Ligo

When Dead Stars Collide!

Gravity has been making waves - literally.  Earlier this month, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for the first direct detection of gravitational waves two years ago. But astronomers just announced another huge advance in the field of gravitational waves - for the first time, we’ve observed light and gravitational waves from the same source.

There was a pair of orbiting neutron stars in a galaxy (called NGC 4993). Neutron stars are the crushed leftover cores of massive stars (stars more than 8 times the mass of our sun) that long ago exploded as supernovas. There are many such pairs of binaries in this galaxy, and in all the galaxies we can see, but something special was about to happen to this particular pair.

Each time these neutron stars orbited, they would lose a teeny bit of gravitational energy to gravitational waves. Gravitational waves are disturbances in space-time - the very fabric of the universe - that travel at the speed of light. The waves are emitted by any mass that is changing speed or direction, like this pair of orbiting neutron stars. However, the gravitational waves are very faint unless the neutron stars are very close and orbiting around each other very fast.

As luck would have it, the teeny energy loss caused the two neutron stars to get a teeny bit closer to each other and orbit a teeny bit faster.  After hundreds of millions of years, all those teeny bits added up, and the neutron stars were *very* close. So close that … BOOM! … they collided. And we witnessed it on Earth on August 17, 2017.  

Credit: National Science Foundation/LIGO/Sonoma State University/A. Simonnet

A couple of very cool things happened in that collision - and we expect they happen in all such neutron star collisions. Just before the neutron stars collided, the gravitational waves were strong enough and at just the right frequency that the National Science Foundation (NSF)’s Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and European Gravitational Observatory’s Virgo could detect them. Just after the collision, those waves quickly faded out because there are no longer two things orbiting around each other!

LIGO is a ground-based detector waiting for gravitational waves to pass through its facilities on Earth. When it is active, it can detect them from almost anywhere in space.

The other thing that happened was what we call a gamma-ray burst. When they get very close, the neutron stars break apart and create a spectacular, but short, explosion. For a couple of seconds, our Fermi Gamma-ray Telescope saw gamma-rays from that explosion. Fermi’s Gamma-ray Burst Monitor is one of our eyes on the sky, looking out for such bursts of gamma-rays that scientists want to catch as soon as they’re happening.

And those gamma-rays came just 1.7 seconds after the gravitational wave signal. The galaxy this occurred in is 130 million light-years away, so the light and gravitational waves were traveling for 130 million years before we detected them.

After that initial burst of gamma-rays, the debris from the explosion continued to glow, fading as it expanded outward. Our Swift, HubbleChandra and Spitzer telescopes, along with a number of ground-based observers, were poised to look at this afterglow from the explosion in ultraviolet, optical, X-ray and infrared light. Such coordination between satellites is something that we’ve been doing with our international partners for decades, so we catch events like this one as quickly as possible and in as many wavelengths as possible.

Astronomers have thought that neutron star mergers were the cause of one type of gamma-ray burst - a short gamma-ray burst, like the one they observed on August 17. It wasn’t until we could combine the data from our satellites with the information from LIGO/Virgo that we could confirm this directly.

This event begins a new chapter in astronomy. For centuries, light was the only way we could learn about our universe. Now, we’ve opened up a whole new window into the study of neutron stars and black holes. This means we can see things we could not detect before.

The first LIGO detection was of a pair of merging black holes. Mergers like that may be happening as often as once a month across the universe, but they do not produce much light because there’s little to nothing left around the black hole to emit light. In that case, gravitational waves were the only way to detect the merger.

Image Credit: LIGO/Caltech/MIT/Sonoma State (Aurore Simonnet)

The neutron star merger, though, has plenty of material to emit light. By combining different kinds of light with gravitational waves, we are learning how matter behaves in the most extreme environments. We are learning more about how the gravitational wave information fits with what we already know from light - and in the process we’re solving some long-standing mysteries!

Want to know more? Get more information HERE.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

An illustration of a newly detected black-hole merger, whose gravitational-wave signal suggests that at least one of the black holes was misaligned with its orbital motion before merging with its partner.

LIGO/Caltech/MIT/Sonoma State (Aurore Simonnet)

