HAEMORRHAGE

anonymous asked:

How do you think aliens would react to human nose bleeds? Or the fact that most of the time human beings dont require medical attention for them?

“Oh shit,” Officer Jones said, drawing Wermng’s attention to them. A gruesome sight met xem – Officer Jones’ face bleeding heavily. Wermng was about to call for a medic when the human next to Officer Jones – Officer Williams – spoke up.

“Oh man, that sucks,” they said conversationally, handing Officer Jones a serviette.

“Yeah, I guess my room was too dry or something,” they replied with a shrug, sounding way too calm for someone who very clearly had a head injury.

“Officer Jones, what medical treatment is necessary to save your life? While Officer Williams have taken actions to help you, I doubt tissue will save your life,” Wermng said, rising to xir full height to be able to move as quickly as possible once an answer had been given.

Officer Jones said something in response, but the words were muffled through the serviette and blood. Fortunately, Officer Williams conveyed the message. “It’s fine, honestly. It’s just a nose bleed.”

“Yes, I realise that their nose is the part that is haemorrhaging heavily, I am trying to ascertain what I can do to be of assistance.”

“No, Wermng, you don’t understand. It’s fine. They’re fine. These things just happen to humans sometimes,” Officer Williams explained, surely in an attempt to make a ‘joke’.

“What for? What beneficial effect could that possibly have?” xe asked.

“Well, none. Like I said, these things just happen sometimes. It’s annoying, but it usually passes pretty quickly,” they said with a shrug. Xe was about to call them out on their joke when xe saw Officer Jones nod – a human sign of agreement.

“And you are going to be fine, Officer Jones?” xe asked, getting another nod.

“Alright,” xe said. “If you’ll just excuse me. I need to have a conversation about updating the humanities guide,” xe explained before leaving the room, queasy by the sight of all that blood. Xe would have to check with another human before having the conversation, but it definitely needed to be included in the guide if it was true.

Xe alerted the nearest medic to their situation regardless.

The large haemorrhage in this adult brain arose in the basal ganglia region of a patient with hypertension. This is classed as a haemorrhagic stroke. The other form of stroke is an ischemic stroke, which results from a blood clot blocking the flow of blood into areas of the brain. 

6

For varying reasons Bendy is haemorrhaging money. He needs to pay a lot for business expenses, hefty fines he needs to pay the court and also a third, secret, incredibly expensive reason. 

His poverty has finally got to him. He needs to make a change. He needs somewhere to sleep that isn’t dripping, freezing and rat infested. He wants to be able to afford pyjamas. He wants to be able to spoil…someone…

 He wants more! 

Comparison is the thief of joy, Bendy. Maybe he needs a little help…  

Mechanical asphyxia, including strangulation, can be marked by the appearance of petechial haemorrhages on the conjunctiva, as shown here. However, such a finding is not specific for this injury and can be seen with other conditions. Of course, finding ligature marks on the neck, hyoid bone fracture, and/or soft tissue haemorrhages in neck and larynx may help to determine the mechanism of injury.

Molecule of the Day: Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine (C10H15N), also known as meth or crystal meth, is a colourless liquid at room temperature. It is more commonly encountered as the hydrochloride salt (C10H15N.HCl), which is a white solid under standard conditions. It is a central nervous system stimulant, and is used as a recreational drug.

Methamphetamine acts as an agonist at trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), resulting in the release of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This causes dopamine and noradrenaline transporters to reverse the movement of dopamine and noradrenaline through them; instead of taking them up from the synapse, it releases them from the cell. Furthermore, it inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO), which normally breaks down dopamine and noradrenaline.

The resultant increase in dopamine and noradrenaline in the synapse causes the corresponding receptors on the postsynaptic membrane to be stimulated to a greater extent, resulting in feelings of euphoria, increased alertness, and a raised heart rate.

Methamphetamine, however, has a high risk of addiction. The high levels of dopamine and noradrenaline can result in tolerance by the body as the postsynaptic neuron reduces the number of receptors to modulate the stimulus. A protein called ΔFosB is also produced in the neurons, resulting in the increased transcription of certain genes, producing addictive behaviour.

As ΔFosB is degraded much more slowly than related proteins, it accumulates upon regular consumption of methamphetamine, resulting in increasing levels of addiction.

