Frigid

Why Webb Needs to Chill

Our massive James Webb Space Telescope is currently being tested to make sure it can work perfectly at incredibly cold temperatures when it’s in deep space. 

How cold is it getting and why? Here’s the whole scoop…

Webb is a giant infrared space telescope that we are currently building. It was designed to see things that other telescopes, even the amazing Hubble Space Telescope, can’t see.  

Webb’s giant 6.5-meter diameter primary mirror is part of what gives it superior vision, and it’s coated in gold to optimize it for seeing infrared light.  

Why do we want to see infrared light?

Lots of stuff in space emits infrared light, so being able to observe it gives us another tool for understanding the universe. For example, sometimes dust obscures the light from objects we want to study – but if we can see the heat they are emitting, we can still “see” the objects to study them.

It’s like if you were to stick your arm inside a garbage bag. You might not be able to see your arm with your eyes – but if you had an infrared camera, it could see the heat of your arm right through the cooler plastic bag.

Credit: NASA/IPAC

With a powerful infrared space telescope, we can see stars and planets forming inside clouds of dust and gas.

We can also see the very first stars and galaxies that formed in the early universe. These objects are so far away that…well, we haven’t actually been able to see them yet. Also, their light has been shifted from visible light to infrared because the universe is expanding, and as the distances between the galaxies stretch, the light from them also stretches towards redder wavelengths. 

We call this phenomena  “redshift.”  This means that for us, these objects can be quite dim at visible wavelengths, but bright at infrared ones. With a powerful enough infrared telescope, we can see these never-before-seen objects.

We can also study the atmospheres of planets orbiting other stars. Many of the elements and molecules we want to study in planetary atmospheres have characteristic signatures in the infrared.

Because infrared light comes from objects that are warm, in order to detect the super faint heat signals of things that are really, really far away, the telescope itself has to be very cold. How cold does the telescope have to be? Webb’s operating temperature is under 50K (or -370F/-223 C). As a comparison, water freezes at 273K (or 32 F/0 C).

How do we keep the telescope that cold? 

Because there is no atmosphere in space, as long as you can keep something out of the Sun, it will get very cold. So Webb, as a whole, doesn’t need freezers or coolers - instead it has a giant sunshield that keeps it in the shade. (We do have one instrument on Webb that does have a cryocooler because it needs to operate at 7K.)

Also, we have to be careful that no nearby bright things can shine into the telescope – Webb is so sensitive to faint infrared light, that bright light could essentially blind it. The sunshield is able to protect the telescope from the light and heat of the Earth and Moon, as well as the Sun.  

Out at what we call the Second Lagrange point, where the telescope will orbit the Sun in line with the Earth, the sunshield is able to always block the light from bright objects like the Earth, Sun and Moon.

How do we make sure it all works in space? 

By lots of testing on the ground before we launch it. Every piece of the telescope was designed to work at the cold temperatures it will operate at in space and was tested in simulated space conditions. The mirrors were tested at cryogenic temperatures after every phase of their manufacturing process.

The instruments went through multiple cryogenic tests at our Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland.

Once the telescope (instruments and optics) was assembled, it even underwent a full end-to-end test in our Johnson Space Center’s giant cryogenic chamber, to ensure the whole system will work perfectly in space.  

What’s next for Webb? 

It will move to Northrop Grumman where it will be mated to the sunshield, as well as the spacecraft bus, which provides support functions like electrical power, attitude control, thermal control, communications, data handling and propulsion to the spacecraft.

Learn more about the James Webb Space Telescope HERE, or follow the mission on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

Commonly Used Words and their Synonyms!

Instead of using… You can use the word…

Looked — observed, peered, gazed, glanced, explored, glimpsed, stared, eyed, viewed, noticed, watched, inspected, examined, and peeked. 

Said — told, stated, replied, phrased, announced, articulated, reported, expressed, voiced, mentioned, communicated, uttered, spoke, and vocalised.

Shouted — yelled, roared, exclaimed, hollered, cried, called out, squealed, wailed, screeched, squawked, bellowed, shrieked, screamed, and howled.

Laughed — chuckled, smiled, giggled, grinned, snickered, cracked up, hooted, roared, snorted, howled, erupt into laughter, and burst into laughter.

Good — great, pleasant, wonderful, positive, awesome, rad, splendid, worthy, superb, superior, marvellous, stellar, excellent, and super.

Bad — awful, atrocious, terrible, negative, unfortunate, rough, dreadful, dismal., poor, appalling, lousy, unpleasant, crummy, and miserable. 