Who You Should Fight Based On Your Extended Sign

Aries: Sagittarius
Arsces: Sagittarius
Arrius: Sagittarius
Ariborn: Sagittarius
Arittarius: Sagittarius
Arpia: Sagittarius
Arza: Sagittarius
Arga: Sagittarius
Aro: Sagittarius
Arcen: Sagittarius
Armini: Sagittarius
Arun: Sagittarius
Arist: Sagittarius
Arsci: Sagittarius
Arnius: Sagittarius
Aricorn: Sagittarius
Arittanius: Sagittarius
Arpio: Sagittarius
Arra: Sagittarius
Argo: Sagittarius
Arlo: Sagittarius
Arcer: Sagittarius
Armino: Sagittarius
Arus: Sagittarius
Taurus: Sagittarius
Taurist: Sagittarius
Taursci: Sagittarius
Taurnius: Sagittarius
Tauricorn: Sagittarius
Taurittanius: Sagittarius
Taurpio: Sagittarius
Taurra: Sagittarius
Taurgo: Sagittarius
Taurlo: Sagittarius
Taurcer: Sagittarius
Taurmino: Sagittarius
Taurun: Sagittarius
Tauries: Sagittarius
Taursces: Sagittarius
Taurrius: Sagittarius
Tauriborn: Sagittarius
Taurittarius: Sagittarius
Taurpia: Sagittarius
Taurza: Sagittarius
Taurga: Sagittarius
Tauro: Sagittarius
Taurcen: Sagittarius
Taurmini: Sagittarius
Gemini: Sagittarius
Gemun: Sagittarius
Gemries: Sagittarius
Gemsces: Sagittarius
Gemrius: Sagittarius
Gemiborn: Sagittarius
Gemittarius: Sagittarius
Gempia: Sagittarius
Gemza: Sagittarius
Gemga: Sagittarius
Gemo: Sagittarius
Gemcen: Sagittarius
Gemino: Sagittarius
Gemus: Sagittarius
Gemrist: Sagittarius
Gemsci: Sagittarius
Gemnius: Sagittarius
Gemicorn: Sagittarius
Gemittanius: Sagittarius
Gempio: Sagittarius
Gemra: Sagittarius
Gemgo: Sagittarius
Gemlo: Sagittarius
Gemcer: Sagittarius
Cancer: Sagittarius
Camino: Sagittarius
Canus: Sagittarius
Canrist: Sagittarius
Cansci: Sagittarius
Cannius: Sagittarius
Canicorn: Sagittarius
Canittanius: Sagittarius
Canpio: Sagittarius
Canra: Sagittarius
Cango: Sagittarius
Canlo: Sagittarius
Cancen: Sagittarius
Camini: Sagittarius
Canun: Sagittarius
Canries: Sagittarius
Cansces: Sagittarius
Canrius: Sagittarius
Caniborn: Sagittarius
Canittarius: Sagittarius
Canpia: Sagittarius
Canza: Sagittarius
Canga: Sagittarius
Cano: Sagittarius
Leo: Sagittarius
Lecen: Sagittarius
Lemini: Sagittarius
Leun: Sagittarius
Leries: Sagittarius
Lesces: Sagittarius
Lerius: Sagittarius
Leiborn: Sagittarius
Leittarius: Sagittarius
Lepia: Sagittarius
Leza: Sagittarius
Lega: Sagittarius
Lelo: Sagittarius
Lecer: Sagittarius
Lemino: Sagittarius
Leus: Sagittarius
Lerist: Sagittarius
Lesci: Sagittarius
Lenius: Sagittarius
Leicorn: Sagittarius
Leittanius: Sagittarius
Lepo: Sagittarius
Lera: Sagittarius
Lego: Sagittarius
Virgo: Sagittarius
Virlo: Sagittarius
Vircer: Sagittarius
Virmino: Sagittarius
Virus: Sagittarius
Virist: Sagittarius
Virsci: Sagittarius
Virnius: Sagittarius
Viricorn: Sagittarius
Virittanius: Sagittarius
Virpio: Sagittarius
Virra: Sagittarius
Virga: Sagittarius
Viro: Sagittarius
Vircen: Sagittarius
Virmini: Sagittarius
Virus: Sagittarius
Viries: Sagittarius
Virsces: Sagittarius
Virrius: Sagittarius
Viriborn: Sagittarius
Virittarius: Sagittarius
Virpia: Sagittarius
Virza: Sagittarius
Libra: Sagittarius
Ligo: Sagittarius
Liblo: Sagittarius
Licer: Sagittarius
Limino: Sagittarius
Libus: Sagittarius
Librist: Sagittarius
Libsci: Sagittarius
Libnius: Sagittarius
Libicorn: Sagittarius
Libittanius: Sagittarius
Lipio: Sagittarius
Libza: Sagittarius
Liga: Sagittarius
Licen: Sagittarius
Limini: Sagittarius
Libun: Sagittarius
Libries: Sagittarius
Libsces: Sagittarius
Librius: Sagittarius
Libiborn: Sagittarius
Libittarius: Sagittarius
Lipia: Sagittarius
Scorpio: Sagittarius
Scorra: Sagittarius
Scorgo: Sagittarius
Scorlo: Sagittarius
Scorcer: Sagittarius
Scormino: Sagittarius
Scorus: Sagittarius
Scorist: Sagittarius
Scorsci: Sagittarius
Scornius: Sagittarius
Scoricorn: Sagittarius
Scorittanius: Sagittarius
Sorpia: Sagittarius
Scorza: Sagittarius
Scorga: Sagittarius
Scoro: Sagittarius
Scorcen: Sagittarius
Scormini: Sagittarius
Scorun: Sagittarius
Scories: Sagittarius
Scorsces: Sagittarius
Scorrius: Sagittarius
Scoriborn: Sagittarius
Scorittarius: Sagittarius
Sagittarius:  G O O D   F U C K I N G   L U C K
Sagipia: Sagittarius
Sagiza: Sagittarius
Sagiga: Sagittarius
Sagio: Sagittarius
Sagicen: Sagittarius
Sagimini: Sagittarius
Sagiun: Sagittarius
Sagiries: Sagittarius
Sagisces: Sagittarius
Sagirius: Sagittarius
Sagiborn: Sagittarius
Sagittanius: Sagittarius
Sagipio: Sagittarius
Sagira: Sagittarius
Sagigo: Sagittarius
Sagilo: Sagittarius
Sagicer: Sagittarius
Sagimino: Sagittarius
Sagius: Sagittarius
Sagirist: Sagittarius
Sagisci: Sagittarius
Saginius: Sagittarius
Sagicorn: Sagittarius
Capricorn: Sagittarius
Capritannius: Sagittarius
Capripio: Sagittarius
Caprira: Sagittarius
Caprigo: Sagittarius
Caprilo: Sagittarius
Capricer: Sagittarius
Caprimino: Sagittarius
Caprius: Sagittarius
Caprist: Sagittarius
Caprisci: Sagittarius
Caprinius: Sagittarius
Capriborn: Sagittarius
Caprittarius: Sagittarius
Capripia: Sagittarius
Capriza: Sagittarius
Capriga: Sagittarius
Caprio: Sagittarius
Capricen: Sagittarius
Caprimini: Sagittarius
Capriun: Sagittarius
Capries: Sagittarius
Caprisces: Sagittarius
Capririus: Sagittarius
Aquarius: Sagittarius
Aquiborn: Sagittarius
Aquittarius: Sagittarius
Aquapia: Sagittarius
Aquaza: Sagittarius
Aquaga: Sagittarius
Aquo: Sagittarius
Aquacen: Sagittarius
Aquamini: Sagittarius
Aquiun: Sagittarius
Aquaries: Sagittarius
Aquasces: Sagittarius
Aquanius: Sagittarius
Aquicorn: Sagittarius
Aquittanius: Sagittarius
Aquapio: Sagittarius
Aquara: Sagittarius
Aquago: Sagittarius
Aqualo: Sagittarius
Aquacer: Sagittarius
Aquamino: Sagittarius
Aquius: Sagittarius
Aquarist: Sagittarius
Aquasci: Sagittarius
Pices: Sagittarius
Pirius: Sagittarius
Piborn: Sagittarius
Pittarius: Sagittarius
Pipia: Sagittarius
Piza: Sagittarius
Piga: Sagittarius
Pio: Sagittarius
Picen: Sagittarius
Pimini: Sagittarius
Piun: Sagittarius
Piries: Sagittarius
Pisci: Sagittarius
Pinius: Sagittarius
Picorn: Sagittarius
Pittanius: Sagittarius
Pipio: Sagittarius
Pira: Sagittarius
Pigo: Sagittarius
Picer: Sagittarius
Pimino: Sagittarius
Pius: Sagittarius
Pirist: Sagittarius

