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Spader Appreciation Week

Day 2 - Favorite James Spader Character and Why: Alan Shore

• He is highly intelligent.

• He makes me laugh.

• He made me think.

• I love how fiercely loyal he is.

• He suffers from a phobia and anxiety and I can relate to that.

• He fights what he believes to be right. And he does it so passionately, it’s just amazing to watch.

• He makes me feel all tingly, in a very, very good way ;)

• Like Shirley said about him “ You’re not a simple man, you’re extremely complicated, [..], profoundly layered.”

He is kind and generous.

• To me, he doesn’t seem to give a fuck about what others think about him.

I probably forgot some things. He simply moves me profoundly and I have a tremendous affection and respect for him (however, I do not approve of some of his actions toward women, I need to say it.) I still wish we could know more about his past and what he did after the last episode of season 5!

The first time I watched Boston Legal, I was going through a difficult time and Alan and this show became a safe place and it will always have a special place in my heart.


“Have you ever heard of a Greek philosopher named Epictetus? He was funny man with a certain flare for life. Epictetus compared people who “fit in” to the white threads of a toga. Indistinguishable. He wanted to be the purple thread. “That small part which is bright, and makes all the rest appear graceful and beautiful. Why then” he asked, “do you tell me to make myself like the many? And if I do, how shall I still be purple?”


Frosty Cold Nights Year-Round on Mars May Stir Dust
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NASA - Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) patch.

July 8, 2016

Some dusty parts of Mars get as cold at night year-round as the planet’s poles do in winter, even regions near the equator in summer, according to new NASA findings based on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter observations.

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Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech
The surface in these regions becomes so frigid overnight that an extremely thin layer of carbon dioxide frost appears to form. The frost then vaporizes in the morning. Enough dust covers these regions that their heat-holding capacity is low and so the daily temperature swing is large. Daily volatilization of frost crystals that form among the dust grains may help keep the dust fluffy and so sustain this deep overnight chill.

Carbon dioxide is the main ingredient of Mars’ atmosphere. The planet also has large reserves of frozen carbon dioxide buried in the polar ice caps. Seasonal buildup and thawing of carbon dioxide frost at high latitudes on Mars have been studied for years and linked to strange phenomena such as geyser-like eruptions and groove-cutting ice sleds.

Here’s what’s new knowledge: the presence and extent of transient overnight carbon dioxide frosts, even at middle and low latitudes. Infrared-wavelength observations of dust-covered regions by the Mars Climate Sounder instrument on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter not only indicate cold-enough nighttime surface temperatures for carbon dioxide frost to form, they also detect a spectrum signature at night consistent with a trace of frost.

“The temperature gets so low, you start freezing the atmosphere onto the surface,” said Sylvain Piqueux of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, lead author of a report on these findings published online by the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. “Once you reach that temperature, you don’t get colder, you just accumulate more frost. So even on the polar caps, the surface temperature isn’t any colder than what these lower-latitude regions get to overnight.”

Three middle- and low-latitude areas in the Tharsis, Arabia and Elysium regions of Mars have nightly temperatures cold enough for carbon dioxide frost year-round or nearly year-round. Each of the three is bigger than Texas. All three are dust-covered to the extent that surface temperatures change much quicker than in areas with exposed-bedrock surfaces.

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Image above: This map shows the frequency of carbon dioxide frost’s presence at sunrise on Mars, as a percentage of days year-round. Carbon dioxide ice more often covers the ground at night in some mid-latitude regions than in polar regions, where it is generally absent for much of summer and fall. Image Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

Piqueux said, “These same regions that are coldest at night are the warmest during the day.  It has to do with the nature of the material – it’s so fluffy. Think of when you’re at the beach on a  summer afternoon, where you step on the fine grain sand. You almost burn your foot, it’s so hot at the surface, but just below the surface it’s not as hot, and if you touch a boulder, it doesn’t feel as hot. Then it’s the opposite at night: The surface of the sand cools off quickly, while the boulder stays warm.”

Unlike the polar regions, at lower latitudes the atmosphere is warmer than the ground at night. A critical step in understanding just how cold the ground in these areas gets at night was correcting observations of the planet’s surface for slightly warmer atmospheric temperatures. Temperatures are determined from orbit by analyzing the infrared radiation observed at the top of the atmosphere; this includes radiation from both the ground and the atmosphere. The Mars Climate Sounder instrument, by observing both sideways toward the horizon from orbit and downward, can record infrared emissions from a cross-section of the atmosphere, as well as from the planet’s surface. Analysis then reveals the true – colder – ground temperature.

The same instrument also provides readings at multiple infrared wavelengths, yielding results consistent with the presence of microscopic-scale carbon dioxide frost crystals forming a layer no thicker than a few sheets of paper.

“If at night you form little frost crystals between the grains of dust on the surface, pushing the grains apart, then the frost crystal becomes a little puff of air in the morning, that might be helping to maintain the fluffiness of the surface,” Piqueux said. “You prevent the cementation of grains, the locking together of grains into a more consolidated surface. It’s a self-maintaining process: Where you keep the soil fluffy, you maintain the conditions to form frost at night.”

“A cycle of carbon dioxide frost that happens every night could be related to other active processes on Mars,” said Rich Zurek, JPL’s chief Mars scientist. “This agitation of the soil would affect surface physical properties and could have implications for erosive processes and for the exchange of water vapor between the atmosphere and surface.”

Many streaks on Martian slopes appear to be slides of dry material, with no liquid involved. The lubrication effect of carbon dioxide frost thawing directly into gas has been linked to such slides where winter frost thaws in spring. Daily frost cycles may have similar effects.

