#Other ways to say: for example

Пригодится тем, кому нужно писать эссе и доклады =) 

В начале предложения:

For instance… 
This can be seen when… 
These include…
As an example,…


В середине предложения: (будьте осторожны с порядком слов!)

(пример)… is one example of …
...as illustrated by… (+ пример)
…as seen in .. ( + пример)“
...which is made apparent when… (+пример) 
…an example being…(пример)
namely (+пример)
…such as… (+ пример)
e.g. (+пример)

A good thing to remember when writing: the first letter of the first word of a sentence is always capitalized.  Always.  Secondly, “said” is almost never capitalized.  This:

“Hey.” Said the guy.

should nEVER EVER HAPPEN.  “Said” pretty much never ever starts a sentence and certainly never with quotes or dialogue.

USING SAID: “Hey,” said the guy.

Any time you would put a period at the end of the quote, but it is followed by a dialogue tag, replace the period with a comma.

If the quote ends with a question mark or exclamation mark, the capitalization remains the same: “Hey!” said the guy.

ONLY, ONLY EVER, USE A PERIOD IF THE DIALOGUE TAG (THAT’S WHAT SAID AND ALL THOSE OTHER WORDS ARE) COMES BEFORE THE QUOTE: The guy said, “Hey.”

THIS HAS BEEN A PSA

Making the most of Duolingo

Here’s a list of what I do that really helps me learn the language using Duolingo; it’s extra work than the app gives you, but it helps me get my answers right most of the time and I feel like I know the language much better than I would have normally.

Completing the tree

  • The first thing you should do is complete the tree! Most people think they stop using Duolingo after that - this is absolutely not the stopping point! There’s a reason I listed this as step one.
  • To complete the tree, set a goal for yourself. One lesson per day, one unit per week, etc. Experiment a little and find one that works for you.
  • The XP feature on Duolingo helps me stay on track by measuring my frequency, not my learning. Use this to make you motivated to start each day, but don’t use it as a measure of how well you’re doing. It’s like a homework grade that gives points for completion but not accuracy. But, because of this, you can choose any goal you want. I’m on the “insane” goal (50pts per day) but I often go way past the limit. Trust me, if you’re following these steps, that won’t be a problem.
  • THIS IS AN IMPORTANT RULE!!!! Before ever starting a new lesson, all of your previous lessons must be golden.
    • Duolingo builds off of previous skills in a fairly linear way. You’ll notice especially as you get farther in the tree that whenever you learn new nouns, they will always be practiced in the context of the most recent verb tense you’ve learned, and they will always mix up adjectives and phrases that you’ve also recently learned. Because of this, if you’re even a little shaky on a previous lesson, you’re screwing yourself over if you don’t review that first.
    • When you first open Duolingo, use “Practice Weak Skills” - this will give you a random lesson to run through and practice, and often it will mix multiple to allow you to strengthen multiple skills at once.
    • Keep using “Practice Weak Skills” until every lesson is golden. This takes about 3-4 times if you get most of the questions right, 5-6 if you’re getting most of them wrong - and it will get you past your XP goal. When you’re done, scroll through to check that every lesson is golden. Feels nice, don’t it?
    • Your lesson strength deteriorates quickly. It often feels like you’re taking one step forwards and two steps back. This is the case for a short while - the more you practice, the longer your skills will stick there. When you need to strengthen them again, all you have to do is prove that you know it from before. Instead of 15 questions on the same lesson, you’ll get about 3 - if you get all of them right, the skill goes straight back up to golden!
    • HOWEVER:
      • If you are having trouble with a certain lesson, maybe you find yourself constantly tripping up on it? Practice these lessons individually.
      • I constantly mess up on verbs, and now that I’ve finished the tree, whenever I review it mixes up to 4 tenses at once. What happens then? I get mixed up.
        • Personally, I rushed through the tree when I shouldn’t have. Whoops.
        • Because of this, I review each verb lesson on its own before using “Practice Weak Skills.”
        • When I feel confident enough, the next day I might test myself using “Practice Weak Skills” and see how it turns out. It’s your personal judgement call on when you should stop isolating lessons!


Grammar time!

So, if you’re anything like me, you love learning languages. If you’re even more like me, you have a preference for doing it, and it is not memorizing vocab (though this is necessary!). Duolingo is nice for vocab and grammar….practice. To practice, you have to learn it first, right? It teaches you the vocab well, but there’s one huge problem I found while finishing up my Spanish tree: The farther you get, the less grammar lessons there are.