Nice — polite, kind, respectable, friendly, well-mannered, admirable, wonderful, affable, lovely, nifty, pleasant, inviting, enjoyable, and fine.

Mean — nasty, evil, unkind, vicious, cruel, wicked, bothersome, spiteful, unpleasant, hateful, malicious, harsh, uncaring, and insensitive. 

Tried — weary, burned out, sleepy, sluggish, exhausted, drowsy, fatigued, heavy-eyed, beat, lifeless, drained, lazy, worn out, and droopy.

Scared — frightened, worried, afraid, anxious, fearful, timid, startled, suspicious, alarmed, apprehensive, petrified, shaken, terrified, and panicked.

Happy — glad, ecstatic, joyful, jovial, delighted, merry, content, elated, blissful, gleeful, cheerful, thrilled, pleasant, and overjoyed.   

Sad — unhappy, disappointed, miserable, blue, depressed, sorrowful, gloomy, melancholy, down in the dumps, dismal, heartbroken, down, and full of woe.

Mad — angry, outraged, grouchy, fuming, furious, frantic, irritated, cranky, annoyed, irate, livid, enraged, infuriated, and heated.

Excited — eager, wired, enthusiastic, simulated, thrilled, jubilant, hysterical, jumpy, charged, anxious, awakened, fired up, nervous, and on edge.

Pretty — beautiful, charming, attractive, elegant, handsome, gorgeous, dazzling, captivating, nice-looking, glamorous, lovely, stunning, appealing, and memorising.

Ugly — unpleasant, gruesome, horrid, gross, dreadful, beastly, grotesque, deformed, appalling, plain, unsightly, loathsome, hideous, and homely.

Little — small, young, tiny, mini, petite, short, minute, slim, pocket-sized, slight, pint-sized, minor, miniature, and wee.

Big — humongous, ginormous, gigantic, hefty, large, jumbo, huge, massive, enormous, oversize, vast, great, giant, and abundant.

Funny — humorous, whimsical, hilarious, eccentric, amusing, side-splitting, comical, lighthearted, witty, jolly, nutty, hysterical, jokey, and droll.

Fun — entertaining, interesting, pleasurable, a blast, exciting, captivating, enjoyable, fascinating, engaging, gratifying, action-filled, lively, amusing, and enchanting. 

Smart — keen, intelligent, clever, cunning, screwed, knowledgeable, brilliant, sharp-witted, wise, scholarly, bright, gifted, canny, and brainy. 

Like — love, care about, adore, value, fond of, treasure, cherish, appreciate, admire, enjoy, passionate about, crazy about, and devoted to.     

Hate — loathe, detest, dislike greatly, despise, execrate, feel revulsion towards, feel hostile towards, be repelled by, be revolted by, regard with disgust, be unable to stomach, find intolerable, shudder at, and recoil from. 

Hot — sweltering, fiery, overly warm, heated, burning up, stuffy, sizzling, spicy, blistering, humid, boiling, blazing, scorching, and scalding. 

Cold — chilly, very cold, icy, bitter, frigid, arctic, frosty, nippy, crisp, harsh, wintry, biting, freezing, and polar.

Fast — quick, speedy, sudden, hurried, abrupt, rushed, rapid, instantly, brisk, dashing, hasty, accelerated, swift, and prompt. 

Slow — unhurried, inactive, leisurely, slothful, sluggish, passive, gradual, snail-like, slack, time-consuming, stagnant, decelerate, delay, and losing speed. 

Flower meanings I wanted to get out there. It seemed pretty cool to me but was a lot of work as I couldn’t copy and past my research from websites. Use it for a florist AU or somethin’ I dunno have fun

Alstroemeria - Wealth, prosperity, fortune, friendship

Amaryllis - Splendid beauty, worth beyond beauty


Anemone - Fading hope, forsaken, anticipation


Anthurium - Hospitality, happiness, abundance


Aster - Patience, a love of variety, elegance, daintiness


Bird of Paradise - Joyfulness, magnificence, wonderful anticipation


Bouvardia Double - Enthusiasm, zest for life


Calla Lily - Magnificence, beauty, purity, innocence


Carnation - Pride, beauty


Red Carnation - Love, pride, admiration


Pink Carnation - Love of a woman or a mother


Purple Carnation - Capriciousness


Yellow Carnation - Disdain, rejection, disappointment


White Carnation - Innocence, pure love


Striped Carnation - Refusal


Chrysanthemum - Fidelity, optimism, joy, long life


Red Chrysanthemum - Love


White Chrysanthemum - Truth, loyal love


Yellow Chrysanthemum - Slighted love


Daffodil - regard, chivalry, rebirth, new beginnings, eternal life, unrequited love


Daffodil (Single) - Foretells a misfortune


Daffodil (Bunch) - Joy, happiness


Daisy - Innocence, purity, loyal love, “I will never tell.”


