Language-analysis

Late Late Show Body Language Analysis

I haven’t seen any post about this so I decided to do it myself. I’m not an expert at reading body language, its just a hobby of mine that I practice from time to time. And, My friend who is a psychology student helped me with it. I might have missed some stuff, but I’m not pulling anything out of my ass.

Lets start with: One Direction Addresses Zayn Malik’s Departure

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Signs of Attraction: Waist/Hips [Baekyeol]

In lots of photos/gifs of Baekhyun and Chanyeol, you will notice how close both of them stand together. This goes so far, that they even break the ‘friend zone’ (about 1.2m distance) and slip into the 'intimate zone’ (15-45cm distance)

As the name already says, this zone is really private and special since not everyone is allowed to enter it. It’s only reserved for a certain people such as children, parents but also lovers. Only these people would allow to be this physically close with each other, especially around the hip area.

Let’s look at some examples of Baekhyun and Chanyeol doing so:

However it’s mostly Baekhyun who does it (probably due to his shorter height)

You can clearly see, that they often grab each other’s waist and/ or hip area. As I just mentioned previously, this body part is very intimate. The reason is that by touching each other’s waist or hips, you’re bringing the other person closer to you which means that generally even more body parts are going to make contact with each other.

By craving more physical contact, it indicates a sexual attraction (especially if the hips also touch each other if you hold someone’s waist). That is the case because the partner is, compared to him/her having his arms around your shoulders, closer to your genitals, which is obviously a very sexual and intimate zone. Additionally this means that the futher down his/her hands travel down this person’s body, he/she is more fired up.

Another reason why holding someone’s waist/hip signals romantic interest is that this person also displays ownership of the other person’s body. This helps to show others (potential rivals), that this person whose arms you have around is already taken and belongs to you.

The Meaning Behind Ryou Bakura’s Name

Yes, I’m the person who made that long research post the other day about Bakura’s name. I decided to make an entirely separate post talking about it. Most of this information will be the same but with some added details. Feel free to reblog this post instead of the other one.

To start this off, I will present the Kanji we are given in the manga:

This picture is from the manga where Ryou introduces himself.

Ryou: Bakura Ryou desu. Yoroshiku.

Translation: I’m Bakura Ryou. Pleased to meet you.

Bakura’s full name is: 獏良 (Baku - ra) 了(Ryou) – 獏良 了

Now I will break down what each individual Kanji character means. First up is, ‘獏‘ and its reading of “baku.” 

There are people who misconstrue this Kanji character to mean a “dreamcatcher” which is an inaccurate definition as you can see in the above picture. Just because a word is similar to a western counterpart does not make it its western counterpart. Assuming that is disingenuous to the culture a ‘baku’ originates from and is quite frankly, localization. Localization is a problem because it can be fed into systemic racism whether or not the people behind it intend it to be taken in such a way. It is erasing an entire culture’s origins to a certain object, person, or place and claiming it as someone else’s culture. You can say that an object is similar to a western counterpart, but be careful not to say that an object is directly that western counterpart when defining an unfamiliar term.

While I will concur that the design of the Millennium Ring could be based off of a Native American dreamcatcher, I will argue that the Kanji (獏) from the name was entirely based off of the supernatural creature from Chinese and Japanese folklore. So the design of the Ring is entirely separate from the origin of Ryou Bakura’s actual name. 

This is a baku. Similar to how dreamcatchers are said to capture nightmares, baku are supernatural creatures that eat nightmares.

Baku are classic chimera; the body of a bear, the nose of an elephant, the feet of a tiger, the tail of an ox, and the eyes of a rhinoceros. - Mizuki Shigeru

In addition to this, the baku name is also given to Asian animals called tapir which have elongated snouts similar to the creature in legend.

However, Kazuki Takahashi wasn’t just picking the character ‘獏‘ just because Yami no Bakura is a supernatural entity. There’s something much more meaningful behind his choice of Kanji.