2

Gravitational waves, Light and Merging neutron stars

Unlike black hole mergers (gif-1), when two neutron stars merge (gif-2) they give off a huge blast of light in addition to the gravitational wave.

Today LIGO announced that they were able to detect the gravitational waves from the merger of two neutron stars and the revolutionary thing about this is that with the help of telescopes situated across the globe we were to able to confirm this.

(Image credits: Left, Hubble/STScI; Right, 1M2H Team/UC Santa Cruz & Carnegie Observatories/Ryan Foley)

These are indeed truly exciting times and there is no denying. Have a great day!


* Watch this video to know more

**  How LIGO detects gravitational waves

Meet Fermi: Our Eyes on the Gamma-Ray Sky

Black holes, cosmic rays, neutron stars and even new kinds of physics — for 10 years, data from our Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have helped unravel some of the biggest mysteries of the cosmos. And Fermi is far from finished!

On June 11, 2008, at Cape Canaveral in Florida, the countdown started for Fermi, which was called the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) at the time. 

The telescope was renamed after launch to honor Enrico Fermi, an Italian-American pioneer in high-energy physics who also helped develop the first nuclear reactor. 

Fermi has had many other things named after him, like Fermi’s Paradox, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station, the Enrico Fermi Institute, and the synthetic element fermium.

Photo courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory

The Fermi telescope measures some of the highest energy bursts of light in the universe; watching the sky to help scientists answer all sorts of questions about some of the most powerful objects in the universe. 