Gerbera Daisy- Cheerfulness


Delphinium - Big hearted, fun, lightness, levity, ardent attachment


Freesia - Innocence, thoughtfulness


Gardenia - Purity, sweetness, secret love, joy, conveys loneliness from the giver


Gerbera - Cheerfulness

Gladiolus - Strength of character, remembrance


Lavender Heather - Admiration, solitude, beauty


White Heather - Protection, wishes will come true


Hyacinth - Playfulness, sporty attitude, extreme rashness, constancy


Blue Hyacinth - Constancy


Purple Hyacinth - Sorrow


Red/Pink Hyacinth - Play


White Hyacinth - Loveliness


Yellow Hyacinth - Jealousy


Hydrangea - Heartfelt emotions, gratitude for being understood, frigidity, heartlessness


Iris - Eloquence


Purple Iris - Wisdom, compliments


Blue Iris - Faith, hope


Yellow Iris - Passion


White Iris - Purity


Larkspur - Levity, lightness, fickleness, haughtiness


Lilac - Youthful innocence, confidence


White Lilac - Humility, Innocence


Field Lilac - Charity


Purple Lilac - First love


Lily - Purity, refined beauty


White Lily - Modesty, virginity


Orange Lily - Passion


Yellow Lily - Gaiety


Lily of the Valley - Sweetness, purity of heart


Easter Lily - Virgin Mary


Orchid - Exotic beauty, refinement, thoughtfulness, mature charm, proud and glorious femininity


Peony - Bashfulness, compassion, indignation, shame, happy life, happy marriage, good health, prosperity


King Protea - Change, transformation, daring, resourcefulness, diversity, courage


Queen Anne - Haven, sanctuary, complexity, delicateness


Ranunculus - Radiant charm, attractiveness

Snapdragon - Graciousness, strenght, deception, presumption

Statice - Remembrance, sympathy, success

Stock - Lasting beauty, happy life, bonds of affection, promptness

Sunflower - Pure thoughts, adoration, dedication, dedicated love, haughtiness

Sweet Pea - Delicate pleasure, bliss, departure after having a good time

Tulip - Declaration of love, fame, perfect love

Rose - Love

Red Rose - Love, longing, desire, respect, admiration, devotion

Deep Red Rose - Regret, sorrow

White Rose - Purity, chastity, innocence, new beginnings, sympathy, humility, spirituality

Yellow Rose - Exuberance, joy, warmth, welcome, friendship, caring, purely platonic emotions

Pink Rose - Gentleness, admiration, joy, gratitude, appreciation, elegance, grace

Orange Rose - Passion, energy, desire, pride, fervor, fascination

Lavender Rose - Enchantment, love at first sight, majesty, splendor, fascination, adoration

Blue Rose - Elusive, unattainable, mysterious, desire, I can’t have you but I can’t stop thinking about you

Green Rose - Harmony, opulence, fertility, best wishes for a prosperous new life or wishes for recovery of good health

Black Rose - Death, farewell, elusive

Mixed Roses - Mixed feelings, I don’t know my feelings yet but I care about you enough to send roses

Moss Rosebud - Confession of love

Thorn-less Rose - Love at first sight, early attachment

Leaf Rose - You may hope

Hibiscus Rose - Delicate beauty

Burgundy Rose - Unconscious beauty

Christmas Rose - Relieve my anxiety

Dog Rose - Pleasure and pain

Damask Rose - Freshness, Persian ambassador of Love

Garden Rose - I am from Mars

Tea Rose - I will remember always

Rose of Sharon - Consumed by love

Carmine Rose - Deceitful desire

Cardinal Red Rose - Sublime desire

Amaranth Red Rose - Long standing desire

Wild Rose - Simplicity

Musk Rose - Capricious beauty

Rosa Mundi - Variety

Single Red Rose - “I love you”

A Single White Rose - “My feelings are pure”

A Single Yellow Rose - “You bring joy to my life” “Let’s be friends”

A Single Pink Rose - “I like you”

A Single Orange Rose - “I am proud of you”

A Single Peach Rose - “Thank you” “I sympathise with you”

A Single Lavender Rose - “I am enchanted by you”

A Single Blue Rose - “You seem like an unattainable dream”

A Crown Of Roses - Reward of virtue

A Bouquet Of Roses - Gratitude

A Rose In A Tuft Of Grass - There is everything to be gained by good company

One Red Rose - “I love you” “You are the one for me”

Two Red Roses - “Let us be together”

Three Red Roses - “You and me and our love for company”

Five Red Roses - “I am halfway in love with you”

Twelve Red Roses - “Be mine”

Twenty Five Red Roses - “Congratulations”

Fifty Red Roses - “My love for you is limitless”

LIAM: So the box is full of loot?

