Francisco-Cordero

Austronesian Roots of the Tagalog Peoples

As with virtually all the lowland peoples of Maritime Southeast Asia, the Tagalog people who settled on Lusong (the Pasig River delta area, including the polities of Tondo and Maynila) were austronesians. (Scott, 1994 p.12;  Alvina,2011 p.9 ) (Osborne, 2004) They had a rich, complex culture, with its own expressions of language and writing, religion, art, and music. (Benitez-Johannot,2011)(Osborne, 2004)

There is some debate (Alvina,2011) about whether the Austronesian culture first came to the Philippines from continental Asia as proposed by Peter Bellwood and later Robert Blust (Alvina,2011), or from Maritime Southeast Asia as proposed by Wilhelm Solheim and  William Meacham (Alvina,2011). But the general consensus among scholars (Alvina,2011) is that the austronesians settled in the Philippines during the earliest stages of their migratory dispersal no later than about 3,500 years ago, (Alvina,2011) and later waves of migration spread from the Philippine Archipelago to reach as far east as Easter Island (Langdon, 2001; Van Tillburg 2004), and as far west as Madagascar. ( Burney, et. al., 2004; Dewar and Wright, 1993)

The cultural heritage uncovered by this recent scholarship explains why Philippine cultures, as pointed out by writers such as Nick Joaquin, seem even more similar to Micronesian and Polynesian cultures than they are to Continental Asian and Maritime Southeast Asian cultures.(Joaquin, 1988)

These Austronesian cultures are defined by their languages, and by a number of key technologies including the prominent use of boats, the construction of thatched houses on piles, the cultivation of tubers and rice, and a characteristic social organization typically led by a “big man” or “man of power.” (Benitez-Johannot,2011)(Osborne, 2004)

Deeply ingrained Austronesian religious beliefs persist to this day (Maggay, 1999; Demetrio, Et. Al, 1991 ), having syncretistically incorporated elements of hinduism and buddhism (Osborne, 2004), and having later adapted the structures of later dominant religeons, (Osborne, 2004;  Benitez-Johannot,2011) creating the syncretistic forms of “folk islam” and “folk catholicism,” (Maggay, 1999) which can still be observed in the Tagalog region and throughout the Philippine archipelago today.(Maggay, 1999)

References

Alvina, Corazon S. (September 16, 2011). Benitez-Johannot, Purissima, ed. Foreword. Paths Of Origins: The Austronesian Heritage In The Collections Of The National Museum Of The Philippines, The Museum Nasional Of Indonesia, And The Netherlands Rijksmuseum Voor Volkenkunde. Makati City, Philippines: Artpostasia Pte Ltd. p. 9. ISBN 9789719429203. {{cite book
 |url= |title=Foreword |last=Alvina |first=Corazon S. |date=September 16, 2011
|work=Paths Of Origins: The Austronesian Heritage In The Collections Of The National Museum Of The Philippines, The Museum Nasional Of Indonesia, And The Netherlands Rijksmuseum Voor Volkenkunde |publisher=Artpostasia Pte Ltd |year= | isbn=9789719429203 |editor-last=Benitez-Johannot |editor-first=Purissima |edition= |volume= |location=Makati City, Philippines |pages=9 |authorlink=}}

Benitez-Johannot, Purissima, ed. (September 16, 2011). Paths Of Origins: The Austronesian Heritage In The Collections Of The National Museum Of The Philippines, The Museum Nasional Of Indonesia, And The Netherlands Rijksmuseum Voor Volkenkunde. Makati City, Philippines: Artpostasia Pte Ltd. ISBN 9789719429203.  {{cite book |url= |title=Paths Of Origins: The Austronesian Heritage In The Collections Of The National Museum Of The Philippines, The Museum Nasional Of Indonesia, And The Netherlands Rijksmuseum Voor Volkenkunde |last= |first= |date=September 16, 2011  |publisher=Artpostasia Pte Ltd |year= |isbn=9789719429203 |editor-last=Benitez-Johannot |editor-first=Purissima |edition= |volume=
|location=Makati City, Philippines |pages= |authorlink=}}