Its main instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), which can view 20% of the sky at a time and makes a new image of the whole gamma-ray sky every three hours. Fermi’s other instrument is the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor. It sees even more of the sky at lower energies and is designed to detect brief flashes of gamma-rays from the cosmos and Earth.

This sky map below is from 2013 and shows all of the high energy gamma rays observed by the LAT during Fermi’s first five years in space.  The bright glowing band along the map’s center is our own Milky Way galaxy!

So what are gamma rays? 

Well, they’re a form of light. But light with so much energy and with such short wavelengths that we can’t see them with the naked eye. Gamma rays require a ton of energy to produce — from things like subatomic particles (such as protons) smashing into each other. 

Here on Earth, you can get them in nuclear reactors and lightning strikes. Here’s a glimpse of the Seattle skyline if you could pop on a pair of gamma-ray goggles. That purple streak? That’s still the Milky Way, which is consistently the brightest source of gamma rays in our sky.

In space, you find that kind of energy in places like black holes and neutron stars. The raindrop-looking animation below shows a big flare of gamma rays that Fermi spotted coming from something called a blazar, which is a kind of quasar, which is different from a pulsar… actually, let’s back this up a little bit.

One of the sources of gamma rays that Fermi spots are pulsars. Pulsars are a kind of neutron star, which is a kind of star that used to be a lot bigger, but collapsed into something that’s smaller and a lot denser. Pulsars send out beams of gamma rays. But the thing about pulsars is that they rotate. 

So Fermi only sees a beam of gamma rays from a pulsar when it’s pointed towards Earth. Kind of like how you only periodically see the beam from a lighthouse. These flashes of light are very regular. You could almost set your watch by them!

Quasars are supermassive black holes surrounded by disks of gas. As the gas falls into the black hole, it releases massive amount of energy, including — you guessed it — gamma rays. Blazars are quasars that send out beams of gamma rays and other forms of light — right in our direction. 

When Fermi sees them, it’s basically looking straight down this tunnel of light, almost all the way back to the black hole. This means we can learn about the kinds of conditions in that environment when the rays were emitted. Fermi has found about 5,500 individual sources of gamma rays, and the bulk of them have been blazars, which is pretty nifty.

But gamma rays also have many other sources. We’ve seen them coming from supernovas where stars die and from star factories where stars are born. They’re created in lightning storms here on Earth, and our own Sun can toss them out in solar flares. 

Gamma rays were in the news last year because of something Fermi spotted at almost the same time as the National Science Foundation (NSF)’s Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and European Gravitational Observatory’s Virgo on August 17, 2017. Fermi, LIGO, Virgo, and numerous other observatories spotted the merger of two neutron stars. It was the first time that gravitational waves and light were confirmed to come from the same source.

Fermi has been looking at the sky for almost 10 years now, and it’s helped scientists advance our understanding of the universe in many ways. And the longer it looks, the more we’ll learn. Discover more about how we’ll be celebrating Fermi’s achievements all year.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

9

Gravitational Waves Win 2017 Nobel Prize In Physics, The Ultimate Fusion Of Theory And Experiment

“The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics may have gone to three individuals who made an outstanding contribution to the scientific enterprise, but it’s a story about so much more than that. It’s about all the men and women over more than 100 years who’ve contributed, theoretically and experimentally and observationally, to our understanding of the precise workings of the Universe. Science is much more than a method; it’s the accumulated knowledge of the entire human enterprise, gathered and synthesized together for the betterment of everyone. While the most prestigious award has now gone to gravitational waves, the science of this phenomenon is only in its earliest stages. The best is yet to come.”

It’s official at long last: the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to three individuals most responsible for the development and eventual direct detection of gravitational waves. Congratulations to Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne, and Barry Barish, whose respective contributions to the experimental setup of gravitational wave detectors, theoretical predictions about which astrophysical events produce which signals, and the design-and-building of the modern LIGO interferometers helped make it all possible. The story of directly detecting gravitational waves is so much more, however, than the story of just these three individuals, or even than the story of their collaborators. Instead, it’s the ultimate culmination of a century of theoretical, experimental, and instrumentational work, dating back to Einstein himself. It’s a story that includes physics titans Howard Robertson, Richard Feynman, and Joseph Weber. It includes Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor, who won a Nobel decades earlier for the indirect detection of gravitational waves. And it’s the story of over 1,000 men and women who contributed to LIGO and VIRGO, bringing us into the era of gravitational wave astronomy.

The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics may only go to three individuals, but it’s the ultimate fusion of theory and experiment. And yes, the best is yet to come! 

anonymous asked:

What would happen if a black hole collided with another ?

Thanks to a discovery just made in 2015, we don’t need to speculate about this. When two black holes collide, they merge together to make a larger black hole, but that isn’t the most interesting part.