SAM: No, no, no, it’s a crate, Liam.

LIAM: The crate is full of boxes?

SAM: Yes. A crate full of boxes. Box-crate, our best sponsor.

LIAM: What do you do with the boxes?

SAM: No, inside the boxes are tinier boxes.

LIAM: Tinier boxes? When do you get to the loot, though?

SAM: No, it’s a Russian nesting doll of boxes and crates.

LIAM: Box-box.

SAM: Box-box, and then inside is a box-crate, and inside that is tiny-bag-crate.

LAURA: What are you guys talking about?

SAM: Liam! Do you want all those boxes?

LIAM: I need boxes.

SAM: You get three dollars off the first box of boxes. Crate-crate.

I don’t remember September 11, 2001

It was my sixth day of First Grade at Beaumont Elementary in Devon, Pennsylvania 
I was a 5-year-old new kid 
Mrs. Kowalski was still learning our names 
The School Board decided not to tell the students what happened
Didn’t want 7000 children in a panic
Thought we were safer in school
Than with distraught and distracted parents on highways
It was just another Tuesday

I don’t remember 9/11
I remember the weeks that followed 
The red eyes of adults around me 
The fantastical and horrific stories
The tears and denial of friends who lost loved ones
All burned into my psyche

I don’t remember 9/11
I remember my parents going to New York a month after the attacks for their anniversary 
They brought back gifts from the Toys R Us in Times Square 
And stories of dust covered cars that would never be reclaimed

I don’t remember 9/11
I remember hearing that we were going to war 
I remember my fear for children like me who would get hurt
I remember resigned acceptance 
“We’re just getting the bad guys,” people said 
“You’re too young to understand”

I don’t remember 9/11 
I remember my confusion when my father couldn’t walk my mother and I to the gate at Philadelphia International 
“But the last time we visited Aunt Theresa you waved goodbye” 
What I would’ve given to go back to 1999

I don’t remember 9/11 
I remember the dead 
Young Americans fighting out of grief and misguided patriotism
Iraqis and Afghans and Pakistanis slaughtered out of revenge 
I remember pushing a bully down a slide on a playground when he asked my friend if her parents bombed buildings
A week later he tripped me going down the stairs, spraining my ankle 
“Al Qaeda supporter,” he whispered

I don’t remember 9/11 
I remember a war 
I remember being desensitized to images of gore and destruction 
I remember a norm of hatred and aggression in the name of patriotism and security
I remember learning of the ever-mounting debt being saddled on my generation 
Debts that my grandchildren will still be paying off
Debts of money and of blood

I don’t remember 9/11 
I remember traveling to other countries 
Being reminded to exercise caution when telling people we’re Americans 
I remember the surprise on their faces 
“But you’re so nice” 
“You don’t look like war-mongers”

I don’t remember 9/11 
I remember the nausea I felt when we learned in school that we armed and trained Al Qaeda and the Taliban
That we caused the Iranian Revolution 
That we fund corruption and war when it fits our needs 
That we’ve murdered millions in the name of freedom
That we are a nation of terrorists ourselves

I don’t remember 9/11 
I remember years of teachers glossing over the early 2000s
“You know this already” 
I remember finally speaking up
Asking Mr. Palmatier to go over the events of that infamous day
I remember his stunned silence as he looked at his 2nd period AP US History class
“Sir…we were 6…we don’t remember”

I don’t remember 9/11
I remember the fear I feel every time I fly 
Every time I ride public transport
Every time I’m in a crowded area 
Every time I’m at a national site

I don’t remember 9/11 
I remember visiting memorials on a frigid day in December 
Sleet masked the tears on my face 
So much death and destruction
An endless war 
A generation that grew up on fear
A generation that could learn
Learn to empathize
Learn to love
Learn from the mistakes of those who came before us

I don’t remember 9/11
But I can’t forget everything since
I won’t forget

- Shadowed Memories [9.11.2017]

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Frigid & Friends

Hey everyone! Here’s an animation I’ve been working on for the past 2 years!

