Levoy

In Italian, like in many languages, personal pronouns change based on their grammatical function. There are direct object (accusative/ablative) personal pronouns and indirect object (dative) personal pronouns. These two are further divided into two more categories of pronouns: stressed and unstrssed personal pronouns.

Please note: different textbooks will divide and categories these pronouns differently (i.e. saying that the Direct Object personal pronouns are mi, ti, lo, etc) in order to facilitate the process of learning.

Note: I have completely ignored reflexive pronouns.

Subject personal pronouns

  • io - I
  • tu - you
  • egli (lui), esso - he, it (m.)
  • ella (lei), essa - she, it (f.)
  • noi - we
  • voi - you (pl.)
  • essi/esse (loro) - them (m./f.), them (m.), them (f.)

* Please note that egliella, and essi are the subjects pronouns, whereas lui, lei and loro are the object pronouns (him, her, them). These can sometimes act as the subject of a sentence in every day speech, but formal and written Italian draws a sharp distinction between egli and lui and vice versa.

Direct Object personal pronouns

A Direct Object is the recipient (i.e. a person, animal or thing) of the action of a transitive verb. All transitive verbs have a direct object, e.g. mangio la mela (la mela = direct object of the verb mangiare).

  • io - me
  • tu - te
  • egli (lui), esso - lo, lui
  • ella (lei), essa - la, lei
  • noi - noi
  • voi - voi
  • essi/esse, loro - loro, li, le

Now consider these examples sentences and pay careful attention to the changes.

  1. abbiamo invitato Luca alla festa (we invited Luca to the party) > lo abbiamo invitato (we invited him)
  2. beve un succo di frutta (s/he drinks a fruit juice) > lo beve (s/he drinks it)
  3. sto leggendo dei libri (I’m reading some books) > li sto leggendo (I’m reading them)

Indirect Object personal pronouns

An Indirect Object is a pronoun used as a recipient (i.e. a person, animal or thing) of the action of a transitive verb, but is NOT the primary object, e.g. gli ho dato un libro (gli = ‘to him’ is the indirect object, un libro = ‘a book’ is the direct object). 

  • io - mi
  • tu - ti
  • egli (lui), esso - gli
  • ella (lei), essa - le / gli*
  • noi - ci
  • voi - vi
  • essi/essa, loro - loro / gli**

*gli in lieu of le is common and acceptable in informal contexts.
**gli in lieu of loro has been in use for centuries now, literary works as well, but to this day it’s still regarded as incorrect in Standard/Formal Italian despite it having a valid etymological explanation.

Consider these examples sentences and pay careful attention to the changes.

  • ho dato un regalo agli studenti (I gave a gift to the students) > ho dato loro un regalo [or] gli ho dato un regalo (I gave them a gift)
  • ha detto una bugia alla madre (s/he told a lie to her mother) > le ha detto una bugia (she told her a lie)
  • mando una lettera a mio padre (I sent a letter to my father) > gli mando una lettera (I send him a letter)

As already mentioned above, personal pronouns also change based on their position in the sentence. They can thus be divided into stressed and unstressed objective personal pronouns.

Stressed Object pronouns

Despite being almost identical to the D.O. personal pronouns, Stressed Object pronouns can cover more functions and are regarded as ‘free forms’ or ‘oblique pronouns’. Stressed Object pronouns have mainly three characteristics: (1) they appear on their own in the sentence, (2) are not attached to verbs as clitics, (3) and are usually proceeded by a variety of prepositions such as di, a, da, in, con, etc. that trigger the use of the stressed pronouns.

  • io - me
  • tu - te
  • egli (lui), esso - lui
  • ella (lei), essa - lei
  • noi - noi
  • voi - voi
  • essi/esse, loro - loro
  1. Marco ama te (Marco loves you)
  2. Elena ha scelto lui (Elena has chosen him)
  3. Grazia è venuta per te (Grazie came for you)

In Marco ama te, te means ‘specifically you’. Similarly In the second sentence lui means ‘specifically or especially him’. Lastly, in the final example, the use of te is triggered by the preposition per ‘for’.

Unstressed Object personal pronouns OR clitics

Unstressed Object personal pronouns always accompany a verb, which they can either follow or precede, and have no stress of their own. They are also called clitics because they are invisibly glued to their host (a verb) and cannot stand alone. Unstressed personal pronouns can be either proclitic or enclitic

  • io - mi
  • tu - ti
  • egli (lui), esso - gli
  • ella (lei), essa - le
  • noi - ci
  • voi - vi
  • essi/esse, loro - loro

Proclitic personal pronouns appear before their host.

  1. ti do un bacio sulla guancia (I give you a kiss on the cheek)
  2. ci hanno dato un regalo (they gave us a present)
  3. vi ho chiamato due volte (I called you [pl.] twice)

Joining direct and indirect personal pronouns

What happens when you join both direct and indirect personal pronouns? Consider the following example:

  • mi ha mandato la lettera (s/he has sent me the letter) > me l’ha mandata (s/he sent it to me)

Here la lettera is the direct object, while mi is the indirect object. In the second sentence l’ (la) is the direct object pronoun meaning la lettera,while me is still the indirect object.

When both the direct and the indirect object are present in the same sentence, the indirect object change form.

  • io - me lo / me la / me li / me le
  • tu - te lo / te la / te li / te le
  • egli (lui), esso - glielo / gliela / glieli / gliele
  • ella (lei), essa - glielo / gliela / glieli / gliele
  • noi - ce lo / ce la / ce li / ce le
  • voi - ve lo / ve la / ve li / ve le
  • essi/esse, loro - /
  1. gliel’ha regalata sua zia (her auntie gave it to him/her)
  2. ce lo diranno domani (they will tell it to us tomorrow)
  3. te li do oggi (I’ll give them to you today)

If you find any mistakes please send me a message.

anonymous asked:

(1/2) Okaaay, but... Has anyone ever considered OikawaxLev? No?? Because I'm having sO MUCH FEELS RIGHT NOW IDEK WHERE DID THEY COME FROM i mean, one of Oikawa's greatest skills is his ability to read eVERYONE, whether they want it or not, and could you just imagine him getting frustrated over Lev because, I mean, sunshine baby has nOTHING TO HIDE AND IT'S JUST??? AND OIKAWA JUST KINDA???

(2/2) AND LEV IS SO EXCITED BC SUDDENLY THERE’S THIS REALLY AMAZING PLAYER WHO ALSO HAPPENS TO BE HOT THAT JUST SEEMS TO FIND THAT HE’S VERY INTERESTING AND THEY GO OUT SOMETIMES AND THEN THEY TALK AND OIKAWA IS ACTUALLY EVEN MORE AMAZING THEY LEV THOUGHT HE WOULD BE AND THEY’RE DORKS TOGETHER AND THEY TALK ABOUT ALIEND AND i’m sorry

do not be sorry lovely anon oilev is life changing (also oilev looks like you misspelled olive which is roughly equal to the amount of heedless mayhem that ship would be)

im literally crying

… few people actually receive big calls, in visions of flaming chariots and burning bushes. Most of the calls we receive and ignore are … the daily calls to pay attention to our intuitions, to be authentic, to live by our own codes of honor.

Our lives are measured out … not in the grand sweeps but in the small gestures. The great breakthroughs in our lives generally happen only as a result of the accumulation of innumerable small steps and minor achievements. We’re called to reach out to someone, to pick up an odd book on the library shelf, to sign up for a class even though we’re convinced we don’t have the time or money, to go to our desks each day, to turn left instead of right.

These are the fire drills for our bigger calls.

—  Gregg Levoy