When two black holes start to collide, they orbit around each other. The closer they get, the faster they spin. As you might know, black holes warp the fabric of space and time, and when they start moving fast enough, they can send ripples through space. We call them “gravitational waves”, and even though they are incredibly small, if your detector is sensitive enough, you can see them.

The LIGO observatory announced that they detected gravitational waves in 2015, which was truly the discovery of the decade. Einstein had predicted them a hundred years earlier, but never believed we’d be able to see them.

5

The discovery of gravitational waves wins the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics

“Gravitational waves are allowing us to open a completely new window on the cosmos,” - Massimiliano Razzano, member of the Virgo team

“The theory describes geometry of space and time. When gravitational wave propagates, it changes [this] geometry,” - Ivanov Pavel, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences

Gravitational waves are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that are generated in certain gravitational interactions and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.

5

There is sound in space, thanks to gravitational waves

“These waves are maddeningly weak, and their effects on the objects in spacetime are stupendously tiny. But if you know how to listen for them — just as the components of a radio know how to listen for those long-frequency light waves — you can detect these signals and hear them just as you’d hear any other sound. With an amplitude and a frequency, they’re no different from any other wave.”

You’ve likely heard that there’s no sound in space; that sound needs a medium to travel through, and in the vacuum of space, there is none. That’s true… up to a point. If you were only a few light years away from a star, stellar remnant, black hole, or even a supernova, you’d have no way to hear, feel, or otherwise directly measure the pressure waves from those objects. But they emit another kind of wave that can be interpreted as sounds, if you listen correctly: gravitational waves. These waves are so powerful, that in the very first event we ever detected, the black hole-black hole merger we saw outshone, in terms of energy, all of the stars in the observable Universe combined. There really is sound in space, as long as you know how to listen for it properly.

Come learn about it, and catch a live event, live-blogged by me, this evening!

