To any student sitting their History GCSE exam like me in the next month or so, this may prove helpful! I wrote it up in class, using my textbook to get the correct dates.
1918 January: Wilson’s 14 Points announced November: Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated the throne of Germany November: Armistice was signed and World War 1 officially ended.
1919 January: Sparticist Revolt. Led by Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Liebknecht. Stopped by the Freikorps. Luxembourg and Liebknecht murdered. February: Friedrich Ebert declared first President of the Weimar Republic. June 28th: Treaty of Versailles signed by all parties. Formally ends the war. September: Hitler joins the German Workers’ Party in Munich.
1920 March: Kapp Putsch. Led by Dr. Wolfgang Kapp. Seized the city of Berlin. Ebert called a general strike which crippled the putsch. Kapp fled but was captured later, died in custody from cancer.
1922 June 24th: German foreign minister Walter Rathenau is assassinated by terrorist group Organisation Consul. December 27th: French and Belgian troops invade and occupy the Ruhr after Germany fails to make reparations payments. Over 100 civilians die as Ebert calls for passive resistance. Ebert begins printing money to cover the cost of supporting expelled civilians.
1923 October: Hyperinflation begins gripping the German economy. Prices soar. November 8th-9th: National Socialist party (Nazis) launch the Munich Putsch in an attempt to seize the Bavarian (Munich) government. Put down by police and army units. Hitler, Ludendorff and Rohm arrested. Hitler sentenced (February 24th 1924) to 5 years imprisonment in Landsberg prison.
1924 December 20th: Hitler released from Landsberg prison after serving less than a year of his sentence.
1925 February 25th: President Ebert dies in office. Hindenburg replaces him. May: Hitler orders the formation of the Schutzstaffel (SS) May 22nd: Hitler becomes the leader of the Nazi party.
1926 October: The Hitler Youth is formally established.
1929 October 24th: The Wall Street stock exchange in New York city crashes, forcing America and the majority of the major powers into the Great Depression. The number of seats in the Reichstag for the Nazi party increase as Hitler begins winning Germany over.
1930 January: Ernst Rohm becomes the leader of the SA – the Sturmabteilung. July: League of German Girls is established.
1932 July: The Nazi Party becomes the biggest political party in the Reichstag. August 30th: Hermann Goering, Hitler’s deputy, is elected president of the Reichstag. December 3rd: Kurt von Schleicher instated as chancellor.
1933 January 27th: Kurt von Schleicher resigns as chancellor. January 30th: Hitler is elected as chancellor. February 27th: Reichstag fire. Communist revolutionaries like Marinus van der Lubbe are blamed. March 23rd: Enabling Act is passed. Gives Hitler the power to pass laws without Hindenburg. July: The Nazi Party declared the only official party. All others illegalised July 20th: Hitler agrees to leave the Catholic churches alone. They agree to stay out of politics. October 14th: Germany withdraws from the League of Nations. November 30th: Goering forms the Gestapo.
1934 June 30th: Night of the Long Knives. Ernst Rohm assassinated, as are many politicl opponents or threats to Hitler’s power. August 2nd: President Hindenburg dies. Hitler becomes Fuhrer.
1936 March 7th: Hitler orders the remilitarisation of the Rhinelands, against the Treaty of Versailles. July 22nd: Hitler pledges support to General Franco of Spain for the civil war. Tested out new military weapons. August 1st: Berlin Olympic Games. All Anti-Jewish propaganda removed. October 25th: Hitler and Mussolini form the Rome-Berlin Axis. November 25th: Germany, Japan, and later Italy, form the Anti-Comintern Pact.
1938 March 13th: Germany achieves Anschluss with Austria, defying the Versailles treaty. November 9th: Kristallnacht (Crystal Night, The Night of Broken Glass). Mass destruction of Jewish property and shops. Over 1,000 Jewish men arrested.
1939 January 5th: Hitler declares the Polish city of Danzig to be “German” and will “again be part of Germany.” May 22nd: The Pact of Steel strengthens the German-Italian alliance. August 23rd: Nazi-Soviety Non-Aggression Pact signed. Contained a plan to divide and invade Poland. September 1st: Nazi forces invade Poland from the west and triggers World War II when Britain pledges support to the Polish.
German Foreign Minister Sigmar Gabriel has become the most prominent foreign leader to criticise Ivanka Trump’s role in her father’s administration, culminating in her visit to Berlin as part of the W20 summit on women’s empowerment.
