An 87-year-old woman in Switzerland sought medical help when she developed painful spasms every time she swallowed. Imaging and X-rays revealed her esophagus twisted up like a corkscrew whenever she ate. The condition caused her to lose 11 pounds (5 kilograms) over the course of several months, according to the case report, published in the New England Journal of Medicine in May.
Specialists in the United States told LiveScience that while the twisting esophagus was odd, the condition is not unknown.
Muscle spasms are to blame for this type of pain. Instead of contracting and relaxing in a series from the mouth to the stomach, the muscles within this woman’s esophagus contracted simultaneously, said Dr. John Pandolfino of Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago.
Do you have any advice or maybe a guide on playing mermaids? I'm making an OC and... they live in the ocean, so I'm not sure how I would have my character interact with other people. Thank you so so much!
A masterlist of categorized links on mermaids including folklore, mythology, legends, anatomy, prompts, and fiction!
Talk about a bad trip. In the 1950s, the CIA launched a top-secret program called MKULTRA to look for drugs and other techniques to use in mind control. Over the next two decades, the agency used hallucinogens, sleep deprivation and electrical shock techniques in an effort to perfect brainwashing.
Psychopaths may be capable of empathizing with others in some situations, a new study has found.
The study’s researchers investigated the brain activity of psychopathic criminals in the Netherlands. As expected, the psychopath’s brain showed less empathy than mentally healthy individuals while watching others experience pain or affection. But when asked to empathize, the psychopaths appeared to show normal levels of empathy, suggesting the ability to understand another’s feelings and thoughts may be repressed in these individuals rather than missing entirely.
Psychopaths are traditionally characterized as manipulative individuals who lack the capacity for empathy. Their unnerving detachment seems to make it easier for them to harm others.
“Psychopaths can be sometimes very charming and socially cunning, and other times be callous and perform atrocities,” said study researcher Christian Keysers, a neuroscientist at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands.
When healthy people see others perform an action, that observation turns on “action” areas of their own brain – known as the mirror neuron system. Similarly, when people experience pain or pleasure, they mimic these feelings in their own brains, too, Keysers told LiveScience.
Few studies have looked at what’s going on in the brains of psychopaths in situations that elicit empathy in normal people.
Keysers and his colleagues obtained rare access to a group of psychopathic criminals for the study.
The psychopaths were put in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner and shown movies depicting two hands interacting in a loving or a painful way, such as one hand stroking or hitting the other.
First, they simply watched the movies in the scanner. Then the researchers instructed the participants to watch the movies again and attempt to empathize with the subjects in the movies. (Specifically, they were told to “feel with the receiving or the approaching hand.”) The researchers also performed the same hand actions on the psychopaths’ own hands, to see whether it activated the same brain areas as watching the movies did. They compared the brain activity of the psychopaths with that of healthy people viewing the movies.
The scientists looked at brain activation in three areas associated with a person’s own actions or feelings: the premotor system, which plans movements; the somatosensory system, which is responsible for feelings of pain; and the insula, which lets people feel emotional pain. When the psychopaths watched the movies the first time, their brains showed decreased activity in these areas compared with healthy individuals. This finding supports the notion that psychopaths feel less empathy toward others.
But surprisingly, when the psychopaths were instructed to try to empathize while watching the videos, their brains showed the same level of activity in these brain areas as normal individuals.
“They seem to have a switch they can turn on and off that turns their empathy on and off depending on the situation,” Keysers told LiveScience.
The findings suggest psychopaths are, in fact, capable of empathy, if they consciously control it. This ability may explain why a psychopath can be charming in one instant, and brutal the next, the researchers say.
The idea also has implications for therapy. Most current therapies assume psychopaths lack empathy, and so try to produce the ability. Rather than creating empathy in psychopaths, therapists could find ways to make it automatic, Keysers said.
Mbemba Jabbi, a neuroscientist at the NIH’s National Institute of Mental Health, who was not involved with the study, found the results convincing. When it comes to empathy, “psychopaths maybe have a different baseline,” Jabbi said, just as “somebody with a thick skin gets the sensation of a pinch much more slowly.” He added that future studies should investigate more sophisticated, emotional forms of empathy.
Scrooge McDuck is known as “the richest duck in the world,” which … doesn’t sound that impressive, actually, since most ducks’ personal wealth is limited to some bread and cholera. Still, it’s pretty clear that Donald’s most miserable uncle is rich even by human standards, considering he’s got enough gold coins to fill a giant vault and swim in it.