This was originally going to be the pilot episode for a series called “Frigid & Friends” with Frigid going around with her friends who’ve appeared in the blog so far, but as time went on I realized this is going to be more of a send-off for Frigid. As time went on I kept improving my animation skills and losing interest in this daunting project (full 3D backgrounds, smooth tweens, high priority voice actresses like Nowacking, Project SNT, Rina-chan, and Darling Adelaide).

In short, I wasn’t able to finish, but I was happy with what did get finished so far. I hope you enjoy this, and expect to see newer and better projects in the future!


Remember to reblog so more people can see the effort I’ve put into this!

You can also support or follow me [@penguinpotential] on Patreon to keep track of what I’m working on next~!

Solar System: Things to Know This Week

Almost every day, we receive a message from a spacecraft more than 10.6 billion miles (about 17 billion km) away.

At that unimaginable distance, it takes the radio signal almost 16 hours to arrive. The spacecraft is Voyager 2, which launched 40 years ago this month. It’s still operating, sending back dispatches from the dark reaches well beyond the orbit of Pluto. Even now, scientists are still actively exploring the outer boundaries of the solar system using Voyager 2, decades after its “Grand Tour” of the giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune revealed their splendors like never before. This week, we recall 10 highlights from one of the most epic voyages in human history.

1. A Journey of 10 Billion Miles Begins With the First Step

Voyager 2 set out from Earth on Aug. 20, 1977. Even though it launched before its twin spacecraft, Voyager 1, it carried the ‘2’ moniker because mission planners knew its trajectory would bring it to Jupiter after Voyager 1’s arrival there.

2. The Grand Tour

Voyager 2’s trajectory was special because it took advantage of a rare orbital alignment to fly by all four gas giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. It was the first, and so far the only, spacecraft to carry out a close-up reconnaissance of Uranus and Neptune.

3. Not-So-Gentle Giant

Voyager 2 flew by Jupiter in April 1979, capturing striking images of the planet’s volcanic moon Io and its violent storms larger than the entire Earth.

4. Saturn’s Not the Only One

Jupiter has its own ring system, and Voyager 2 provided the first pictures.

5. An Ocean Under Ice

During its Jupiter encounter, Voyager 2 obtained close-up looks at Jupiter’s moon Europa, including linear cracks and other features which first led scientists to realize Europa probably hides a vast sea of liquid water beneath an icy shell, the first known world outside Earth that could have an ocean.

6. Ringworld, the Prequel

Voyager 2 zoomed through the Saturn system in August 1981. It saw hints of mysterious features that the Cassini mission would later reveal in stunning detail, including Enceladus, with its bright surface that suggested geologic activity, and Saturn’s intriguing hexagonal jet stream.

7. Swiftly by a Tilted Planet

In January 1984, Voyager offered humanity its first detailed look at the seventh planet, Uranus, the only one tilted on its side relative to the Sun. Voyager images revealed 11 new moons, including Juliet, Puck, Cressida, Rosalind and Ophelia. The moon Miranda presented a bizarre landscape that left scientists debating its origins for years. Voyager also captured views of the planet’s lacy rings, and found that it is the coldest in the solar system, at minus 353 degrees Fahrenheit (59 Kelvin).

8. In Neptune’s Blue Realm

After picking up a gravitational speed boost at each previous planetary encounter, by the time Voyager reached Neptune it shot through the entire system of Neptunian rings and moons in a matter of hours. Voyager saw a titanic storm in Neptune’s windy atmosphere, discovered new moons, and revealed active geysers erupting on Triton’s frigid surface.

9. Postcards From the Edge

Although their cameras are no longer functioning, other key scientific instruments on board both Voyager spacecraft are still collecting data. Voyager 1 is exploring the boundary between the Sun’s realm and interstellar space. Voyager 2 hasn’t traveled quite as far. In September 2007, it crossed the termination shock (where the speed of the solar wind of charged particles drops below the speed of sound) at a point about 84 Astronomical Units from the Sun (more than twice the distance to Pluto). See https://go.nasa.gov/2uwrndb

10. Ride Along

Voyager’s mission is far from over. Engineers estimate the spacecraft will have enough power to operate into the mid-2020s. You can ride along at www.jpl.nasa.gov/voyager, or by following @NASAVoyager on Twitter and by downloading our free 3-D space simulation software, Eyes on the Solar System at eyes.nasa.gov.

One more thing: Inspired by the messages of goodwill carried on Voyager’s Golden Record, you’re invited to send a short, uplifting message to Voyager and all that lies beyond it via social media. With input from the Voyager team and a public vote, one of these messages will be selected for us to beam into interstellar space on Sept. 5, 2017—the 40th anniversary of Voyager 1’s launch. Post your message on social media with the tag #MessageToVoyager by Aug 15. Details: www.jpl.nasa.gov/voyager/message/

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

Lighting in The Last Jedi trailer and that scene we are all talking about.