What The Signs Want
  • Aries: Net Neutrality
  • Arsces: Net Neutrality
  • Arrius: Net Neutrality
  • Ariborn: Net Neutrality
  • Arittarius: Net Neutrality
  • Arpia: Net Neutrality
  • Arza: Net Neutrality
  • Arga: Net Neutrality
  • Aro: Net Neutrality
  • Arcen: Net Neutrality
  • Armini: Net Neutrality
  • Arun: Net Neutrality
  • Arist: Net Neutrality
  • Arsci: Net Neutrality
  • Arnius: Net Neutrality
  • Aricorn: Net Neutrality
  • Arittanius: Net Neutrality
  • Arpio: Net Neutrality
  • Arra: Net Neutrality
  • Argo: Net Neutrality
  • Arlo: Net Neutrality
  • Arcer: Net Neutrality
  • Armino: Net Neutrality
  • Arus: Net Neutrality
  • Taurus: Net Neutrality
  • Taurist: Net Neutrality
  • Taursci: Net Neutrality
  • Taurnius: Net Neutrality
  • Tauricorn: Net Neutrality
  • Taurittanius: Net Neutrality
  • Taurpio: Net Neutrality
  • Taurra: Net Neutrality
  • Taurgo: Net Neutrality
  • Taurlo: Net Neutrality
  • Taurcer: Net Neutrality
  • Taurmino: Net Neutrality
  • Taurun: Net Neutrality
  • Tauries: Net Neutrality
  • Taursces: Net Neutrality
  • Taurrius: Net Neutrality
  • Tauriborn: Net Neutrality
  • Tauritarrius: Net Neutrality
  • Taurpia: Net Neutrality
  • Taurza: Net Neutrality
  • Taurga: Net Neutrality
  • Tauro: Net Neutrality
  • Taurcen: Net Neutrality
  • Taurmini: Net Neutrality
  • Gemini: Net Neutrality
  • Gemun: Net Neutrality
  • Gemries: Net Neutrality
  • Gemino: Net Neutrality
  • Gemus: Net Neutrality
  • Gemrist: Net Neutrality
  • Gemsci: Net Neutrality
  • Gemnius: Net Neutrality
  • Gemicorn: Net Neutrality
  • Gemittanius: Net Neutrality
  • Gempio: Net Neutrality
  • Gemra: Net Neutrality
  • Gemgo: Net Neutrality
  • Gemlo: Net Neutrality
  • Gemcer: Net Neutrality
  • Gemsces: Net Neutrality
  • Gemrius: Net Neutrality
  • Gemiborn: Net Neutrality
  • Gemittarius: Net Neutrality
  • Gempia: Net Neutrality
  • Gemza: Net Neutrality
  • Gemga: Net Neutrality
  • Gemo: Net Neutrality
  • Gemcen: Net Neutrality
  • Cancer: Net Neutrality
  • Camino: Net Neutrality
  • Canus: Net Neutrality
  • Canris: Net Neutrality
  • Cansci: Net Neutrality
  • Cannius: Net Neutrality
  • Canicorn: Net Neutrality
  • Canittanius: Net Neutrality
  • Canpio: Net Neutrality
  • Canra: Net Neutrality
  • Cango: Net Neutrality
  • Canlo: Net Neutrality
  • Cancen: Net Neutrality
  • Camini: Net Neutrality
  • Canun: Net Neutrality
  • Canries: Net Neutrality
  • Cansces: Net Neutrality
  • Canrius: Net Neutrality
  • Caniborn: Net Neutrality
  • Canittarius: Net Neutrality
  • Canpia: Net Neutrality
  • Canza: Net Neutrality
  • Canga: Net Neutrality
  • Cano: Net Neutrality
  • Leo: Net Neutrality
  • Lecen: Net Neutrality
  • Lemini: Net Neutrality
  • Leun: Net Neutrality
  • Lenries: Net Neutrality
  • Lesces: Net Neutrality
  • Lerius: Net Neutrality
  • Leiborn: Net Neutrality
  • Leitarrius: Net Neutrality
  • Lepia: Net Neutrality
  • Leza: Net Neutrality
  • Lega: Net Neutrality
  • Lelo: Net Neutrality
  • Lecer: Net Neutrality
  • Lemino: Net Neutrality
  • Leus: Net Neutrality
  • Lerist: Net Neutrality
  • Lesci: Net Neutrality
  • Lenius: Net Neutrality
  • Leicorn: Net Neutrality
  • Leittanius: Net Neutrality
  • Lepio: Net Neutrality
  • Lera: Net Neutrality
  • Lego: Net Neutrality
  • Virgo: Net Neutrality
  • Virlo: Net Neutrality
  • Vircer: Net Neutrality
  • Virmino: Net Neutrality
  • Virus: Net Neutrality
  • Virist: Net Neutrality
  • Virsci: Net Neutrality
  • Virnius: Net Neutrality
  • Viricorn: Net Neutrality
  • Virittanius: Net Neutrality
  • Virpio: Net Neutrality
  • Virra: Net Neutrality
  • Virga: Net Neutrality
  • Viro: Net Neutrality
  • Vircen: Net Neutrality
  • Virmini: Net Neutrality
  • Virun: Net Neutrality
  • Virsces: Net Neutrality
  • Virrius: Net Neutrality
  • Viriborn: Net Neutrality
  • Virittarius: Net Neutrality
  • Virpia: Net Neutrality
  • Virza: Net Neutrality
  • Libra: Net Neutrality
  • Ligo: Net Neutrality
  • Libo: Net Neutrality
  • Licer: Net Neutrality
  • Limino: Net Neutrality
  • Libus: Net Neutrality
  • Librist: Net Neutrality
  • Libsci: Net Neutrality
  • Libnius: Net Neutrality
  • Libicorn: Net Neutrality
  • Libittanius: Net Neutrality
  • Lipio: Net Neutrality
  • Libza: Net Neutrality
  • Liga: Net Neutrality
  • Libo: Net Neutrality
  • Licen: Net Neutrality
  • Limini: Net Neutrality
  • Libun: Net Neutrality
  • Libries: Net Neutrality
  • Libsces: Net Neutrality
  • Librius: Net Neutrality
  • Libicorn: Net Neutrality
  • Libittarius: Net Neutrality
  • Lipia: Net Neutrality
  • Scorpio: Net Neutrality
  • Scorra: Net Neutrality
  • Scorga: Net Neutrality
  • Scorlo: Net Neutrality
  • Scorcer: Net Neutrality
  • Scormino: Net Neutrality
  • Scorus: Net Neutrality
  • Scorist: Net Neutrality
  • Scorsci: Net Neutrality
  • Scornius: Net Neutrality
  • Scoricorn: Net Neutrality
  • Scorittanius: Net Neutrality
  • Scorpia: Net Neutrality
  • Scorza: Net Neutrality
  • Scorga: Net Neutrality
  • Scoro: Net Neutrality
  • Scorscen: Net Neutrality
  • Scormini: Net Neutrality
  • Scorun: Net Neutrality
  • Scories: Net Neutrality
  • Scorsces: Net Neutrality
  • Scorrius: Net Neutrality
  • Scoriborn: Net Neutrality
  • Scorittarius: Net Neutrality
  • Sagittarius: Net Neutrality
  • Sagipia: Net Neutrality
  • Sagiza: Net Neutrality
  • Sagiga: Net Neutrality
  • Sagio: Net Neutrality
  • Sagicen: Net Neutrality
  • Sagmini: Net Neutrality
  • Sagiun: Net Neutrality
  • Sagiries: Net Neutrality
  • Sagisces: Net Neutrality
  • Sagirius: Net Neutrality
  • Sagiborn: Net Neutrality
  • Sagittanius: Net Neutrality
  • Sagipio: Net Neutrality
  • Sagira: Net Neutrality
  • Sagigo: Net Neutrality
  • Sagilo: Net Neutrality
  • Sagicer: Net Neutrality
  • Sagmino: Net Neutrality
  • Sagius: Net Neutrality
  • Sagirist: Net Neutrality
  • Sagisci: Net Neutrality
  • Saginius: Net Neutrality
  • Sagicorn: Net Neutrality
  • Capricorn: Net Neutrality
  • Caprittanius: Net Neutrality
  • Capripio: Net Neutrality
  • Caprira: Net Neutrality
  • Caprigo: Net Neutrality
  • Caprilo: Net Neutrality
  • Capricer: Net Neutrality
  • Caprimino: Net Neutrality
  • Caprius: Net Neutrality
  • Caprist: Net Neutrality
  • Caprisci: Net Neutrality
  • Caprinius: Net Neutrality
  • Capriborn: Net Neutrality
  • Caprittarius: Net Neutrality
  • Capripia: Net Neutrality
  • Capriza: Net Neutrality
  • Capriga: Net Neutrality
  • Caprio: Net Neutrality
  • Capricen: Net Neutrality
  • Caprimini: Net Neutrality
  • Capriun: Net Neutrality
  • Capries: Net Neutrality
  • Caprisces: Net Neutrality
  • Capripius: Net Neutrality
  • Aquarius: Net Neutrality
  • Aquiborn: Net Neutrality
  • Aquittarius: Net Neutrality
  • Aquapia: Net Neutrality
  • Aquaza: Net Neutrality
  • Aquaga: Net Neutrality
  • Aquo: Net Neutrality
  • Aquacen: Net Neutrality
  • Aquamini: Net Neutrality
  • Aquiun: Net Neutrality
  • Aquaries: Net Neutrality
  • Aquanius: Net Neutrality
  • Aquicorn: Net Neutrality
  • Aquittanius: Net Neutrality
  • Aquapio: Net Neutrality
  • Aquara: Net Neutrality
  • Aquago: Net Neutrality
  • Aqualo: Net Neutrality
  • Aquacer: Net Neutrality
  • Aquamino: Net Neutrality
  • Aquiua: Net Neutrality
  • Aquarist: Net Neutrality
  • Aquasci: Net Neutrality
  • Pisces: Net Neutrality
  • Pirius: Net Neutrality
  • Piborn: Net Neutrality
  • Pittarius: Net Neutrality
  • Pipia: Net Neutrality
  • Piza: Net Neutrality
  • Piga: Net Neutrality
  • Pio: Net Neutrality
  • Picen: Net Neutrality
  • Pimini: Net Neutrality
  • Piun: Net Neutrality
  • Piries: Net Neutrality
  • Pisci: Net Neutrality
  • Pinius: Net Neutrality
  • Picorn: Net Neutrality
  • Pittanius: Net Neutrality
  • Pipio: Net Neutrality
  • Pira: Net Neutrality
  • Pigo: Net Neutrality
  • Pilo: Net Neutrality
  • Pimino: Net Neutrality
  • Pius: Net Neutrality
  • Pirist: Net Neutrality
9