Have you ever wondered exactly how rich Scrooge is, though? If so, don’t worry: Science is officially on the case. After Billfold writer Matt Powers wrote a parody article calculating Scrooge’s wealth and arrived at the impressive number of more than $210 billion (that’s about five Charles Kochs), science news website LiveScience decided to check the math. What they found is that Powers had vastly, vastly undershot it. Using story details from the Scrooge McDuck comics and the official blueprints for Scrooge’s money bin, LiveScience determined that the vault must contain approximately 171,450 cubic feet of gold, which translates to 3,302,088,419 ounces. Since gold is selling at $1,127.34 per ounce as of this writing, according to our calculations (read: Google’s) that means Scrooge has $3.7 trillion dollars. Or: enough to buy some fucking pants. Come on, man.
f : fina menjawab dengan yang fina yakini yah dear, terima kasih atas pertanyaannya. Semoga Allah selalu menjaga kita dalam cinta-Nya. aamiin.
ALASAN ILMIAH KENAPA PACARAN DILARANG DALAM ISLAM
Perhatikan titik merah pada gambar tsb yang ditangkap X Ray di saat pria-wanita bersentuhan.
Dua tahun lalu, tepatnya pada 2012, peneliti University of St. Andrews di Inggris mengungkapkan sebuah hasil penelitian bahwa ketika fisik perempuan tersentuh oleh pria, suhu kulit tubuh perempuan akan meningkat, khususnya di bagian wajah dan dada.
Riset berjudul The Touch of a Man Makes Women Hot dan dipublikasikan di LiveScience, 29 Mei 2012 itu menunjukkan, sentuhan dari pria terbukti mampu membakar gairah seks wanita.
“Perempuan menunjukkan peningkatan suhu ketika mereka terlibat dalam kontak sosial dengan laki-laki,” ungkap salah satu peneliti dari University of St. Andrews, Amanda Hahn.
Hasil riset menemukan, wajah biasanya akan memanas ketika kita sedang mengalami tekanan (stres), takut, atau marah. Emosi lain juga memengaruhi perubahan suhu tubuh.
Peneliti melakukan eksperimen terhadap sejumlah laki-laki dan perempuan di Inggris. Mereka dibagi menjadi dua kelompok. Kelompok pertama diberi rangsangan dengan memperlihatkan foto perempuan heteroseksual, sambil diberi sentuhan pada beberapa bagian tubuh seperti lengan, telapak tangan, wajah, dan dada, dengan menggunakan sinar probe. Sedangkan pada kelompok lain, responden mendapat sentuhan nyata dari pasangan (sebagai experimenter) pada bagian tubuh yang sama.
Ketika merasakan sentuhan tersebut, perempuan akan mengalami peningkatan suhu kulit sampai 10 derajat Celcius. Efeknya dianggap tidak cukup besar, karena bagian tubuh yang disentuh hanya lengan atau telapak tangan (bagian dada dan wajah paling banyak mengalami perubahan). Lonjakan suhu menjadi tiga kali lebih besar ketika experimenter-nya pria.
Namun ketika pria menyentuh bagian dada dan wajah wanita, suhu tubuhnya meningkat lebih panas 0,3 derajat Celsius. Perubahan suhu terbesar terjadi pada wajah.
Namun, tim peneliti tidak dapat mengatakan apakah perubahan tersebut dapat ditangkap dengan jelas oleh mata telanjang, atau apakah hal itu dapat terdeteksi dengan sentuhan.
Bagi pasangan lelaki dan perempuan yang sedang pacaran atau bertunangan, inilah alasan dan sebab mengapa Anda tak perlu bersentuhan dengan bukan mahram.
Islam melarang berpacaran, berpelukan dan bersentuhan dengan lawan jenis sebelum menikah karena sentuhan melahirkan gerakan otak, kemaluan dan nafsu. Ini sesuai dengan pesan Islam. Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda:
“Sekali-kali tidak boleh seorang laki-laki bersepi-sepi dengan seorang wanita kecuali wanita itu bersama mahramnya,” (HR Al-Bukhari No. 1862 dan Muslim No. 3259).
Dari Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu ‘anhu , Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda:
كُتِبَ عَلَى ابْنِ آدَمَ نَصِيبُهُ مِنَ الزِّنَى مُدْرِكٌ ذَلِكَ لاَ مَحَالَةَ فَالْعَيْنَانِ زِنَاهُمَا النَّظَرُ وَالأُذُنَانِ زِنَاهُمَا الاِسْتِمَاعُ وَاللِّسَانُ زِنَاهُ الْكَلاَمُ وَالْيَدُ زِنَاهَا الْبَطْشُ وَالرِّجْلُ زِنَاهَا الْخُطَا وَالْقَلْبُ يَهْوَى وَيَتَمَنَّى وَيُصَدِّقُ ذَلِكَ الْفَرْجُ وَيُكَذِّبُهُ “Setiap anak Adam telah ditakdirkan bagian untuk berzina dan ini suatu yang pasti terjadi, tidak bisa tidak. Zina kedua mata adalah dengan melihat. Zina kedua telinga dengan mendengar. Zina lisan adalah dengan berbicara. Zina tangan adalah dengan meraba (menyentuh). Zina kaki adalah dengan melangkah. Zina hati adalah dengan menginginkan dan berangan-angan. Lalu kemaluanlah yang nanti akan membenarkan atau mengingkari hal itu,” (HR Muslim No. 6925).
Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala berfirman:
قُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَغُضُّوا مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِمْ وَيَحْفَظُوا فُرُوجَهُمْ ذَلِكَ أَزْكَى لَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا يَصْنَعُونَ “Katakanlah kepada orang laki-laki yang beriman: ‘Hendaklah mereka menahan pandangannya, dan memelihara kemaluannya; yang demikian itu adalah lebih suci bagi mereka, sesungguhnya Allah Maha Mengetahui apa yang mereka perbuat’.” Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda:
مَا تَرَكْتُ بَعْدِي فِتْنَةً أَضَرَّ عَلَى الرِّجَالِ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ “Tidak pernah aku tinggalkan fitnah yang lebih berbahaya terhadap kaum pria daripada fitnah para wanita,” (HR Al-Bukhari No 5096).
Setelah tahu bahaya bersentuhan dengan lawan jenis yang bukan mahram, sebaiknya memilih menikah saja, bukan pacaran. Setelah resmi menikah nah barulah kalian pacaran yg tak perlu sembunyi dan ragu dan lebih mengasyikan…. بركلاه فيك
Gravity may be pretty consistent on Earth, but our perception of it isn’t. According to research published in April 2011 in the journal PLoS ONE, people are better at judging how objects fall when they’re sitting upright versus lying on their sides.
The finding means that our perception of gravity may be less based on visual cues of gravity’s real direction and more rooted in the orientation of the body.
2. Coming down to Earth is tough
Astronaut’s experience has shown that a switch to weightlessness and back can be tough on the body. In the absence of gravity, muscles atrophy and bones likewise lose bone mass. According to NASA, astronauts can lose 1 percent of their bone mass per month in space.
When astronauts come back to Earth, their bodies and minds need time to recover. Blood pressure, which has equalized throughout the body in space, has to return to an Earthly pattern in which the heart must work hard to keep the brain nourished with blood. Occasionally, astronauts struggle with that adjustment. In 2006, astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper collapsed at a welcome-home ceremony the day after returning from a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station.
The mental readjustment can be just as tricky. In 1973, Skylab 2 astronaut Jack Lousma told Time magazine that he’d accidentally smashed a bottle of aftershave in his first days back from a month-long sojourn in space. He’d let go of the bottle in mid-air, forgetting that it would crash to the ground rather than just float there.
3. For weight loss, try Pluto
Pluto may no longer be a planet, but it’s still a good bet for lightening up. A 150-pound (68 kilogram) person would weigh no more than 10 pounds (4.5 kg) on the dwarf planet. The planet with the most crushing gravity, on the other hand, is Jupiter, where the same person would weigh more than 354 pounds (160.5 kg).
The planet humans are most likely to visit, Mars, would also leave explorers feeling light-footed. Mars’ gravitational pull is only 38 percent that of Earth’s, meaning a 150-pound person would feel like they weigh about 57 pounds (26 kg).
4. Gravity is lumpy
Even on Earth, gravity isn’t entirely even. Because the globe isn’t a perfect sphere, its mass is distributed unevenly. And uneven mass means slightly uneven gravity.
5. Without gravity, some bugs get tougher
Bad news for space cadets: Some bacteria become nastier in space. A 2007 study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that salmonella, the bacteria that commonly causes food poisoning, becomes three times more virulent in microgravity. Something about the lack of gravity changed the activity of at least 167 salmonella genes and 73 of its proteins. Mice fed the gravity-free salmonella got sick faster after consuming less of the bacteria.
In other words, Michael Crichton’s “The Andromeda Strain” had it wrong: The danger of infection in space may not come from space bugs. It’s more likely our own bugs grown stronger would strike us.
6. Black holes at the center of galaxies
Named because nothing, not even light, can escape their gravitational clutches, black holes are some of the most destructive objects in the universe. At the center of our galaxy is a massive black hole with the mass of 3 million suns. Scarier thought? It might be “just resting,” according Kyoto University scientist Tatsuya Inui.
The black hole isn’t really a danger to us Earthlings – it’s both far away and it’s remarkably calm. But sometimes it does put on a show: Inui and colleagues reported in 2008 that the black hole sent out a flare of energy 300 years ago. Another study, released in 2007, found that several thousand years ago, a galactic hiccup sent a small amount of matter the size of Mercury falling into the black hole, leading to another outburst.
The black hole, named Sagittarius A*, is dim compared with other black holes.
“This faintness implies that stars and gas rarely get close enough to the black hole to be in any danger,” Frederick Baganoff, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who was involved with the 2007 study, told LiveScience’s sister site SPACE.com. “The huge appetite is there, but it’s not being satisfied.”