Like many of you that last bit of the trailer had me screaming at the tv. After the initial freak out phase had passed, I began to slowly shift into the what if phase, meaning– are they baiting me? Now there are several theories out there about who Kylo is holding his hand out too. Some say its Leia and not Rey. What if I told you the proof is in the shot itself? 

I am about to give you a quick lesson in lighting, visual storytelling, and cinematography. 

Let’s go back to The Force Awakens as a reference guide. The lighting on Starkiller base bridge you know that scene where he kills his dad? 

Lighting was something they made sure to get right in this scene. Notice how Kylo’s face is half hidden in shadow and the other in light. Signifying his split.

JJ says this  “ And you see the light go away. And now they’re in this darkness. And darkness takes over.”

The play with light was even more apparent when Kylo and Rey face off against the edge of the cliff. 

Now I’m about to throw some cited literary sources about Film and Lighting just so it’s importance is established. 

“In visual storytelling, few elements are as effective and as powerful as light and color. They have the ability to reach the viewers at a purely emotional gut level”(Brown, 2012, p. 8).

Light becomes mood that gives its tone to a film. It calls upon our memory to react to physical phenomena such as cold, rain, fog, sun, or dryness, and come up with psychological equivalents such as annoyance, sadness, mystery, fear, anguish, comfort, joy, gaiety, etc. As these effects produce immediate impressions in viewers, the cinematographer is able to obtain psychological reactions out of mere technical means (Geuens, 2000, p. 153).


Architecture and Film both use perceptual psychology to get people to see spaces in a certain way. Architecture lighting designers skillfully illuminate buildings and rooms with psychological intentions.

Lighting designers think about a psychological response and how behavior is affected by lighting. Some examples are:

1. Visibility of vertical and horizontal junctions aids orientation.

2. People follow the brightest path.

3. Brightness can focus attention.

4. Facing wall luminance is a preference.

5. Lighting can affect body position (Ginthner, accessed April, 2013 p.2).

Just as lighting designers light spaces to stimulate human mood and behavior, Cinematographers light the space inside a movie frame with the intent to persuade a viewer’s perception. The way objects are lit in the frame will focus the viewer’s attention, the amount of shadows cast will limit perception, and changing lights can indicate a change in a character or opportunity (Brown, 2012).

However, unlike film, architecture has had a psychological study on how different light in a physical space effect human arousal, concentration, memory, work productivity, and Mood.

If you take any type of filmmaking class, this is one of the first things you learn. Nothing is a mistake in these films everything is as designed to serve a purpose. 

So let’s dive into the scene in question. 

Originally posted by mine-loves

First of all, let us talk about how these two shots are framed. They are close up only showing the faces of our characters. 

Close up shots typically contain just the face and shoulders of a subject, with a little headroom above. This prevents ‘floating head syndrome’ as the shoulders suggest to the brain that there is a body below! These shots are the most common of all as they can convey a real sense of emotion and help the audience to connect with the subject.

Second, let’s talk about the choice of lighting

They are both in a warm fiery glow. 

You can judge the quality of light in a film scene through the hardness or softness of its shadows. Hard quality light has dark shadows with sharp edges and often feels more raw than soft quality light. Soft lighting, often used in older films, has lighter, diffused shadows and tends to feel more sentimental.

And with advances in film technology, sharp shadows can also be quite romantic. Case in point, this still from the end of the 2005 version of Pride and Prejudice:

Third, let’s talk color 

Color temperature is one of the first things to note when studying the lighting in a romantic scene. Is it orange? Bluish? White? Most often, warm colors add to an inviting, romantic atmosphere. For example, the warm light in the sunset scene in Titanic draws the audience in, unlike the cold, blue lighting later in the movie, after things get dire.

Forth let’s talk context

This is not the same scene with Kylo. Rey is still wearing her resistance clothing. This is the beginning of the film. 

The context matters especially in this scene where Rey is talking about needing someone to show her where she belongs. Is this romantic? The answer is, no. Is it intimate? Yes. The scene can be set up this way without any romantic implications. But it is definitely meant to be intimate. Rey is vulnerable at this moment and is speaking from her heart to Luke. Please show me what to do with myself. 

Now let’s move to Kylo’s scene which is no doubt at the end of the movie (because his scar is healed.) 