Methamphetamine also produces a range of side effects such as loss of appetite, dry skin, acne, insomnia, irregular heartbeat, psychosis, scratching of the skin, as well as loss of teeth. An overdose can also result in tremors, hyperthermia, cerebral haemorrhaging, kidney failure, circulatory collapse, coma, and death. (Below: before/after methamphetamine consumption)

It has been used as a treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity, albeit rarely due to its significant drawbacks compared to other existing treatments for these conditions. One of its isomers, levomethamphetamine (below left), is also used in nasal decongestant sprays as it results in vasoconstriction. Unlike its optical isomer, dextromethamphetamine (below right), it does not result in addiction and dependence.

Methamphetamine can be easily synthesised from the condensation of phenylacetone with methylamine, followed by reductive amination:

Note: This post is intended to examine the compound from a chemical/medical point of view for educational purposes, and does not endorse drug abuse in any way.

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Up now for pre-order, coming this Halloween!


BLOOD FREAK “Total Destruction Of The Human Form" 


CD :: http://www.horrorpaingoredeath.com

Digital :: http://hpgd.bandcamp.com


Halloween 2017: Everyone’s favorite sleaze merchants are back! Blood Freak make their long awaited Horror Pain Gore Death Productions debut with the new album "Total Destruction Of The Human Form”. Formed in 2003 by Maniac Neil (Lord Gore, Frightmare), Blood Freak return with their 6th full-length release of trademark savage, brutal and catchy Death Metal/Grind that slaughters posers and fakes! “Total Destruction Of The Human Form” serves as a vicious and unflinching monument to the depths of human depravity… steeped in the perversion, violence, and utter fucking madness that permeates our world and inner psyche. A cathartic bludgeoning and dismantling of all that is held sacred or true, this is a splatterific old school addition to the Blood Freak catalog that does not disappoint. For fans of Autopsy, Birdflesh, Boneyard, Dead, Engorged, Exhumed, Frightmare, General Surgery, Ghoul, Gruesome Stuff Relish, Haemorrhage, Impaled, Impetigo, Lord Gore, Mortician, Pungent Stench, Revolting and Splatterhouse. Blood Freak lives!!! 


#bloodfreak #totaldestructionofthehumanform #cd #hpgd #horrorpaingoredeath #deathmetal #grindcore #grind #halloween #autopsy #birdflesh #boneyard #dead #engorged #exhumed #frightmare #generalsurgery #ghoul #gruesomestuffrelish #haemorrhage #impaled #impetigo #lordgore #mortician #pungentstench #revolting #splatterhouse #mdf #marylanddeathfest #halloween (at Relapse Records)

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In 1994, a woman’s body, naked and badly mauled by sharks, was found floating in the ocean by board riders about 200 yards off a beach at Point Loma, California. Her name was Michelle Von Emster, a 25 year old art store clerk who had been missing since the previous evening. After a brief investigation, it was officially ruled that she went for a naked midnight swim alone in the ocean and was attacked and killed by a large great white shark. In addition, after her death, she was further mauled by a number of other, smaller blue sharks. It was a tragedy and a horrific way to die, but not a case for further law enforcement involvement.

After this ruling was made, however, questions started to be raised about the shark attack verdict. Von Emster had ultimately died of drowning after haemorrhaging internally, not blood loss. She also had, amongst other injuries, a broken neck, bruises and contusions on her face and arms, broken and bruised ribs and her pelvis had been forcefully ripped apart. None of these injuries are consistent with shark attack. The water temperature was very cold for swimming (60°F/15.56°C). The medical examiner also noted that he had never examined a shark attack victim before. In fact, there were so many things wrong with the shark attack theory that most shark experts rejected the claim that she had been attacked while alive at all. In addition to the suspicious injuries listed above, Von Emster had sand in her mouth, throat, lungs and stomach. She was much more likely to have fallen (or was pushed) from a cliff onto the sand, broke her neck and was paralysed before being washed out to sea where she drowned and underwent post-mortem predation by sharks. [SOURCE + further reading]

nature.com
Collapse of Aztec society linked to catastrophic salmonella outbreak
DNA of 500-year-old bacteria is first direct evidence of an epidemic — one of humanity's deadliest — that occurred after Spanish conquest.

One of the worst epidemics in human history, a sixteenth-century pestilence that devastated Mexico’s native population, may have been caused by a deadly form of salmonella from Europe, a pair of studies suggest.

In one study, researchers say they have recovered DNA of the stomach bacterium from burials in Mexico linked to a 1540s epidemic that killed up to 80% of the country’s native inhabitants. The team reports its findings in a preprint posted on the bioRxiv server on 8 February1.

