Corynactis annulata

…is a species of Corallimorpharian cnidarian which is sometimes known as a “Strawberry anemone” despite the fact that is a Corallimorpharian and not a true sea anemone. Corynactis annulata occurs around the southern African coast, ranging from Port Nolloth to Mossel Bay, where it inhabits the intertidal zone. C. annulata is a colonial organism which occurs in clusters and sheets on rocky reefs where it feeds on small planktonic organisms. 


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Image(s): Seascapeza

“Giant Green Anemone” (Anthopleura xanthogrammica)

Also known as the Green Surf Anemone, Green Anemone, Solitary Anemone, Rough Anemone, and the Giant Tidepool Anemone, Anthopleura xanthogrammica is a species of Actiniid sea anemone that inhabits low to mid intertidal zones in the Pacific Ocean, ranging from Alaska to Southern California and rarely down to Panama. Like other sea anemones A. xanthogrammica sports several nemoatocyst lined tentacles which are used to paralyze and capture prey that wanders too close. Phoyosynthetic algae of the genus Zoochlorella and dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium live in the tissue and gut of A. xanthogrammica, in this symbiotic relationship they will provide nutrients to the anemone via photosynthesis (partly giving the anemone its green coloration) and in turn they get a safe place to reside. 


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Image: Stan Shebs

Strawberry Anemone (Actinia fragacea)

…a species of Actiniid sea anemone which is found in the northeastern and eastern Atlantic Ocean. Its range extends from Norway, Scotland and Ireland to the Mediterranean Sea and North Africa, including the Azores, the Canary Islands and Cape Verde. Strawberry anemones typically inhabit the intertidal and sublittoral zone at depths less than 10 meters (33 ft). They are generally found attached to rocks and boulders. 


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Image: Nilfanion

“Elephant Ear Coral” (Amplexidiscus fenestrafer)

…a species of Discosomatid coral which is known to occur throughout the waters of the Indo-West Pacific. Elephant ear corals are often seen in shallow waters 5-25 m in reefs, where they will feed on a wide range of marine invertebrates which get dispatched by its stinging nematocysts, like other corals it can also feed via productions by its symbiotic zooxanthellae.


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Image: Line1


“Flower Pot Coral” (Genus: Goniopora)

Goniopora is a genus of colonial stony coral which occurs in lagoons and areas with turbid water conditions throughout the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and various tropical and subtropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Like other colonial stony corals Goniopora spp. are carnivorous and will feed on passing invertebrates and organic matter which are caught by their stinging nematocysts. 



Images: Peter Young Gho, MD and Gdiggers

Lebrunia danae

…is an unusual species of Aliciid sea anemone that occurs in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Like many sea anemones L. danae typically inhabits reef environments at depths ranging from 2-60 m. Unlike other sea anemones L. danae’s tentacles are hidden by a ring of six branching pseudotentacles around the oral disc. When L. danae comes in contact with a prey item to pseudotentacles will retract and the true tentacles (which are armed with nematoctsts) will take the prey and move it towards the mouth.


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Image: Fernando Herranz Martín


Spinnaker Anemone (Korsaranthus natalensis)

Also known as the candy-striped anemone, the spinnaker anemone is a species of Actiniid anemone which is endemic to the South African coast, where it occurs from False Bay to Durban. Spinnaker anemones are noted for being partly motile, as they use their parachute like disc to “sail” to different locations to prey on octocorals. 


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Image(s): Seascapeza

“Tube Anemone” (Cerianthus filiformis)

…a species of tube-dwelling anemone (Ceriantharia) which is widespread throughout tropical waters in the Indo-west Pacific. Unlike the unrelated sea anemones tube-dwelling anemones have specialized cindocytes known as ptychocysts which create a sticky surface which helps the “anemone” create the tube which it dwells in. However like sea anemones Cerianthus filliformis also feeds on passing organic materials which passes by its tentacles. If disturbed C. filliformis can retract itself inside its tube for safety. 


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Image: Massimiliano De Martino

“Mustard Hill Coral” (Porites asteroides)

Also known as the yellow porites, the mustard hill coral is a species of colonial stony coral from the family Poritidae, which occurs in shallow waters on reefs in the tropical west Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Like other coral colonies, the colonies of P. asteroides are carnivorous and will feed at night for various zooplankton and bacteria using their stinging nematocysts to dispatch them. 


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Image: unknown