When a child in Japan wakes shaking from a nightmare, she knows what to do. Hugging her face in her pillow, she whispers three times “Baku-san, come eat my dream. Baku-san, come eat my dream. Baku-san, come eat my dream.” If her request is granted, the monstrous baku will come into her room and suck the bad dream away. But the baku cannot be summoned without caution. A too-hungry baku might not be satiated with a single dream, and might suck away her hopes and ambitions along with it, leaving her hollow.

This quote is from the same article about baku. While most baku are good and can ward off evil spirits, a baku that is too hungry can feed on more than just nightmares; they can also take away a child’s hopes, ambitions, and dreams of the future.

Ryou is a character who had to deal with the loss of his mother and sister at a young age. In addition to this, he began having trouble with making friends because of his strange interests (games and the occult) and feminine appearance.

Yuugi made a wish on the Millennium Puzzle for friends. Every other wielder of a Millennium Item has their own ambitions (Malik - revenge, Pegasus - to see his wife again, Isis - to save her brother, Shaadi - to find all of the items and protect them, etc.). So it’s not a stretch to say that Ryou’s made his own wish on the Millennium Ring.

Translation:

Yami no Bakura: Instead of paying rent, I grant your wishes! Why, I’ve granted them almost every day!

Ryou: Wha…?!

((Note: This is playing on Yami no Bakura’s mocking title given to Ryou. It is “yadonushi” (宿主) and can mean a host to a parasite and an innkeeper/landlord. Whenever he calls Ryou “yadonushi,” he’s basically mocking his host and calling him his landlord. He’s paying “rent” to the landlord of this particular body he chose to nest inside.))

Translation:

Yami no Bakura: Didn’t you think this when you were playing those games…? “How fun this is!” “I wish I could play games with my friends forever…!” I granted that wish for you!

These panels explain Ryou’s wish, or better yet, his dream. It was to have friends that he could play games with which is similar to Yuugi’s own dream. 

Translation:

Ryou: T-This is…!

Yami no Bakura: Ha ha ha! Now you can’t take the pendant off! Because of you, I’ve finally found the bearer of the Millennium Puzzle! I’ve decided to keep you as my permanent host!

When Ryou made this wish on the Millennium Ring, what he ended up getting was a baku that was “too hungry.” Yami no Bakura helped him gain friends, but only after twisting Ryou’s words to mean “keeping friends as permanent possessions.” When Yami no Bakura began possessing Ryou’s body, the spirit further isolated Ryou by scaring potential friends away or capturing their souls into figurines. By the time Ryou moved to Domino City, he had separated himself from the rest of his family to keep them out of harm’s way. 

Translation:

Ryou: Friends who would play games with me would lose consciousness. They’re still in the hospital…You may not believe me, but it’s true… 

Translation:

Ryou: That sort of thing kept happening, so people began avoiding me… That’s why I kept changing schools… Now I’m living in an apartment by myself, away from my family… 

Yami no Bakura has the potential to fully suck away all of Ryou’s hopes, ambitions, and dreams of the future by keeping control of his body. Ryou most likely wants to attend college or even has aspirations for a career. With Yami no Bakura in control, that lowers the likelihood of him keeping up with schoolwork. With Ryou constantly changing schools, that in and of itself very much effects his ability to keep up with schoolwork. In Japan, you do not automatically get placed inside of a high school within a school district. You choose a high school for yourself based on how high you score on your entrance exam much like SATs and ACTs determine what colleges you can get into in the United States. If Ryou is transferring so often, he’s only going to be able to get into high schools that accept students with his entrance exam score or below that.

Ryou is made to go along with the Spirit’s schemes with his life only being a secondary priority. Yami no Bakura’s plans of retribution come first and Ryou comes second.

Now we get to the second Kanji character which is ‘良‘ being read as “ra.”

