening to consistent michelle branch music for my entire 20s but noooooo. the album did not materialize, a single called “this way” did not properly get released, and eventually in 2010 she released an EP called “everything comes and goes” featuring this single “sooner or later” which has this video.

in 2010 it was announced michelle was album working on a new album called “west coast time” that was meant to be a return to her pop music sound but you know, it was 6 years since “hotel paper” at this point and michelle was growing up too and it had a bit of a cooler sound. the album was due for release in 2011, it had album art and everything although there was this moment where it started getting pushed and delayed like, 3 times in a year and a half. on the album cover michelle wears a hat which honestly does not help with the vanessa carlton comparisons. sidenote, this video of michelle trying to play “a thousand miles” is one of the best things i’ve ever seen but i am biased.

so anyway they teased the album’s release with a single called “loud music” that frankly seemed designed for radio and i love michelle branch like don’t get me wrong i am her biggest fan but there were better songs from that time probably. it had another roadtrip video michelle is just a big fan of cars i think.

michelle was doing press for this album, including some live webcast live stream whatever stuff where she played song clips. she did one on her website pre-facebook live days. she did some thing hosted by tyler oakley where she made a salad and people could tweet in questions??? michelle did a lot of food and cooking-adjacent things in this time too.

she also did some events and stuff including a live Q&A podcast recording at the apple store in soho and i literally did not live in NYC at the time but i came up just to attend (it was nbd because i was also casually sort of long distance maybe not exactly seeing but not not-seeing this really cute guy so it was a good excuse) and she previewed some new songs.

“west coast time” was the sort of pop album that michelle branch aka THE MICHELLE BRANCH was known for and had lots of songs that eventually leaked over time. one of those songs is called “spark” and it is extremely fucking michelle branch-y and would have killed. remember this was like 2009 era pop music and this was very NYLON it girl vibes.

spark is a great fucking song. other leaked songs include for dear life, if you happen to call, what don’t kill you (which was used in a 2013 movie and is ripped from that) and there are more. there’s like an album’s worth. it is very sad because they are good songs and seem like they were exactly right for 2010-2011. there’s also this song called another sun which is moody and ended up in a tv promo for a show called terra nova. it is very clear that at no point in the process did michelle branch just like, stop. 

oh btw during this time she also had a baby and raised her and she is like nearly a teenager now. 

ANYWAY now it’s 2017 and after a million delays and years and label presidents and a new label and some more delays and a lot of work, michelle branch has a new album that is still her but different from all her previous stuff because she is in her 30s now and frankly she is very cool like as a person which maybe she always was but she definitely is now. also she might be a witch but i think that’s just what happens if you live in LA for a few years you become a witch.

the album is more rock than you’d expect and clearly indie rock inspired and i feel like it is sweet vindication not just for her but for every obsessive fan, including me, who you might think is too old to be super into her music. nope! 

anyway i started listening to michelle when i was like 14 and my family moved to america and i didn’t have any friends and i heard “goodbye to you” on MTV and i was like “OMG THATS ME :*( :*(” and now i am twice that age, i am 28 and i am old. and she’s old too. we are all old now. we fast-forwarded like our whole 20s and now we’re out the other side, still fucked up but with cool shoes. congratulations to us!

Melodies

[Part 1 I Part 2 I Part 3]

Relationship: Bucky x Reader

Summary: Unable to fall back asleep, you decide to wander around the tower when you hear music coming from somewhere. But it’s 3am, no one should be awake so late.

A/N: I haven’t written anything but essays in over a month, thank you @imhereforbvcky for this ideas. I swear, these pianists are really something.

Warnings: Language, smut, oral (f receiving), sex.

Words: 3660

Originally posted by sebjpeg

Looking to your bedside table, the illuminated digits of the clock pull a groan from your lips as you toss your head back. It was 3am and you couldn’t go back to sleep. Throat feeling hoarse and with a dry tongue, you admit defeat as you lift back the covers and swing your legs over the side of your bed.

With a sigh, you walk out of your room in the compound and make your way down the halls of the sleeping quarter.

Tony had noticed you when you were an agent working for SHIELD. You didn’t know this at the time but he was keeping an eye on you and during the HYDRA/SHIELD fiasco, you and handful of other agents worked to help end the programme.