Our big bad villain is bathed in nearly the exact same lighting and color as Rey’s shot, even the framing is the same. In no other shot ever has Kylo Ren been depicted in these colors. Not in the teaser and not in TFA. Kylo is always in red or dark. The context of this shot is very very important. He is reaching out palm up as to take someone’s hand. He does this slow and gentle. His face is soft with what I would say a plea. 

Yes, this is a call back to Darth Vader asking Luke to join him on the Darkside in Empire Strikes Back. But if you go back and watch that scene it is intimately framed (remember context matters), but the colors are pale. Lukes’ face is in agony. Vader extends his hand it’s rigid and forced.


Before I get into more examples, I want to point out that yes trailers are meant to give you an idea, and intrigue you but they are also meant to misdirect. 

Trailer Misdirects/Visual Storytelling and Dialogue

The misdirect of this scene is to make you believe Rey might join the dark side with Kylo or at least first glance. General Audience viewers casual fans who do not give it any second deep thought will accept this and move on. However, more dedicated fans will step in and try to dissect the scene by looking at the image and not the overall meaning behind everything we discussed above. The trailer isn’t designed to give anything away. Which leads me to say this is very smart editing on Rian’s behalf. While it doesn’t give us the answer of will, she or won’t she? It provides us with the question that we will inevitably discuss in length until the movie is released. 

 I would also like to point out there is a visual storytelling aspect of this trailer when it comes to the dialogue. 

One example of this not related to the scene in question comes from Poe Dameron.  He states “We have the spark that will ignite the fire to bring the First Order down.” The next scene we get is Finn. It is pretty clear that bit of dialogue was meant for Finn. He will no doubt help bring the FO down as other Stormtroopers defect as he did. Finn is that spark for the rebellion. Now let’s talk about the Rey/Kylo scene. The same thing happens here. Her dialogue coincides with the next shot of Kylo. Also, notice (scroll up if you need to) how their faces are opposite each other Rey is looking slightly to our left while Kylo is looking slightly to the right. Their positions are mirrored which is a recurring theme in the TFA (see the snow fight). This is beautiful visual storytelling. TFA was full of the same imagery lighting and storytelling. I have a post about it HERE

I went through and found scenes that mimic that of what we saw in the trailer, down to color, lighting, and frame.  I also chose male and female characters. Guess what, all of them were romantic. 

I chose this because of the flares in the background and the close-up framing of their faces. Notice yes the color is blue because they are parting (remember CONTEXT). 

Next, we have a scene from Pride and Prejudice, but beyond the romance aspect, I want you to watch the light change of this scene. Elizabeth is bathed in blue until she accepts Darcy, taking his hand. The sunlight beams between them warming the scene.  Skip to 3:10

Here is an oldie but a goody. I chose this due to the color. Now remember this film is old, lighting techniques have come a long way since the 1930s, but their choice of color is important, along with the shadows on their faces. 

Ah, Jon and Dany. This is very romantic (even tho its incest lol) But take a look at the lighting between them also this part is (NSFW) if you are gonna watch till the end. You were warned. 


And now for the grand finale TFA cliff scene. Oh, I chose this little diddy to drive home a point. Kylo and Reys’ faces are framed intimately (which signified they would have a more profound connection later and at that moment they were finding the Force together) But also notice their faces are bathed in mostly pale colors due to it being cold. Yes, the lightsabers flicker red and blue onto them. Yes, that holds meaning as well, the fight between the dark and the light. But the overall pallet is pale frigid colors. Also, the context -- there’s that word again– of this scene is they are enemies fighting. Kylo does want to teach her, but he’s aggressive and forceful, to say the least. It is a stark contrast to what we see in TLJ trailer. Where he is calm relaxed and in warm, inviting lighting. No aggressive posture, no forceful plea.

If you want to contrast another couple, please refer to Pride and Prejudice again. I can’t upload it here, but this is the link. This is where Darcy says he loves Elizabeth, but she rejects him. They have close-ups, but the color and lighting are not intimate. Its pale lighter and blue. All things that are associated with sadness rejection etc. You get the point. 

So in conclusion. It is my opinion based on all information gathered on cinematography, that yes the relationship between Kylo Ren or perhaps Ben Solo at this point has drastically changed. It is no longer one of animosity or hate. Judging by the warm colors, and the soft shadows and above all else the context of the gesture/posture/facial expression of Ben it is romantic or at the very least (for the skeptics) a special relationship– Remember Rey and Ben are similar in Force power according to Luke- this gives them a bridge to each other one that will take them to understanding and COMPASSION. I am not saying they kiss, I am not saying they are a couple at the end of this movie. I am saying that it’s possible that it will move in this direction. They no longer hate each other. How did we get to this point? Well, we have a whole Act 1 and 2 to get through for that answer. 