The Nobel Doesn’t Mean Gravitational Wave Astronomy Is Over; It’s Just Getting Good

“We haven’t just detected gravitational waves directly, we’ve begun exploring in the era of gravitational wave astronomy. We aren’t just seeing the sky in a whole new way; we’re getting better and better at seeing it, and learning what we’re looking at. Because these events are transient, existing only for a short amount of time, we right now only get one opportunity to view these black hole-black hole mergers. But as time goes on and our detectors continue to improve, we’re going to continue to see the Universe as we never have before. The Nobel Prize may have been for already completed research, but the true fruits of gravitational wave astronomy are still out there amidst the great cosmic forest. Thanks to the groundwork laid by 100+ years of scientists, for the first time, it’s picking season.”

Yes, we detected gravitational waves, directly, for the first time! Just days after Advanced LIGO first turned on, a signal of a 36 solar mass black hole merging with a 29 solar mass black hole gave us our first robust, direct detection of these long-sought waves, changing astronomy forever. Einstein’s General Relativity was validated in a whole new way, and over 40 years of work on developing and building LIGO was vindicated at last. Now, it’s two years later, and yes, some of the most important team members have been awarded physics’ highest honor: the Nobel Prize. But gravitational wave astronomy isn’t over now; on the contrary, it’s only just beginning in earnest. With a third detector now online and two more coming along in the next few years, we’re not only poised to enter a new era in astronomy, we’re about to open up a whole new set of discoveries that would otherwise be impossible.

Here’s where we are, and here’s how we do it! Find out what advances are already underway since this Nobel-winning discovery was made!