This is what this version of “ra” is typically means in normal Japanese. Though, you will notice that is it more often pronounced as “ryou” rather than as “ra” in the Japanese language. The “ra” reading of this character usually comes in when it is placed within a proper name of a person or place. The “ra” reading is the original Chinese Han pronunciation. The actual meaning of ‘良’ is largely the same regardless of how it’s read.

This particular Kanji character can mean “good,” “respectable,“ or “virtuous.”

The character ‘良‘ can apply to both Ryou and Yami no Bakura. Good can refer to Ryou’s good nature, intelligence, and artistic skill. He is also a very virtuous individual who is so willing to protect his friends that he’d willingly sacrifice his own life for theirs. On the other side of this, Yami no Bakura is good at stealing souls and is also intelligent in his own right. 

Finally, we move onto the final Kanji character which is ‘了.’

This character has one reading which is “ryou.”

I would argue that the meanings behind this Kanji character reflects Ryou’s personality and purpose.

In terms of the meaning of “understanding,” Ryou is someone who perseveres despite having to deal with Yami no Bakura. Even while living on his own, Ryou manages to stay upbeat and helps out his friends to the best of his ability. While he’s not necessarily approving of the situation he’s in, he is at least aware of it and continues to fight for his friends. 

With the meanings of “finish” and “completion,” Ryou also represents the “destined host,” or the one host that the Millennium Ring had decided to choose after all of those millennia. Up until Ryou was claimed, any person who came in contact with the Ring immediately burned to death.

Translation:

Pegasus: The moment he put on the necklace, fire burst out of his eyes and mouth… He died instantly, vomiting flames!

Translation:

Shaadi: The Millennium Items test the souls of those who possess them. Those souls who are not worthy will die…

The above panels show what happens to any person who wore the Millennium Ring before Ryou came into contact with it. As you can see, it’s quite a gruesome way to go.

Ryou is Yami no Bakura’s final stretch to the finish line for his goals. He is essential for the Spirit’s plans to succeed but is also arguably Yami no Bakura’s greatest threat as seen during the first RPG against Atem. 

Translation:

Yami no Bakura: Y-you’re…! Bakura Ryou!

Ryou: I don’t want to lose anymore friends! Even if it means my soul should shatter!

Translation:

Yami no Bakura: But… if he put his entire soul into the dice, he can’t go back into his body! That’s suicide! He’s giving his life to destroy the dice…!

As seen in these panels, Yami no Bakura is genuinely terrified because Ryou is prepared to die in order to drag the Spirit down with him. If Yami no Bakura’s host is dead, that means he can’t destroy the Pharaoh. Ryou is the only person solely capable of destroying his entire plan and is seen as a threat from this point onwards. This is why up until the Memory World arc, Yami no Bakura doesn’t directly target Ryou’s friends. He only targets Yami no Yuugi/Atem and leaves the other enemies (Malik/Yami no Malik no Jinkaku, Pegasus, etc.) to do that in his place. Yami no Bakura knows that the moment he tries harming Ryou’s friends with his host still in their body, Ryou will destroy them both without a second thought.

Ryou is both what makes Yami no Bakura “complete” (in terms of giving him a physical body) and also is capable of “finishing” him (in terms of killing).


With all of this in mind, what does ‘獏良 了‘ mean altogether?

Let’s look at ‘獏良‘ (Bakura) as one name.

“Baku” is referring to the supernatural creature that has the potential to eat up everything relating to a child’s dreams. “Ra” is referring to being good or virtuous.

Together, the name could mean a “good entity” or refer to good being able to derive itself from a baku creature. It could also imply the dichotomy of having an evil spirit inside of a good-natured character. This dichotomy is a constant struggle for Yuugi and his friends throughout the entire series. One of their closest friends also harbors one of their greatest enemies.

Honestly, you can take many things out of Bakura Ryou’s name. That’s the genius behind the Kanji that Takahashi used for both characters in the manga. Ryou’s name tells a great story with just the Kanji alone.