After Natasha had leaked the files, you continued to work with the Avengers, helping navigate them through missions, hack in to programmes and gain any intel that would aid them. You thought that was coming to an end when Tony got back from Siberia because you didn’t hear from any of them.

Rumours of what happened soon spread amongst the few of you that were bought in to help from time to time. But this wasn’t something you ever expected. The Avengers were no longer a team.

Keep reading

Trolls post-movie headcanons that won’t leave me alone:


  • Branch sneaking away during the party celebrating the Bergens and Tolls finding peace and just having a good, honest, cry becuase holy hell he looked like he needed it.

  • Poppy finding him and at first being like ‘oh no what’s wrong aren’t you happy?’ but realising that he is happy and ending up just holding his hand while he gets all of the emotions he’s been bottling up for years out. 

  • Poppy and Branch leading an excursion back to the Troll village to help everyone get what’s left of their stuff. Poppy helping Branch clean out his bunker and finding all of the invites he kept and being so touched that she tears up. Branch trying to brush it off ‘cause it’s pretty embarrassing but she ends up hugging him and he just shrugs and accepts it. (Branch absolutely grabbing his stash of romantic poetry and hiding it before Poppy can find it because he is 800 different levels of not ready to have that conversation.)

  • Poppy being almost too physically affectionate with Branch because he’s been deprived of it for so long. Branch pretending he’s annoyed but actually not minding so much. (As long as it’s Poppy anyway.)

  • Branch and Poppy getting into fights sometimes becuase Poppy only ever gives everything 110% and while Branch wants to turn over a new leaf he’s been alone for a LONG time and he’s still nervous and embarrassed and sometimes it is just too much and Poppy doesn’t get that right away. Poppy totally learning to give Branch the space he needs and loving him even though he is still different from everyone.

  • Branch still having issues about the Bergens and being a bit overzealous about keeping everyone safe, becuase he can’t quite forget how he lost his grandma, and can’t always remember that it really wasn’t his fault. Branch still hoarding supplies a little and getting nervous when any of the Bergens move too quickly or surprise him, especially around Poppy. 

  • Branch trying his hardest to be silly and happy and loud again, and half the time it comes out weird or mistimed or awkward. The others think it’s funny, but only a few of them notice the cute, love filled gaze Poppy gives him when he’s doing his best.

  • Bridget and Gristle have a baby girl and name her Poppy. (And it turns out, in one on one situations, Branch is really good with kids.)

  •  I fully believe that baby Trolls grow on trees. Some fancy magic mumbo jumbo, idk exactly. Lets just say that Branch gets a little too into guarding his and Poppy’s little sprout. (”Branch you can’t just stay out here all night.” “But Poppy what if something happens?!” “The only thing that’s going to happen is you dying of hypothermia.” “You’re right we should get some blankets out here, it’s way too cold.” “Branch stop.”)

The Unblessed

Masterlist

Next part


Unseelie Bucky x Reader

Summary: Everybody knows to stay away from the forest, where the Seelie and Unseelie courts remain permanently at war. But when the people in your village begin to starve and you face a dangerous journey to the land of the fae, you never think of the consequences it may bring… Until, as an effort to placate the raging war between the Fae, the Prince of Winter himself comes to claim you as his.

Warnings: mentions of death (plus smut in future chapters)

Word count: 2286

A.N: Yes, i’m still alive, and yes, I’ve started a new series while I still have three unfinished ones. BUT This is a very, very different project because (drumroll)… It’s my first smut ever! EVER! and although this is kind of the introduction chapter, expect things to get intense after this. Please enjoy and tell me what you think!
Dedicated to the beautiful Ella @buckysinthesinbin​ for all the help and for putting up with me and my writing whims.

Originally posted by spaceeblack


You hear the bow snapping and watch the arrow fly as it sinks into the deer’s side, causing the small animal to cry out once before its legs give out and it topples to the side, falling on the ground with a soft thud.

Finally, after two days of scouting the forest and searching nonstop, the endless tracking of snapped twigs and barely-there hoofprints has amounted to something. The last strip of dried meat you had to split with Kate this morning, but nonetheless you lunge forward from behind the trees, muscles clenching with exhaustion while your empty stomach snarls in hunger.

Kate emerges from the trees at about the same time you do, with her bow and quill of arrows firmly secured behind her back. Sweat is dripping down her temples, her hair sticking to the damp skin in the summer heat. This hunt hasn’t been easy.