Burney DA, Burney LP, Godfrey LR, Jungers WL, Goodman SM, Wright HT, Jull AJ (2004). “A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar”. Journal of Human Evolution. 47 (1–2): 25–63. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.05.005. PMID 15288523.<ref name=“Burney2004”>{{cite journal | doi = 10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.05.005 | last1 = Burney | first1 = DA |name-list-format=vanc| last2 = Burney| year = 2004 | first2 = LP | last3 = Godfrey | first3 = LR | last4 = Jungers | first4 = WL | last5 = Goodman | first5 = SM | last6 = Wright | first6 = HT | last7 = Jull | first7 = AJ | title = A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar | journal = Journal of Human Evolution | volume = 47 | issue = 1–2| pages = 25–63 | pmid = 15288523 }}</ref>

Demetrio, Et. Al, 1991 {{cite book |url= |title=The Soul Book: Introduction to Philippine Pagan Religion | last1 =  Demetrio | first1 = Francisco R. | last2 =  Cordero-Fernando | first2 = Gilda | last3 =  Nakpil-Zialcita | first4 = Fernando
| last4 =  Feleo | first3 = Roberto B.  |date= 1991 |publisher=  GCF Books, Quezon City |year= |isbn= |editor-last= |editor-first= |edition= |volume= |location= |pages= |authorlink=}} asin=B007FR4S8G

Dewar, RE; Wright, HT (1993). “The culture history of Madagascar”. Journal of World Prehistory. 7 (4): 417–466. doi:10.1007/BF00997802.<ref name=“Dewar1993”>{{cite journal | doi = 10.1007/BF00997802 | last1 = Dewar | first1 = RE | last2 = Wright | first2 = HT |  year = 1993 | title = The culture history of Madagascar | journal = Journal of World Prehistory | volume = 7 | issue = 4| pages = 417–466 }}</ref>

Joaqiun, Nick (1988). Culture and History. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, Inc. p. 411. ISBN 971-27-1300-8. {{cite book | last = Joaqiun | first = Nick | authorlink = Nick Joaqiun | coauthors =  | title =Culture and History | publisher = Anvil Publishing, Inc. | date = 1988 | location = Pasig City | pages = 411 | volume = | edition =  | url = | doi = | id =   | isbn = 971-27-1300-8 }}

Langdon, Robert. The Bamboo Raft as a Key to the Introduction of the Sweet Potato in Prehistoric Polynesia, The Journal of Pacific History’, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2001<ref>Langdon, Robert. The Bamboo Raft as a Key to the Introduction of the Sweet Potato in Prehistoric Polynesia, “The Journal of Pacific History’, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2001</ref>

Maggay, Melba Padilla (1999). Filipino Religious Consciousness. Quezon City: Institute for Studies in Asian Church and Culture. ISBN 971-8743-07-3.{{cite book  | last = Maggay  | first = Melba Padilla  | authorlink = Melba Padilla Maggay  | coauthors =  | title = Filipino Religious Consciousness | publisher = Institute for Studies in Asian Church and Culture | date = 1999  | location = Quezon City  | pages =  | volume =  | edition =   | url =  | doi =  | id =    | isbn = 971-8743-07-3  }}

Osborne, Milton (2004). Southeast Asia: An Introductory History (Ninth Edition ed.). Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-448-5. {{cite book | last = Osborne | first = Milton | authorlink = Milton Osborne | coauthors = | title = Southeast Asia: An Introductory History | publisher = Allen & Unwin | date = 2004 | location = Australia | pages = | volume = | edition = Ninth Edition | url = | doi = | id =  | isbn = 1-74114-448-5 }}

Van Tilburg, Jo Anne. 1994. Easter Island: Archaeology, Ecology and Culture. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press
<ref>Van Tilburg, Jo Anne. 1994. ’‘Easter Island: Archaeology, Ecology and Culture.” Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press</ref>