獏良 了 – Bakura Ryou – A strong character who is destined to finish what Yami no Bakura started all those thousands of years ago against the Pharaoh. This is if Ryou can survive the Spirit eating his dreams.

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A Conference Call in Real Life (via Tripp and Tyler)

We’re happy to share this video, because it’s hilarious, but we’re also sorry, because it’s truly excruciating for those of us who work in environments that utilise teleconferencing as a group communication tool.

Conference calls can be seriously awkward and often feel like weirdly cold, lifeless interactions. They can be plagued with frustrations as we work out whose turn it is to speak, or who’s part of the conversation.

Believe it or not there are some people who do like ‘em, and they’re sociolinguists or sociologists doing conversation analysis, who enjoy digging deeper into the detail of teleconference conversation and analysing what it means for the outcomes of our interpersonal interactions.

We may not think about it consciously, but we do a lot of work within conversations to manage turn-taking (i.e. who speaks when) and to maintain politeness (aka face saving) between people. We use utterances, gestures, pauses, eye contact, and acknowledgements (“back channels”) to respond to the contributions of the person/s we’re talking to.

The norms of conversations are different on the phone between two people. Then in a teleconference setting, managing the conversation becomes another kettle of fish when we have more than just a pair of people talking directly to each other.

Why are conference calls so tricky to manage? 

The video does a good (and hilarious) job of highlighting some of the notorious features of teleconferencing. If you’re interested in being a conversation analyst for a minute or two, let’s dig a bit into some detail and analysis. 

Some of the reasons we find conference calls weird, difficult and frustrating can be:

  • No gesture or body language: in group settings we can use physical cues like our gaze to manage turn-taking in interactions. On a conference phone call, we need to use names to manage speaker selection (e.g. directed by the chairperson) or to identify the person that a comment is directed to. Body language can be used in face to face interactions to see when it is ok to 'take the floor’, and we lose that option in a teleconference setting. (We should note that in video conference calls, on platforms like Skype and Google Hangout, gestures can of course be visible, though often they can still appear artificial due to the camera angles or screen size. They can be very useful for signalling and turn-taking cues, though.)
  • Back-channels: when we’re listening to others we are accustomed to using utterances like “ok” and “ah” and “mmm” to communicate to the other speaker that they should continue, or to provide some kind of assessment or response to their contribution. In a teleconference setting, some research has shown that we do slightly more back-channelling than we would face to face, and it’s posited that we do that because it’s the only option we have to acknowledge the speaker’s input without body language. Conversely, we’ve experienced those teleconferences where everyone except the person who has the floor is automatically or voluntarily muted, so we hear no back-channels. That is also super strange to encounter, as it departs wildly from our usual conversational experiences, and it can seem almost rude to leave the speaker hanging out there on their own.
  • Fewer interruptions, overlaps, and turns taken: a conference call may seem less dynamic and lively than a face to face meeting, because there are fewer changes of speaker (turns) and fewer interruptions or overlaps of utterances. (When interruptions or overlaps do happen, they are often due to people being unsure of whose turn it is, as in the video above, and they can be difficult to move past without explicitly dealing with the turn-taking.)
  • Pauses without cues: in face to face meetings, we can handle longer pauses because most people can see nonverbal activities (e.g. someone is checking a piece of paper). Pauses are generally shorter in conference calls because people need to check in verbally more to keep the interaction flowing. When there are longer pauses, they feel aaawwwkkward.
  • Less small talk and fewer side comments: in teleconferences, small talk is often restricted to the start and finish of the interaction, though even then there is only really room for one topic of small talk conversation (whereas in face to face meetings, there’s often capacity for people to talk in small groups before the meeting’s formal content commences). Side comments/interactions between people are difficult to hold and virtually absent.
  • Abruptness of greetings and closing farewells: along with the general lack of small talk, it can feel cold or rude when people offer very short, sharp greeting exchanges in teleconferences. Compared to face to face interactions, conference calls are characterised by much more abrupt utterances.