Keep reading

will I ever stop drawing Jay and Anders cuddling on various couches? NOPE: It’s the second-best thing after snowy handers. Word of me says it keeps happening because Jay naps recklessly and Anders can’t resist flopping on him or squeezing himself between Jay and the back rest.

(the pose looks weird because Anders is actually flopping between Jay’s legs but I couldn’t get that part of the picture working so I just CROPPED IT xD)

Demencia Headcanons
  • Demencia loves fizzy bath bombs and sparkly, colorful gels and slimes that she can mold and poke around in. Flug makes these for her frequently. 
  •  Demencia has a habit of asking Flug a question, then following up every proceeding answer with “why.” Either out of boredom or simply because he likes explaining things, Flug will answer her every time, leading to long-branching makeshift lessons on an endless number of topics. The thing is, while Demencia mostly does this to pester him, she’s also genuinely interested and retains literally everything he says. She then goes and recites it all to Black Hat, who is significantly less enthused
  • Instead of getting loopier when tired Demencia does the exact opposite, becoming incredibly reasonable, deadpan and blunt when sleepy or having just woken up
In-depth: the Lanchester & Sten

After the British Expeditionary Force’s retreat from Dunkirk in June 1940, Germany was expected to attempt a full-scale invasion of Britain. In order to accomplish this, they would need to eliminate the Royal Air Force, and as such, the RAF’s airfields were at serious risk. The RAF wanted a Schmeisser-type submachine gun issued to their personnel in the event of an attack from German paratroopers. The Navy had already ordered 2000 Smith & Wesson 9mm carbines and the Army, who by now had realized that they had vastly underestimated the military effectiveness of the submachine gun, began buying Thompsons from the United States.


The Biwarip machine carbine, an early precursor to the Sten made in 1938 and tested by the Small Arms Committee. Remarkably modern for its time.


The RAF initially examined captured MP-38s and ordered 10,000 British-made copies, but there were complications that resulted not only in the weapons being changed from copies of the MP-38 to the MP-28, but also the order being increased to 50,000 to satisfy the Navy as well, who had been forced to abandon the S&W carbines due to serious malfunctions. Sterling Armaments Co. was contracted to produce the initial prototypes of the MP-28 copy. The resultant weapon was finished, in the form of two pilot guns, in late 1940 and demonstrated on the 8th of November. The pilot guns were designed by George Lanchester and thus were named after him.


Lanchester Pilot Gun 3. For whatever reason, this model appears to have no rear sights. It was tested in November 1940.


Lanchester Pilot Gun 4. This is the model used for endurance trials and was essentially the finished product. Tested on the 28th of November 1940.


The Lanchester pilot guns were tested again on the 13th of November 1940 and were tested with a variety of 9x19mm catridges, including Winchester flat-nose, ICI, Bergmann, Beretta, and German military issue. The first pilot gun failed to discharge the Winchester and ICI ammunition, but the second did not run into any major issues and was considered on-par with the German MP-38.

On November 28th, further trials of the Lanchester pilot guns took place in the presence of both George Lanchester and Major Reginald V. Shepherd of the Design Department at RSAF Enfield. The Lanchester was now in its fourth pilot gun form and fired 5204 rounds with 26 stoppages. It passed all the mandatory tests but did not function when loaded with Beretta-made ammunition. Otherwise it was considered good to go and production rights were handed over to the Royal Navy for immediate manufacture as the Lanchester Mk.I. This weapon was issued to the Air Force and Navy until 1941, when it was simplified as the Mk.I*, which had no fire selector and fixed iron sights.


The Lanchester Mk.I. Known as the “British Schmeisser”. It was heavy, sturdy, and solidly built - typical of Naval manufacture.


The Lanchester Mk.I*. Fully-automatic only with fixed iron sights. Many Mk.I*s were simply modified Mk.Is, but were not marked as such.


The Lanchester was good but production costs were too high to equip the army. Something cheaper and quicker to manufacture was sought. In January 1941, an extremely simplified model was designed by George Lanchester and demonstrated at Enfield on the 10th of January 1941, and at Hythe on the 21st. The prototype was essentially a Lanchester stripped down to the bare minimum. It consisted of a simple tubular body made from steel and grips made from Tufnel. It was supposed to have a folding buttstock but for whatever reason this was never fitted. The only real change to the base design was the inclusion of a fire selector just in front of the trigger grouping. Otherwise it was internally the same as the Lanchester Mk.I.