I will stress that I believe that yes Ben/Kylo is holding his hand out to Rey. And no, it is not out of malice or deception. He is not asking her to join him on the Darkside… He is asking her to go with him and for acceptance. 

I made a follow-up post to this because this was so long! Please click here to see more examples and extra information

Nothing More [ III ]

Genre [Rating] : Angst

Length: 8.7k

Pairing: Baekhyun x Reader

Summary: Watching the man you love love someone else was the most painful feeling in the world.

Nothing More Masterlist

Originally posted by katherine8595

Having a secret for so long that suddenly becomes public was uncomfortable and dread inducing. A part of you you’d kept locked away from prying eyes for years had not only been thrown into the spotlight, but shown to the one person you hadn’t wanted to see it. You felt naked, you hadn’t been ready to let the world know you were completely in love with Byun Baekhyun, but at the same time, you couldn’t help but feel a little relieved. The weight of keeping it hidden was gone off your shoulders but they still remained sagged from the pain in your chest.

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Bruise [ IV ]

Genre [Rating] : Angst [M]

Length: 9.8k

Pairing: Chanyeol x Reader

Summary: He wasn’t yours, and you weren’t his, but that couldn’t stop your heart from believing otherwise.

Bruise Masterlist

Originally posted by porkdo-bi

The frigid air blowing against your back did little to alleviate the heat brewing just under your skin, lips parted as you gulped down oxygen. A daze was overtaking your brain as your eyes fell shut and your lungs heaved, a thin layer of sweat coating your skin. His lips pressed into your barely covered chest, followed by your collarbones, making a trail of wet open mouthed kisses up your neck. It made a lazy smile flutter up on your lips, fingers reaching out to push through his hair as his palms slid along your hips, grinding you down against his lap. He leaned forward and combined his lips with your parted ones, exhaling heavily against them as his body fidgeted with a faint moan. It vibrated through you as your palms massaged his broad chest, the car filled with enough heat to begin fogging the tinted windows while you straddled his lap.

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Together, Alone (Soulmark AU)

Idk how people feel about reading 1.6K drabbles on tumblr, so I also posted it on AO3 for funsies! 

Dedicated to @serpensthesia for her birthday! #serpaken for life <3

Thanks to @bixgirl1 and @jadepresley for reading over this for me! And to @femmequixotic and @noeeon for encouraging the idea and making me write! <3<3<3


It started on his seventeenth birthday.

Draco had known it would start then, of course. That part was normal. The clock was supposed to manifest as a tattoo on his skin, and begin its countdown to the moment Draco would meet his Soulmate. He’d been looking forward to the clock’s appearance all year— desperate for anything that might take his mind off his hopeless situation. Draco was exhausted, the damned cabinet was never going to be fixed, and his whole family was probably going to die as punishment.

And Draco had been prepared to die with them, resigned to the fact that his countdown tattoo might not appear at all, or might be stuck at 00:00:00:00:00:00 right from the beginning.

Draco had not, however, been prepared for the clock to appear at midnight and begin counting down from a mere one minute and seventeen seconds. His heart jumped in his chest. Clearly Draco was one of those rare wizards who had already met their Soulmate, but hadn’t known yet because he wasn’t of age at the time. Which didn’t help Draco in the slightest, as he could think of precisely nobody at Hogwarts who he might like to spend the rest of his life with.

He stood up from the stool he’d set in front of the hopeless cabinet, grabbed his wand, and began making his way to the door of the Room of Hidden Things. Between the time he’d spent staring at his countdown in disbelief, the time it took to reach the door, and the few seconds he devoted to not panicking, the clock reached zero at the very moment he pushed open the door.

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natgeo Photo by @cristinamittermeier // Like a rainbow river, a large pod of belugas streamed across the shallow estuaries of the Canadian Arctic. I watched as their alabaster skin picked up the pastel hues of the cold water. In shades of purple, pink green and blue, they painted the frigid sea.

  • Me: *thinks of my favourite protagonists*
  • Aelin: Guts enemies covered in blood and smiling like a maniac
  • Kaz: iconically rips out a guy's fucking eye with his own fingers and then throws him off a ship into frigid water
  • Adelina: kills a man she knows well by literally scaring him into so much fictional pain he dies
  • Feyre: brings her enemies to the home of a death god and leaves with smile on her face referring to them as "dinner"
  • Me: Precious cinnamon rolls, too good, too pure for this world. Must be protected; my children