This is potentially the first genetic evidence of the pathogen that caused the massive decline in native populations after European colonization, says Hannes Schroeder, an ancient-DNA researcher at the Natural History Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen who was not involved in the work. “It’s a super-cool study.”

Dead bodies and ditches

In 1519, when forces led by Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortés arrived in Mexico, the native population was estimated at about 25 million. A century later, after a Spanish victory and a series of epidemics, numbers had plunged to around 1 million.

The largest of these disease outbreaks were known as cocoliztli (from the word for ‘pestilence’ in Nahuatl, the Aztec language). Two major cocoliztli, beginning in 1545 and 1576, killed an estimated 7 million to 18 million people living in Mexico’s highland regions.

“In the cities and large towns, big ditches were dug, and from morning to sunset the priests did nothing else but carry the dead bodies and throw them into the ditches,” noted a Franciscan historian who witnessed the 1576 outbreak.

There has been little consensus on the cause of cocoliztli — although measles, smallpox and typhus have all been mooted. In 2002, researchers at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in Mexico City proposed that a viral haemorrhagic fever, exacerbated by a catastrophic drought, was behind the carnage2. They compared the magnitude of the 1545 outbreak to that of the Black Death in fourteenth-century Europe.

Bacterial genomics

In an attempt to settle the question, a team led by evolutionary geneticist Johannes Krause at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, extracted and sequenced DNA from the teeth of 29 people buried in the Oaxacan highlands of southern Mexico. All but five were linked to a cocoliztli that researchers think ran from 1545 to 1550.

Ancient bacterial DNA recovered from several of the people matched that of Salmonella, based on comparisons with a database of more than 2,700 modern bacterial genomes.

Further sequencing of short, damaged DNA fragments from the remains allowed the team to reconstruct two genomes of a Salmonella enterica strain known as Paratyphi C. Today, this bacterium causes enteric fever, a typhus-like illness, that occurs mostly in developing countries. If left untreated, it kills 10–15% of infected people.

It’s perfectly reasonable that the bacterium could have caused this epidemic, says Schroeder. “They make a really good case.” But María Ávila-Arcos, an evolutionary geneticist at UNAM, isn’t convinced. She notes that some people suggest that a virus caused the cocoliztli, and that wouldn’t have been picked up by the team’s method.

The question of origin

Krause and his colleagues’ proposal is helped by another study posted on bioRxiv last week, which raises the possibility that Salmonella Paratyphi C arrived in Mexico from Europe3.

A team led by Mark Achtman, a microbiologist at the University of Warwick in Coventry, UK, collected and sequenced the genome of the bacterial strain from the remains of a young woman buried around 1200 in a cemetery in Trondheim, Norway. It is the earliest evidence for the now-rare Salmonella strain, and proof that it was circulating in Europe, according to the study. (Both teams declined to comment on their research because their papers have been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal.)

“Really, what we’d like to do is look at both strains together,” says Hendrik Poinar, an evolutionary biologist at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada. And if more ancient genomes can be collected from Europe and the Americas, it should be possible to find out more conclusively whether deadly pathogens such as Salmonella arrived in the New World from Europe.

The existence of Salmonella Paratyphi C in Norway 300 years before it appeared in Mexico doesn’t prove that Europeans spread enteric fever to native Mexicans, says Schroeder, but that hypothesis is reasonable. A small percentage of people infected with Salmonella Paratyphi C carry the bacterium without falling ill, so apparently healthy Spaniards could have infected Mexicans who lacked natural resistance.

Paratyphi C is transmitted through faecal material, and a collapse of social order during the Spanish conquest might have led to the poor sanitary conditions that are ripe for Salmonella spread, Krause and his team note in the paper.

Krause’s study offers a blueprint for identifying the pathogens behind ancient outbreaks, says Schroeder. His own team plans to look for ancient pathogens in Caribbean burial sites that seem to be linked to catastrophic outbreaks, and that were established after the Europeans arrived. “The idea that some of them might have been caused by Salmonella is now a distinct possibility,” he says.