This is crucial! How am I supposed to know what’s going one with he/habia/habias when I don’t even know what the tense is?

So, I prepared a list of grammar resources/courses that I think do a good job of walking you through, step-by-step, the lessons in a similar order to Duolingo.

My recommendation for using these requires looking ahead. Look at your next Duolingo lesson and, before taking it, look at the corresponding lesson on one of these websites. Take notes on it! Go back to Duolingo and now that you actually know what you’re doing. (If you get things consistently wrong, you can then review the grammar lesson on whatever website - in case they’re out of order). These apply to any website or program other than Duolingo, especially self-teaching, since they’re all basic grammar lessons.

The ones I’ve listed are mainly Spanish and German; these are the languages I’m studying. I can’t speak on other websites and their ease/comprehensiveness if I’m not studying that language! Please feel free to edit this post and add your own websites/languages when you reblog.

Spanish

  • StudySpanish.com (This is my personal favourite! Separated into units that progress from basic to advanced.)
  • SpanishDict.com (good for referencing what you got wrong. Organizes by subject of lesson rather than easy-hard)
  • Bowdoin (Another one that goes through basic-advanced. Has lessons written in Spanish and exercises to practice! Also has more information than most of these other links, however this can be confusing and that’s why it’s not my favourite.)

German

  • German-Grammar.de (Has a TON of information and exercises; can be hard to navigate.)
  • Dartmouth Review (A little chart to separate very broad categories; once you pick a section, it goes on for a while.)
  • Deutsch Lingolia (Left column has a list; the top part is the important tenses, nouns, etc. grammar stuff.)

All Languages

anonymous asked:

when exactly does one use "whom"?

  • “Who” and “Whom” are both pronouns, but “who” refers to a subject, and “whom” refers to the object of a sentence. So if I say “Tina gave a gift to Jack,” Tina is the subject and Jack is the object, because Tina performed an action, whereas Jack had something happen to him. Are you with me so far?
  • Use “who” when the person in question is the subject and is performing the action. Who gave the gift to Jack?
  • Use “whom” when the person in question isn’t the subject of the sentence, but rather has something happen to them. To whom did Tina give the gift?
  • An easy way to remember is to substitute he/she/they or him/her/them into the sentence as a pronoun. He/she/they = who; him/her/them = whom. Who gave the gift to him? To whom did she give the gift?
  • Still confused? Try The Oatmeal’s comic guide on this. It’s way more memorable and involves many more spiders than my short explanation does.

This also applies to no one, nobody, anyone, anybody, someone, and somebody.

Reasons why this is crap (besides the obvious):

1. In Britain, these words are sometimes considered plural anyway. The biggest disgruntlement occurs in America. Grammarians actually sit around and debate this (guilty).

2. The English language does not have a singular pronoun of undetermined gender. Except for, idk… hmmm, maybe ‘THEIR?!’ Since 'to each, his own,’ leaves out about half the population, and 'everyone raised her hand’ does the same, why not just officially make ‘their’ both plural and singular? It’s not the 1950s anymore, so we can move past this.

3. It doesn’t even matter. Doesn’t change the meaning of the sentence. If you’re a writer, you’ll have to check your AP, MLA, or Chicago style guide (all of which will likely tell you to rewrite your sentence). If you’re not a writer, you probably shouldn’t GAF.

Or, if you have to write a paper, you could just post it somewhere…

(It helps if you claim to be good at grammar above your post.)

Source

copyblogger.com
15 Grammatical Errors that Make You Look Silly
Grammatical errors make you look bad and hurts your effectiveness as a writer. So, we've assembled the 15 most egregious grammar goofs into one helpful infographic. With this handy reference, you'll never look silly again.

by Brian Clark

We’re big advocates of conversational writing that’s engaging, persuasive, and fun. So that means it’s perfectly fine tofracture the occasional stuffy grammatical rule (and many times it’s preferable).

On the other hand, making somegrammatical errors just makes you look bad, and hurts your effectiveness. Sometimes we even misuse words simply because we hear others use them incorrectly.

So, we’ve assembled the 15 most egregious grammar goofs into one helpful infographic. With this handy reference, you’ll never look silly again.


Like this infographic? Get more content marketing tips from Copyblogger.