‪God can I just talk about the neutron star collision real quick. It’s just… when I was born there were only like 3 exoplanets. The discovery of GRB Afterglow is less than a month older than I. We hadn’t observed the effects of the supermassive black hole in the center of our galaxy. We didn’t know what Pluto looked like. We didn’t have the ISS yet. ‬

‪In twenty years we’ve learned so much. In twenty years we put rovers on Mars. We found water on Mars! Liquid water! We’ve found thousands of exoplanets. We got to see what Pluto looked like with New Horizons. We’ve mapped the stars in the center of our galaxy and we’ve proved that there’s a supermassive black hole there.

‪But god, the most incredible thing was gravitational waves. In 2015 LIGO recorded the first one, just a small little blip lasting a fraction of a second. But that’s all that was needed. We proved Einstein right nearly 100 years later. And then the one that just came out. I can’t even describe how incredible it is. For over 100 seconds we recorded these waves, massive waves. We were able to triangulate the source. ‬

‪We saw it. In a moment of planetwide esprit de corps we saw it. We saw the gamma ray burst. We saw the afterglow. Two neutron stars, no bigger than manhattan, colliding at nearly the speed of light some 130 million years ago. And we saw it. We took pictures of it. ‬

And look at all the papers that’ll be coming out of this. Some 3,500 people were involved with this. 3,500 people, from over 70 observatories and detectors all over the world, using hundreds of instruments, made this happen. Yesterday 40 papers were published, along with a flurry of press conferences and jovial announcements.

‪In a moment, our species graduated from electromagnetic observing to being able to detect ripples in the very fabric of spacetime. ‬

‪In twenty years, in a cosmic moment, we’ve stretched our legs and are beginning to take our first clumsy footsteps into the universe around us. ‬

Fico ouvindo você falar sem parar sobre o que é certo e adequado, porque você precisa fazer isso ou não deve fazer aquilo. Não me importo com nada disso. Não ligo para as regras, para o que é certo ou errado. O que importa para mim é isto. Nós. Agora. E sei que você sente a mesma coisa.
—   Sense8   
10

LIGO’s Successor Approved; Will Discover Incredible New Sources Of Gravitational Waves

“The huge advance of LISA, though, will be the ability to detect objects spiraling into and merging with the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. Stars and other forms of matter are constantly falling into black holes at the galactic center, both in our own galaxy and well beyond. These events often result in the ejection of matter, the acceleration of charged particles and the emission of radio and X-ray light. But they should also result in the emission of gravitational waves, and LISA will be sensitive to those. For the first time, we’ll be able to see supermassive black holes in gravitational waves.”

There’s no doubt that LIGO has given us one of the most incredible breakthroughs of the 21st century: the direct detection of gravitational waves. But as wonderful as LIGO is, so far it’s only been able to detect the very final stages of mergers of stellar mass-scale black holes, and only every few months at that. The technique of laser interferometry is sound and powerful, but properties inherent to Earth itself fundamentally limit how good LIGO can potentially be. But these restrictions go away if we go to space! Not only can we eliminate seismic noise, cease accounting for the curvature of the Earth, and get a better vacuum for free, but we can achieve much longer baselines. By sending a series of spacecraft up into orbit behind the Earth, we can detect more massive, more distant, and slower-period sources than LIGO could ever hope to see.

LISA is the gravitational wave observatory of the future, and the European Space Agency just greenlit it for 2034! Come get the exciting news and find out what science it will be able to do today!

10

Newest LIGO Signal Raises A Huge Question: Do Merging Black Holes Emit Light?

“The second merger held no such hints of electromagnetic signals, but that was less surprising: the black holes were of significantly lower mass, so any signal arising from them would be expected to be correspondingly lower in magnitude. But the third merger was large in mass again, more comparable to the first than the second. While Fermi has made no announcement, and Integral again reports a non-detection, there are two pieces of evidence that suggest there may have been an electromagnetic counterpart after all. The AGILE satellite from the Italian Space Agency detected a weak, short-lived event that occurred just half a second before the LIGO merger, while X-ray, radio and optical observations combined to identify a strange afterglow less than 24 hours after the merger.”

Whenever there’s a catastrophic, cataclysmic event in space, there’s almost always a tremendous release of energy that accompanies it. A supernova emits light; a neutron star merger emits gamma rays; a quasar emits radio waves; merging black holes emit gravitational waves. But if there’s any sort of matter present outside the event horizons of these black holes, they have the potential to emit electromagnetic radiation, or light signals, too. Our best models and simulations don’t predict much, but sometimes the Universe surprises us! With the third LIGO merger, there were two independent teams that claimed an electromagnetic counterpart within 24 hours of the gravitational wave signal. One was an afterglow in gamma rays and the optical, occurring about 19 hours after-the-fact, while the other was an X-ray burst occurring just half a second before the merger.

Could either of these be connected to these merging black holes? Or are we just grasping at straws here? We need more, better data to know for sure, but here’s what we’ve got so far!