6
The House of Horror

16-year-old Sylvia Likens was the daughter of two carnival workers. Her parents separated, and her mother, Betty, was incarcerated for shoplifting. As a result, Sylvia and her sister, Jenny, were sent to live with Gertrude  Baniszwewski and her family, paying them $20 to take care of the two girls. When the payments were late, Baniszwewski would turn on the girls, particularly Sylvia. She would hit the girls with paddles. Being fragile and asthmatic herself,  Baniszwewski recruited her children and neighbourhood children to subject Sylvia to horrendous abuse over the period of three months. This abuse included putting cigarettes out on her skin, burning her with scalding water, beating her, rubbing salt in her wounds, forcing her to eat things which would cause her to vomit and on at least two occasions, she was raped with a Coca-Cola bottle. On one occasion, a neighbourhood boy, Coy Hubbard, used her to practice his judo, which as a result, caused her to become incontinent. Baniszwewski responded to this by forcing her to eat her own faeces as well as her 1-year-old sons. Jenny, Sylvia’s sister attempted to get help and contacted their older sister, Diana, who came to the house yet did nothing to help. 

Shortly before her death, Baniszewski took a hot needle and carved “I’m a prostitute and proud of it!” on Sylvia’s stomach. A neighbourhood boy, Richard Hobbs, helped. He also helped 10-year-old Shirley Baniszewski burn the number “3” into her chest with an iron poker. The night before Sylvia died, she attempted to escape the house of horrors. She was caught by Baniszewski who threw her down the stairs into the cellar which had become her home. The next day, on October 26, 1965, Sylvia’s body gave up after the countless beatings, burnings, rapes, and lack of food and water. She died of a brain haemorrhage, shock, and malnutrition. She had suffered unimaginable torment. Her body was covered in wounds, bruises, and burns. In her final moments, she had almost completely severed her lips with her teeth from the beatings. 

Gertrude received a life sentence while the younger assailants received petty sentences and were all released and went on to lead normal lives, something Sylvia could never do. Disgustingly enough, Gertrude was released for good behaviour after just a measly fourteen years in prison.

dailymail.co.uk
'I'm a b***h for getting hit by a celebrity?' Woman 'thrown to the floor' in Louis Tomlinson airport scuffle claims she could have DIED from a brain haemorrhage as she hits back at One Direction fans trolling her online

The young fan who claims she was attacked by Louis Tomlinson says she ‘could have died’ from a brain haemorrhage and has faced a barrage of abuse including death threats from irate Directioners.

Ana Becerra, 22, has accused Louis of punching her after she pulled out her phone to film his row with a photographer taking pictures of his 24-year-old girlfriend Eleanor Calder at Los Angeles Airport.

Miss Becerra says she was left with a cut face and was hit in the stomach during the fight with Louis and his partner, who had landed at LAX on Friday after a break in Las Vegas.

In the face of threats and abuse from his supporters she tweeted claims that Louis was an inadequate father, he has been unfaithful and has smoked cannabis, adding: ‘And now he beats women’.

Astonishing footage of the fight has appeared online and the hashtag #WeSupportLouis is trending among his fans who say he and Eleanor are the real victims, with one witness telling MailOnline Louis’ girlfriend was hit in the face and throat by a gang of girls.

Tomlinson, who is said to be worth £40million, recently rekindled his romance with Miss Calder after an on-off relationship from several years ago.

He had been going out with actress Danielle Campbell, after having a baby with American Briana Jungwirth in January 2016.

In the face of an online hate campaign Miss Becerra tweeted: 'I’m a b***h for getting hit by a celebrity? Literally I hit my head on the ground a little bit harder I could have an cerebral haemorrhage.

She added: ’#WeSupportLouis is actually trending he abused a girl!! I COULD HAVE SERIOUSLY DIED’.

With cerebral fat embolism syndrome (FES), there is loss of consciousness. Note the multitude of petechial haemorrhages, mostly within white matter. Cerebral oedema and herniation may follow. Overall, few persons with a history of trauma will develop fat embolism, but it is difficult to predict which patients will. Protean manifestations include: hypoxaemia, mental status changes, petechiae, fever, tachycardia, and thrombocytopenia.

Fat embolism occurs in almost 90% of all serious traumas, including long bone fractures, but fewer than 10% are symptomatic or develop into FES. The two main complications of fat embolism are pulmonary fat embolism, which can lead to sudden death, and systemic fat embolism which causes multiple, system wide, small infarctions. 

2

CCTV cameras capture the last known images of seven-year-old Shanay Walker, who was brutally beaten to death by her aunt and grandmother on July 31, 2014 in Nottingham, England.

Little Shanay Walker had been in and out of foster care her entire life, as her mother struggled with postpartum depression. Her various carers described her as a “lovely little girl” who loved to help out around the house and play with animals. In June 2012, when she was five, Shanay was placed with her maternal aunt, Kay-Ann Morris, as officials believed living with a family member would bring more stability into her life. A frequent visitor to the house was Jualina Smikle, Shanay’s grandmother, who was being investigated on charges of child cruelty. Together these two women would inflict unimaginable pain on the defenceless girl.