A second simplified prototype was also conceived by George Lanchester and differed in that the cocking slot was now on the left side of the gun and had a much lighter bolt which was about an inch shorter than the original. The grips were redesigned to be more ergonomic, and a simple single-strut stock was fitted to the rear of the pistol grip.


The first simplified Lanchester prototype. Essentially the forerunner to the Sten. The cocking slot has a safety recess.


The second simplified Lanchester prototype. This version had left-hand cocking and a three-position fire selector.


Both simplified prototypes of the Lanchester were tested but rejected. But from this concept, the Sten was born. It was developed in early 1941 by Major Shepherd and Harold J. Turpin, who worked at the Design Department at Enfield. Thus the weapon was christened the STEN (Shepherd, Turpin, ENfield). The design was an incredibly simple blowback system based on the Lanchester with a fixed firing pin and simple cylindrical bolt. The first version of the Sten, the Mk.I, had wooden furniture, a conical flash hider, and a hinged fore grip, a feature not seen on any of the subsequent models. The Mk.I was cheaper than the Lanchester but still too expensive; it was simplified further as the Mk.I* in late 1941. The Mk.I* ditched the wooden embellishments, the flash hider and the fore grip feature. Throughout 1941, over 100,000 Mk.I and Mk.I* Stens were produced and issued to the army.


The Sten Mk.I. The original model of the Sten, with features such as a folding fore grip and a flash hider that were not seen in later models.


The Sten Mk.I*. The first of many steps to simplifying an already very basic gun. Although production was somewhat brief, thousands were made.


In mid-1941, the Mk.II Sten was designed. It was a bare-bones version of a gun which was already very basic. The main difference between the Mk.I and the Mk.II Stens was that the Mk.II had a new barrel that could not be interchanged with the original Mk.I barrel. The Mk.II barrel had only two grooves whereas the Mk.I had six. Externally, the Mk.II was incredibly minimalist. There were two main versions of the Mk.II produced: one with a wireframe stock and one with a single-strut stock. Neither were particularly pleasant to shoot, owing to the poor ergonomics. The upshot of all this was that the Mk.II Sten was incredibly cheap to produce en masse for the army and, as an added bonus, proved very easy for anti-Nazi partisans to copy in workshops.

The Mk.II Sten was tested at Pendine on from the 7th to the 25th of August 1941 and a glaring fault was discovered. The magazines were made from stamped sheet metal, which meant that the feed lips were prone to failure. If the magazine feed lips were misaligned even slightly with the magazine well, the gun would jam. The magazines were also highly susceptible to dirt and sand. All of this basically meant that the Mk.II Sten was highly unreliable if not handled with care, and even then it was probably inevitable that it would fail at some point during the heat of battle. But the army was faced with a choice between a mass of unreliable Mk.IIs, or a handful of Thompsons, Lanchesters and Mk.I Stens. They opted for the former.


The Sten Mk.II. The most successful version of the Sten, with several millions being manufactured during the war and used by various countries.


The Sten Mk.II with bayonet and single-strut stock.


Prototype T42 submachine gun, based on the Sten Mk.II. It had a single-column magazine and a redesigned trigger group.



Sten Mk.II with SMLE stock. This was made as an experimental model only and never issued.


Sten Mk.II with wireframe pistol grip, designed for paratroopers.


Copy of the Sten Mk.II made in a workshop by Danish partisans.


The Mk.II Sten was by far the most successful model of the Sten gun, with over 2,000,000 being produced throughout World War II. It was first issued to British and Canadian troops during the raid on Dieppe on the 19th of August 1942 and continued to be issued until 1945. It was also issued in considerable numbers to the Free French Forces, including the French Resistance.

In 1943, the toy manufacturer Line Brothers Ltd. were contracted to produce the Mk.III Sten, which was made from a single, riveted sheet metal tube that was welded at the top. The ejection also had an extra safety precaution that consisted of a simple finger guard. The barrel was fixed inside the tubular body, which could not be disassembled. In Canada, the Mk.III was manufactured by Long Branch Arsenal.