Speaking to the German media group Funke, Mr Gabriel described Ivanka’s advisory role to President Donald Trump, her father, as “nepotism”, The Local reports.
He said: “For me there are things that remain strange, like for example the visit of his daughter to Germany which was treated almost like a world event, while the mix of politics with family and business reminds us instead of nepotism and would be unimaginable here.”
This isn’t the first time Ms Trump has faced accusations of nepotism. In March, Norman Eisen, the chief ethics counsel for Barack Obama, told CNN that her appointment as adviser to the President was a “violation” of nepotism laws. This “generally prohibits a federal official, including a Member of Congress, from appointing, promoting, or recommending for appointment or promotion any ‘relative’ of the official to any agency or department over which the official exercises authority or control”.
Jason Miller, the chief spokesperson for Mr Trump’s presidential campaign, previously defended Ms Trump by saying that it isn’t nepotism because her role is on a voluntary, non-paid basis.
Critics would say she is still receiving benefits paid for by the US taxpayer, however. Ms Trump already has her own West Wing Office, as well as security clearance and a government-issued phone.
A powerful bomb hidden in a sewage tanker exploded in the morning rush hour in the center of the Afghan capital on Wednesday, May 31, police said, killing at least 80 people, wounding hundreds and damaging embassy buildings.
The victims appeared mainly to have been Afghan civilians.
The bomb, one of the deadliest in Kabul and coming at the start of the holy month of Ramadan, exploded close to the fortified entrance to the German embassy, wounding some staff, German Foreign Minister Sigmar Gabriel said. Pictures showed the embassy building with its windows ripped out.
One Afghan security guard was killed and others were likely among the dead, Gabriel said. A spokeswoman for the German foreign ministry said the bomber’s target was unknown.
“Such attacks do not change our resolve in continuing to support the Afghan government in the stabilization of the country,” Gabriel said.
Basir Mujahid, a spokesman for city police, said the explosives were hidden in a sewage truck. He also suggested that the German embassy might not have been the target of the blast, which sent towering clouds of black smoke into the sky near the presidential palace.
“There are several other important compounds and offices near there too,” he told Reuters.
The blast, which shattered windows and blew doors off their hinges in houses hundreds of meters away, was unusually strong.
No group had claimed responsibility by late Wednesday afternoon. (Reuters)
SS-Obersturmführer Rudolf von Ribbentrop, the son of the German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, received on 15 July 1943 the Knight’s Cross for his actions and determination during the Battle of Kursk. . On 12 July Ribbentrop’s tanks were attacked by a large group of T-34s. As the range reduced to less than 175m (200yd) the effectiveness of the German guns was neutralized. Ribbentrop and his crew succeeded in destroying, for that day alone, 14 Soviet tanks.
Danger of war, Germany warns after Trump's move on Iran nuclear deal
BERLIN, Oct 14 (Reuters) - If the United States terminates the Iran nuclear deal or reimposes sanctions on Tehran it could result in Iran developing nuclear weapons and raise the danger of war close to Europe, Germany’s foreign minister said on Saturday.
U.S. President Donald Trump refused on Friday to formally certify that Tehran was complying with the 2015 accord even though international inspectors say it is. He warned he might ultimately terminate the agreement.
German Foreign Minister Sigmar Gabriel told Deutschlandfunk radio that Trump had sent a “difficult and dangerous signal” when the U.S. administration was also dealing with the North Korea nuclear crisis.
“My big concern is that what is happening in Iran or with Iran from the U.S. perspective will not remain an Iranian issue but many others in the world will consider whether they themselves should acquire nuclear weapons too given that such agreements are being destroyed,” Gabriel said.
“And then our children and grandchildren will grow up in a very dangerous world,” he said.
He said if the United States terminated the deal or if sanctions were reimposed on Tehran, it would give Iranian hardliners, who are against negotiations with the West, the upper hand.
“Then they might revert to developing nuclear weapons,” Gabriel said, adding Israel would not tolerate that and “then we will be back where we were 10, 12 years ago with the danger of war relatively close to Europe”.
He urged the United States not to endanger the security of its allies and its own people for domestic policy reasons.
Hailed by Trump’s predecessor Barack Obama as key to stopping Iran from building a nuclear bomb, the deal was also signed by China, France, Russia, Britain, Germany and the European Union.
European allies have warned of a split with Washington over the nuclear agreement and say that putting it in limbo undermines U.S. credibility abroad.