Whenever she was perceived as misbehaving, Shanay would be beaten with a broom handle and starved. She was forced to take ice baths and hold her hands above a gas element until she burned. If she cried, Morris would drag Shanay along the ground by her hair while Smikle beat the child with a metal fire poker. Most horribly, Morris would take audio recordings on her phone of Shanay screaming for help while Smikle laughs in the background. Morris is also heard calling Shanay an ‘ugly disgusting pig.’

This horrific abuse carried on for two years. Though most of the beatings were administered by Kay-Ann Morris, Jualina Smikle would often join in and taunt Shanay over her terrible injuries. After one particularly bad beating, Shanay managed to escape the house and went running into a store, barefoot and in her pyjamas, to ask for a glass of water. Two hours later she was dead.

The official cause of death was listed as a brain haemorrhage; Morris had hit the girl so hard her skull cracked in two places, and over fifty separate injuries were noted on her body. Morris and Smikle were promptly arrested and charged with murder. It came out during their trial that teachers had expressed concerned that Shanay was being abused no less than five times, yet social workers believed Smikle’s stories that all the injuries were either accidental or self inflicted.

Incredibly, Morris and Smikle were found not guilty of murder; the court expressed doubt over whether the fatal head injury was deliberately inflicted. Instead Morris was found guilty of child cruelty and sentenced to eight years in prison. Smikle was also found guilty of child cruelty and sentenced to four years.

anonymous asked:

What's the cause of Teen Wolf season 6a's failure and nonexistent ratings in your opinion? Or, better yet, what's the cause of Teen Wolf season 3b success and highest ratings ever? Get wild! ;)


Warning: unintelligible rant ahead. 

Originally posted by btvsladies

By Season 6 nobody can be bothered anymore, basically. Take away the one reason most people are still even watching–Dylan O’Brien–and nobody is tuning in at all. 

Season 3 is more interesting. Highest ratings, but also the beginning of the end. They threw so much at Season 3–the alpha pack, the nogitsune, the true alpha nonsense, magically appearing Cora–that throughout Season 3 it was increasingly clear that nothing made sense. But most of us kept watching Season 3 because despite all that, the pacing was red hot, the tension was palpable, Dylan as the nogitsune was incredible, and we wanted to see where it all went. 

And then…

Picture this. We end Season 3 with Allison’s death, with Chris’s departure. We’ve also lost Isaac, and Erica, and Boyd and even Cora. The Hales are pretty much gone. The Argents are gone. We ended on death in the rain. And we open Season 4 with…everybody in the club. In a fucking dance club. With gratuitous shots of the girls dancing sexily. 

They hit the old reset button big time between Seasons 3 and 4, with a complete shift in tone, thereby helpfully severing many of the emotional ties still holding viewers to these characters. They reset, and so did we. 

Season 4 was a lot of little things that snowballed into big things, and just kept highlighting the show’s choice of style over substance - and there wasn’t even that much style to begin with. 

And then there’s the whole Malia thing. I will never believe that Malia was not supposed to be a villain, the way she was brought in. The way her eyes flashed ominously at just the right time. And in Season 4 she’s not ominous anymore. She’s not this strange creature caught between human and animal. She’s a girl who demonstrates her frustration at human life by punching things and whose difficultly in adjusting to life as a human is played liked a punchline. But who can somehow also attend regular high school classes even though she hasn’t been to school since she was 9? Sounds legit. 

In Season 2 the publicity machine baited Sterek. They were all about the shipping, except when it came to actually writing it. In Season 3, suddenly Derek has girlfriends, and we know that’s what Cora was introduced for–to be Stiles’s girlfriend, even though that didn’t pan out. They couldn’t just let the Sterek simmer, could they? Nope. They had to burn it and salt the earth. 

(And this just isn’t about the queer baiting, which is bad enough. This is about the 180 degree turn the show did, from actively encouraging a thing and appearing to love it just as much as the fans, to completely shitting on it.)

But mostly I think that Season 4 was a very stark contrast to the earlier seasons because so many characters had fallen by the wayside that most people just didn’t care anymore. And the plot of Season 4 was just such a fucking mess that it haemorrhaged ratings. As did Season 5. Which is why by the time we now get to Season 6, nobody gives a damn about this show anymore.