The Sten Mk.III. Manufactured by Line Bros. Yet another simplification to lower the cost of manufacture.


On the other hand, this prototype Mk.III with a wooden SMLE-style stock would have been substantially more expensive to manufacture.


An experimental Mk.III made at Enfield. The trigger grouping is level with the ejection and the cocking handle is on top.


The Mk.IV was the only one of the Sten “marks” not to be issued to the army. In fact, it never evolved past the prototype stage. It was designed in 1943 with paratroopers in mind, with a shorter barrel and folding stock. The first version of the Mk.IV had a conical flash hider and a very unusual pistol grip and trigger guard arrangement that was designed to facilitate for thick winter gloves. It was a mere 27 inches in length. After it was trialed at Pendine at rejected for improvements, a second version known as the Mk.IVB was developed which was designed to be fired with one hand. To achieve this, the balance of the weapon was changed by moving the trigger grouping forward to the middle of the gun. The trigger mechanism had to be completely redesigned to allow this. It was 24 inches in length but uncomfortable to fire. Besides its flaws, there was no immediate requirement for the Mk.IV model so it was never developed any further.


The Sten Mk.IV. Produced as a prototype only. It was designed for paratroopers and soldiers operating in cold weather conditions.


The Sten Mk.IVB. Designed to be fired one-handed. The shortest version of the Sten by far, it was more a machine pistol than a submachine gun.


The Sten Mk.IVS. A silenced prototype of which only one was ever made.


In 1944, the Mk.V Sten appeared. It was a much more presentable weapon and a far cry from the crude Mk.II  The Mk.V featured a wooden butt, pistol grip and fore grip. The fore grip was ditched in later models. The front sights were also redesigned and lifted from the No.4 SMLE service rifle. Internally, the bolt was improved with a cutaway that cleared the trigger disconnector when the bolt came over the sear. The resultant weapon was of excellent quality and made to a much higher standard than its precursors. Unfortunately, cheaply-made magazine were still being issued and consequently the Mk.V was still just as liable to failure as the earlier models, although this was not the fault of the gun itself.

The Mk.V Sten was issued extensively to paratroopers after D-Day and saw considerable use during Operation Market Garden in Arnhem, and issue of the Mk.V continued until the war in Europe ended in May 1945.


An early model Mk.V. This version had a fore grip which was not seen on later models. The stock could be detached for paratroopers.


The Sten Mk.V. The most polished version of the Sten manufactured during the war. It was much more reliable than the Mk.II and was issued in 1944.


Many variations of silenced Sten guns were also developed. British interest in silenced weapons began in 1940 when British Commandos demanded a quiet gun for eliminating lone sentries during covert raids. Initially they were issued silenced Thompsons made by RSAF Enfield, but these were too heavy and expensive to deploy in any numbers. When the Sten Mk.II appeared, Enfield developed a suppressed model called the Mk.IIS. It was designed by a Polish exile who was now serving with the Special Operations Executive, Lt. Kulikowski. The suppressor consisted of a series of metal cups wrapped around and in front of the barrel, with a rubber plug at the end. When the weapon was fired, the gases seeped out the sidewall of the barrel and their energy dissipated. The bullet traveled through the metal cups and penetrated the plug, which prevented the gases from escaping. These metal cups were encased in a perforated jacket which was surrounded by an additional jacket.


Prototype Mk.IIS. The silencer contained 24 baffles. With so much weight at the front end and so little in the stock, it would have been awkward to handle.


The Sten Mk.IIS. The most successful silenced weapon of World War II.


The Mk.IIS was issued to Commandos, the SOE, and other British special forces units, as well as resistance fighters across Europe. It was designed to be fired in single shots. Reportedly, the sound of the bolt was louder than the gunshot itself. The main drawback of the Mk.IIS was that it had an effective range of only 100 meters.


Sten Mk.II with an SOE-made silencer and basic wooden stock, issued to special agents in France.


The Sten Mk.VI. Basically the Mk.IIS principle applied to the Sten Mk.V. It replaced the Mk.IIS late in the war.


Late in the war, the Mk.V Sten was successfully silenced using a similar principle and this model was called the Mk.VI. It did not see as much use as the Mk.IIS but was probably, all factors considered, the best silenced weapon of the war. It was succeeded by the Sterling L34A1 silent submachine gun.