Want to get into this a bit more? There’s a great paper from the Journal of Business Communication (2012), called “Who’s there?”: Differences in the Features of Telephone and Face-to-Face Conferences (PDF link)

anonymous asked:

Omfg I envy you for finding English "easy". Please give me tips for language analysis before I go die in a hole :((((((

No don’t die in a hole please thats unhealthy, VCE is almost over you can do this.
OK so. i’m sorry if these are obvious and basic or unhelpful but this is what I do when doing a language analysis. The beautiful thing about end of year exams that I feel most people don’t actually realise is you don’t have to write pages upon pages per essay, because realistically you only have about an hour writing time for each essay right? So you don’t wanna burn yourself out by writing 5 pages in an hour and then feel like killing yourself for the next two hours. I mean if thats your thing then cool, i know people who can write heaps in a short amount of time and it works but its not everyones cup of tea and its not always necessary, in a SAC? Sure, for those you need a solid word count of over 1000, but from what i know the “recommended” word count for end of year english exams is 600 per essay. Thats not a lot, i usually write two, maybe two and a half pages for language analysis. I wrote two pages last week for my prac exams and I felt comfortable with it, sure the three hours was still hell but i paced myself, I had time to blindly stare into absolutely nothing and still finish everything in time.
Read the piece a minimum of two times over, identify all the techniques, tone blah blah all the standard crap. Now obviously you can’t highlight during reading time so just make a mental note of where examples of techniques are, or dent the paper with your fingernail, that works to. In your intro identify the: Name of the articleauthor, where it was featured and of course the contention. The contention should make itself clear to you once you read it over a couple of times, sometimes you might get lucky and they’ll explicitly state what it is, and also don’t keep using the word contention, look up synonyms, thought, stance, argument etc. Then identify the tone the writer is undertaking, I was told by an old literature/english teacher, a truly great man, to always use two tones and combine them, such as “Alex is calm yet forward in his endeavour to sway the audience that Tumblr is a seriously good outlet for procrastination”.
If that makes sense.
So you’re also going to want to identify some of the persuasive techniques that he uses, inclusive language, use of expert, emotional appeal etc, state some of them, if there are a fair few to identify don’t name ALL of them because then your intro will just become a list of things really and it’ll be like your listing themes for Othello back in year 10 or something. Oh and image, if there’s an image, just mention that there is an illustration to accompany the article/editorial etc
I usually do six paragraphs, intro, four main bodies, and conclusion. Each main body i attach a technique to, or if there are a few techniques then explain multiple in the one paragraph, explain what the technique does "The writer utilises the use of inclusive language by writing words such as "us” and “we” which puts the audience in the same boat as the writer as well as separating them from everyone else who is on the other side of the writers argument.“ and then go into how the writer has applied this technique using specific examples and quotes. Basically do this for all the techniques you can identify, change it up a little, don’t keep repeating the same words or form in every paragraph. I also usually dedicate one of the paragraphs to the tone of the piece, explaining why i think it is that tone (don’t say ‘I’, never ever say I, because its always implied that what you’re writing is your opinion anyway (and never give your opinion in language analysis) because you’re writing it) and also how the tone may affect the readers/audiences view on the matter.
If there is an image then comment on it, it might even be enough to have in a paragraph on its own, if not then just attach it to another one, no harm done, if you can smoothly link it to what you’ve already mentioned in that same paragraph then even better really! Look at the image, try to identify how it relates to the article and pick up little references within it and why it might be accompanying the article.
Now the conclusion is basically just reiterating your intro, literally just re-word your intro, thats all it is really. Like the conclusion doesn’t have to be beefy or epic.
Lastly a few things. 