Trump has given the U.S. Congress 60 days to decide whether to reinstate economic sanctions on Iran that were lifted in 2016. (Reporting by Michelle Martin; Editing by Janet Lawrence)
January 16, 1917 - British Cryptographers Intercept Zimmerman Telegram
Pictured - Spoils of war promised to Mexico if it declared war on the United States.
The bulk of cables linking both sides of the Atlantic by telegram belonged to Britain, and British military intelligence flagrantly made use of this privilege by reading all the messages sent across by Germany and the United States. However, none was more important than one Britain’s cryptographers intercepted on January 16. Sent via Sweden on to Washington D.C. on American-owned cables, it was a message from German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman to his ambassador in Mexico City.
Britain’s crack decoding team, Room 40, quickly decrypted the message. They found in it a proposal by Zimmerman to invite Mexico into the war against the United States, should American join the Allies. Zimmerman offered in return the Mexican territory annexed by the US following the Mexican-American war. In British hands, this message was diplomatic dynamite. For now, British Intelligence held on to it, debating over how best to use it (and how to do so without revealing that Britain regularly spied on American correspondence).
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, and British journalist Ward Price at Lake Chiemsee, Germany, 16 Sep 1938; note British Ambassador to Berlin Nevile Henderson in background
Rudolf von Ribbentrop
(born 11 May 1921)
is a former German wine merchant and a former Waffen-SS Captain who served in World War II. He is the son of the German diplomat and Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop.
Prompt: Mycroft has to attend a conference on their anniversary so Greg decides to surprise him by secretly traveling up as well and presenting himself in a delectable way in Mycroft’s suite. Which, it turns out, an evening meeting with some VIPs was going to be held in as well…
Mycroft’s evening was going well… remarkably well. Business conferences rarely went so smoothly, but he rather suspected that tonight everything was going his way. In fact, he had even ventured to invite the small group of foreign ministers up to his suite for a nightcap.
Over the years, as his political career had blossomed, he had learnt there was little like a glass of brandy and a smoke to bring a group of men together. Sometimes he truly did enjoy his job.
The hotel was luxurious beyond all measure and he could hardly wait to sink into one of the velvet settee’s which furnished his suite. They reached his corridor in high spirits and, unlocking the door, he chuckled warmly as the French minister cracked a joke.
The sight which met his eyes as they entered the room caused his laughter to die in his throat.
Airlines across the the world changed their logos to black and white in grieving.
Among the dead passengers were two babies, and 16 German school pupils returning from an exchange trip to Spain with their two teachers.
Christophe Castaner, a Socialist party MP, was one of the first to fly over the barren high altitude crash site and described a scene of horror.
“It’s a sharp ridge and steep slope that is difficult to access. We have seen the catastrophe and terrible things. It was clear the victims were there in the midst of the destroyed aircraft.
“We saw women, men, children, and babies. Yes, we saw babies,” the visibly shocked Castaner told journalists.
The German foreign minister, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, said the crash site was “a picture of horror. The grief of the families and friends is immeasurable. We must now stand together. We are united in our great grief.”
UKRAINE, Mariupol : A woman hangs washed clothes near her building on April 14, 2015 in Berdyanske village, some 4 kms west from Shirokine village where the use of heavy weapons has been reported, on the outskirts of the strategic port city of Mariupol. The French, German, Russian and Ukranian foreign ministers expressed “grave concern” Tuesday about violations of a shaky ceasefire in separatist-held east Ukraine but pledged to continue dialogue. AFP PHOTO/GENYA SAVILOV
Following the Bolshevik takeover of Russia with the October Revolution, the new government, under Vladimir Lenin, sought an immediate end to hostilities with the Central Powers. An armistice was soon signed, bringing an end to hostilities, and peace negotiations began at Brest-Litovsk.
Overjoyed with the end of the fighting, Russian troops - or at least those left at the front - quickly began visiting their German opponents to socialize. But while the troops quickly became chummy, the delegates found themselves at an impasse, with the Bolshevik representatives unwilling to make the steep concessions asked for by Germany, which included massive territorial concessions.
With nearly two months gone by and tiring of the state of negotiations, Germany decided to simply resume hostilities on Feb. 18, 1918. With their forces utterly unprepared for continued fighting, the Russians were quickly pushed back before Germany sent new terms a week later - even harsher than the ones the Bolshevik’s had previously rejected! The treaty was signed on March 3rd, and the Eastern Front was officially closed up.