PHOENICIAN architecture is typified by large temples with double-columned facades approached by a short staircase, enclosed sacred spaces containing cube-like and open-fronted shrines, and such large-scale engineering projects as dams and artificial harbours. High fortification walls included square towers and gates, and were built of mud-bricks and limestone, as were more the modest domestic buildings. 

The paucity of archaeological remains from the period when Phoenician cities were at their height makes general statements dangerous, but it is possible to say that Phoenician architects were relatively austere and sparing in the use of decorative elements both inside and outside their buildings.  

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Article by Mark Cartwright on AHE

The Process Church of The Final Judgment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Process, or in full, The Process Church of the Final Judgment, commonly known by non-members as the Process Church, was a religious group that flourished in the 1960s and 1970s, founded by the English couple Mary Ann and Robert DeGrimston (originally Mary Ann MacLean and Robert Moor). Originally headquartered in London, it had developed as a splinter group from Scientology, so that they were declared “suppressive persons” by L. Ron Hubbard in December 1965. In 1966, members of the group underwent a social implosion and moved to Xtul on Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula, where they developed “processean” theology (which differs from, and is unrelated to process theology). They later established a base of operations in the United States in New Orleans.

They were often viewed as Satanic on the grounds that they worshiped both Christ and Satan. Their belief was that Satan would become reconciled to Christ, and they would come together at the end of the world to judge humanity, Christ to judge and Satan to execute judgment. Vincent Bugliosi, the prosecutor of the Charles Manson family trial, comments in his book Helter Skelter that Manson may have borrowed philosophically from the Process Church, and that representatives of the Church visited him in jail after his arrest. According to one of those representatives, the purpose of the visit was to question Manson about whether he had ever had any contact with Church members or ever received any literature about the Church. The group published an article about Manson and the jail visit in the The Process magazine’s special “Death” edition.

In April 1974, Robert de Grimston was removed by the Council of Masters as Teacher. They renounced The Unity, his exposition of the above-noted doctrines, and most of his other teachings. De Grimston attempted to restart the Process Church several times, but he could never replace his original following. Following de Grimston’s removal, the group underwent a significant change in orientation and renamed itself the Foundation – Church of the Millennium. Many of the same believers left to follow Gilles Deleuze’s Anti-Oedipal movement. In 1978, the Foundation was renamed the Foundation Faith of the Millennium and in 1993 the Foundation Faith of God. The organization eventually became Best Friends Animal Sanctuary in Kanab, UT, later renamed Best Friends Animal Society.

*steeples fingers*

(ok you can clearly tell I got a little carried away with all the colors and tiny stars around Aisling’s URL….)
I was tagged by @castikale

1. Name
2. URL
3. Blog Title
4. Favorite Color
5. Current Crush/ Significant Other
6. Write something in all caps
7. Favorite Band/ Artist
8. Favorite Number
9. Favorite Drink
10. Tag 10 People

@jewelcas @gabrieltrash
@sammy-deanchester @nickthevessel
@synergygabriel @synergysam

Happy World Turtle Day!

Turtles have been on this planet for over 200 million years. However, in a relatively short time (since the rise of humans) they have become threatened – 44% of known turtle species are officially considered critically endangered or vulnerable to extinction.

Today, 23 May, is World Turtle Day. We’ve dived in to The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians and discovered some amazing facts about these ancient creatures – what’s your favorite fact about turtles from the five below?

  1. A turtle’s armor shell is unique in the animal kingdom, made of two parts (the back and front) it generally comprises around 50-60 bones.
  2. Most adult turtles and tortoises have a shell length of at least 13cm (5in). The world’s smallest species are the Speckled cape tortoise, Flattened musk turtle, and Bog turtle, whereas the largest living turtle is the Leatherback seaturtle, whose shell reaches up to 244cm (96in).
  3. Although turtles are slow on land, due to their massive shells, when they enter the water they can reach speeds of over 30km/hour (18.6mph).
  4. Some species of turtles migrate over 4,500km (that’s 2,800 miles) to make their nests – which is like travelling the length of the United Kingdom 4.5 times. Whereas others have nesting frenzies, when over 200,000 females nest on the same small beach over two days.
  5. Some aquatic species of turtles don’t just breathe using their lungs – some can also respire through their skin, the lining of the throat, and through thin-walled sacs, or bursae, in the cloaca.

Images: 1) Squirtle, by mem0. CC-BY-2.0 via Flickr. 2) Turtle, by Hiroaki Home. Public domain via Pixabay.


Iconographic encyclopaedia of science, literature, and art. ; by Heck, J. G. (Johann Georg), -185- Baird, Spencer Fullerton, 1823-1887 on Flickr.

Publication info New York,R. Garrigue,1852.
BHL Collections:
Smithsonian Libraries
plate explanation

Made with Flickr

iPads and a paperless world from the past

Reminiscing over Encyclopedia Britannica’s just retired print edition, Bob Stein of if:book has posted a few drawings he and then-Atari Chief Scientist Alan Kay made 30 years ago, imagining a future similar to today, with people using what they called the Intelligent Encyclopedia.

The most interesting thing for me today about these images is that although we foresaw that people would be accessing information wirelessly (notice the little antenna on the device in the “tide pool” image, we completely missed the most important aspect of the network – that it was going to connect people to other people.


Iconographic encyclopaedia of science, literature, and art. ; by Heck, J. G. (Johann Georg), -185- Baird, Spencer Fullerton, 1823-1887 on Flickr.

Publication info New York,R. Garrigue,1852.
BHL Collections:
Smithsonian Libraries
* plate explanations (Thanks http://smithsonianlibraries.tumblr.com/ ) -


Made with Flickr
The Devil’s Closeup, and Other News
The devil (detail), from Codex Gigas, 13th centuryThe owner of the red wheelbarrow finally gets his due for leaving his humble gardening implement in the rain, next to his white chickens, creating the simple image that inspired Williams Carlos Williams’ most anthologized poem, “The Red Wheelbarrow.”Wikipedia’s genius is old hat. Denis Diderot spent over twenty years... Read More »
By Jeffery Gleaves

Trying to write the world’s biggest book in one night? No problem. Paint a full-page portrait of the devil and hand him your mortal soul.

“Art museums not only mediate the influence of markets and organizations on aesthetic norms, they also participate in broader cultural change. Art museums are repositories of collective memory and physical embodiments of cultural authority and symbolic power. They define and patrol aesthetic boundaries between art and non-art, and between great art and the merely mundane.”

- Today is International Museum Day. Celebrate the history, development, and current status of art museums and their role in the history of art and aesthetics with the Encyclopedia of Aesthetics.

Image: ‘Milan Pegasus gallery’ by IgorSaveliev. CC0 Public Domain via Pixabay.



ANCIENT Maya government was formed on the basis that rulers were thought to have been god-like, which to some might suggest one unified state. However, the consensus amongst anthropologists supports that each major Maya city remained its own independent and sovereign entity with its own unique struggles for political power. 

The Maya belief in god-like rulers also made it important to keep the line of power in the family, which would occasionally include a woman ruler.

The various Maya city-states are found in what is today Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. The civilization extended from circa 1500 BCE to approximately 1500 CE. These years are typically divided into three periods; the Pre-classic, the Classic, and Post-classic. 

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Article  by Mark Cartwright on AHE