  • TRY to mention the contention is every paragraph, its easy because you just say what the technique/tone etc is and then say "which helps to sway the reader to believe that Murphy’s thoughts on noise control curfews in the city holds truth." Or something, that wasn’t my finest but hopefully you get the picture. Also reword the contention every time, doesn’t have to be in a major way every time you do it but try not to keep using the same string of words in the same order, just adds variety and maybe even a different angle on the contention? Or maybe not I could’ve just made that up.
  • ALWAYS READ THE BACKGROUND INFO! On the page before the article there is a box which holds background info on the article and even its writer, for instance if the writer is a teacher, and has been for a few decades, and the topic is concerning education, then thats another thing you could add in, the fact that her/him having first-hand experience in this field would strengthen then confidence of the readers in the writers opinion.

Ok so I really hope that helped. I’m sorry if it didn’t. 
In the wise words of Master Yoda "Do. Or do not. There is no try." Which i’ll admit I sometimes disagree with because realistically, at the end of the day you can only try your best, and if you feel that you did all you could, then be happy with whatever mark you get. Good luck child, don’t be a stranger if you want any more advice or needa rant or whatever! Good luck :D

Oh and here these may help a little:

http://www.vcestudyguides.com/persuade-synonym-word-bank

http://www.vcestudyguides.com/195-tones-for-language-analysis

VCE English: Writing a Comparative Language Analysis

Melbourne Academics: Website | Facebook

Elodie Bernard graduated from Sacred Heart Girls’ College in 2013 with a study score of 50 in English. She is studying a Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery at Monash University. 

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Improving your language analysis skills is all about practicing. Put simply, the more you analyse and compare texts, the better you will get!

Do: 

  • Focus on the language as you analyse articles rather than techniques; to do this, highlight strong or powerful connotative words.
  • Build up your analytical vocabulary - increase the sophistication of your essay by avoiding the typical phrase “this makes the reader feel…”
  • Also ensure you have ample “linking words” for your comparison - practice enough analysis of cartoons/visuals! Remember it’s just like analysing written language.
  • Describe elements of the cartoon: why has it been included i.e. what makes it persuasive, what does it make the reader feel, what does it make the reader do?
  • If doing an entire comparative is not possible, select 3 articles on the same issue and create a table comparing the: contention, tone/s, persuasive strategies and feelings which are played upon, and target audiences.
  • Take the holidays as an opportunity to read the newspaper. Being well read always helps!

Remember, timing is crucial. Ensure that you practice writing within the time limits of your SAC. When you do write practice pieces, it is essential for you to get feedback either from your teachers and/or tutors.

I don’t know if it’s just me, but it seems to me that there are two ways I use the phrase ‘good at something’.

It’s like…one way, I mean ‘has skill at x.’ This is fairly straightforward, and it seems to be the most intuitive interpretation. But the other way means ‘have talent at x’, or, let’s say, ‘is able to learn x quickly’, and this also seems a fairly intuitive explanation.

I think the things tend to go together—we like to do things we’re naturally good at, so we get better at them, and it’s easier to get better at them, too. But I have at times been better at things I am not naturally good at than things I am, and it was one of these times that brought the distinction to my awareness.

I think it’s interesting, at least. (And, if it’s not just me, potentially suggestive of the way we think of learning things.)

anonymous asked:

Thank you so so much for that language analysis post, I don't think I could ever thank you enough. I'll probably end up being really stressed and speak to you off anon subconsciously one day but thank you. Also, quick question: so do you organise your body paras according to technique and then list different instances of it and its effect/positioning? Thank you! :)

Thats cool no problem at all, that was literally my study for yesterday, typing that all out XD yer it would be cool to find out who you are :P but sall good sall good :)
God I hope i’m interpreting your question accurately. 
Yes. I think, if its what I think your asking. 
Paragraph: state the persuasive technique and what it does, then go into specific examples of where its being used and how its being used by the author. 
If i’m way off just shoot me another message, I apolagise in advance