OLD KINGDOM OF EGYPT:
THE Old Kingdom of Egypt (c. 2613-2181 BCE) is also known as the ‘Age of the Pyramids’ or 'Age of the Pyramid Builders’ as it includes the great 4th Dynasty when King Sneferu perfected the art of pyramid building and the pyramids of Giza were constructed under the kings Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.
The historical records of this period, the 4th-6th Dynasties of Egypt, are scarce and historians regard the history of the era as literally 'written in stone’ and largely architectural in that it is through the monuments and their inscriptions that scholars have been able to construct a history.
The pyramids themselves relay scant information on their builders, but the mortuary temples built nearby and the stelae which accompanied them provide king’s names and other important information. Further, inscriptions in stone found elsewhere from the time record various events and the dates on which they occurred.
Article by Joshua J. Mark on AHE