Another type of slope activity on Mars is called recurring slope lineae (RSL). These appear as dark streaks advancing downhill in a warm season, then fade away, then re-appear the next warm season. Hydrated salt has been confirmed at some of these sites, and they are considered the strongest evidence for the possible presence of liquid water on the surface of modern Mars. “Although RSL appear to start on steep, rocky slopes, the realization that overnight carbon dioxide frosts occur even during warm seasons adds another factor to be considered in RSL activity,” Zurek said.

The science instruments on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have been examining Mars since 2006. JPL, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington and built the Mars Climate Sounder. Lockheed Martin Space Systems of Denver built the orbiter and supports its operations.

Martian Morse Code

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This image of dark dunes on Mars was taken on Feb. 6, 2016, at 15:16 local Mars time by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. These dunes are influenced by local topography. The shape and orientation of dunes can usually tell us about wind direction, but in this image, the dune-forms are very complex, so it’s difficult to know the wind direction.

However, a circular depression (probably an old and infilled impact crater) has limited the amount of sand available for dune formation and influenced local winds. As a result, the dunes here form distinct dots and dashes. The “dashes” are linear dunes formed by bi-directional winds, which are not traveling parallel to the dune. Instead, the combined effect of winds from two directions at right angles to the dunes, funnels material into a linear shape. The smaller “dots” (called “barchanoid dunes”) occur where there is some interruption to the process forming those linear dunes. This process is not well understood at present and is one motivation for HiRISE to image this area.

The University of Arizona, Tucson, operates HiRISE, which was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Project for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/Caption: HiRISE Targeting Specialists.

Related link:

High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera: http://www.uahirise.org/ESP_044675_2580

For more information about Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO): http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/MRO/main/index.html

Images (mentioned), Text, Credits: NASA/Tony Greicius/JPL/Guy Webster/Sarah Loff.

Greetings, Orbiter.ch
Full article
2

These pictures of a nuclear blast were produced by an unusual type of film. Nuclear explosions vary enormously in brightness, from the radiance of a thousand suns to the dimness of a luminous watch dial, a range no conventional film can record. Changes in the brightness indicate changes in temperature.

To get accurate data on brightness and thus temperature during nuclear tests, Charles Wyckoff, of a research company called EG&G, Inc., devised a special film called ‘XR’ for extended range. XR film is comprised of three panchromatic layers: an extremely slow layer (colour coded cyan blue) to record the brightest phenomena; a medium-speed layer (magenta) for intermediate brightness; and a high-speed layer (yellow) for faint phenomena.

These photographs show an explosion conducted by the AEC before the 1963 test ban treaty. The searingly hot, 300,000°C fireball, recorded on the film’s slow layer at the start of the sequence, takes on – in the false-color code – a deep-bluish cast against a blood-red sky (1). As the fireball expands, it first (2) dims to red as it is obscured by opaque gases and then darkens again. In 5, expanding shock waves encounter moisture-laden layers of atmosphere creating rings of condensation which spread, rise and multiply. By 11, they are several miles in diameter. When the rising fireball reaches a cooler altitude, moisture freezes (14), capping the fireball with a cascade of ice. Finally, about a minute after detonation, nothing registers on the XR film but a yellow wisp (20) of radioactive cloud.

-LIFE magazine, 23 Dec 1966

Frosty Cold Nights Year-Round on Mars May Stir Dust

Some dusty parts of Mars get as cold at night year-round as the planet’s poles do in winter, even regions near the equator in summer, according to new NASA findings based on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter observations.

The surface in these regions becomes so frigid overnight that an extremely thin layer of carbon dioxide frost appears to form. The frost then vaporizes in the morning. Enough dust covers these regions that their heat-holding capacity is low and so the daily temperature swing is large. Daily volatilization of frost crystals that form among the dust grains may help keep the dust fluffy and so sustain this deep overnight chill.

Carbon dioxide is the main ingredient of Mars’ atmosphere. The planet also has large reserves of frozen carbon dioxide buried in the polar ice caps. Seasonal buildup and thawing of carbon dioxide frost at high latitudes on Mars have been studied for years and linked to strange phenomena such as geyser-like eruptions and groove-cutting ice sleds.

Here’s what’s new knowledge: the presence and extent of transient overnight carbon dioxide frosts, even at middle and low latitudes. Infrared-wavelength observations of dust-covered regions by the Mars Climate Sounder instrument on NASA’s Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter not only indicate cold-enough nighttime surface temperatures for carbon dioxide frost to form, they also detect a spectrum signature at night consistent with a trace of frost.

“The temperature gets so low, you start freezing the atmosphere onto the surface,” said Sylvain Piqueux of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, lead author of a report on these findings published online by the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. “Once you reach that temperature, you don’t get colder, you just accumulate more frost. So even on the polar caps, the surface temperature isn’t any colder than what these lower-latitude regions get to overnight.”

Three middle- and low-latitude areas in the Tharsis, Arabia and Elysium regions of Mars have nightly temperatures cold enough for carbon dioxide frost year-round or nearly year-round. Each of the three is bigger than Texas. All three are dust-covered to the extent that surface temperatures change much quicker than in areas with exposed-bedrock surfaces.

Piqueux said, “These same regions that are coldest at night are the warmest during the day. It has to do with the nature of the material – it’s so fluffy. Think of when you’re at the beach on a summer afternoon, where you step on the fine grain sand. You almost burn your foot, it’s so hot at the surface, but just below the surface it’s not as hot, and if you touch a boulder, it doesn’t feel as hot. Then it’s the opposite at night: The surface of the sand cools off quickly, while the boulder stays warm.”

Unlike the polar regions, at lower latitudes the atmosphere is warmer than the ground at night. A critical step in understanding just how cold the ground in these areas gets at night was correcting observations of the planet’s surface for slightly warmer atmospheric temperatures. Temperatures are determined from orbit by analyzing the infrared radiation oserved at the top of the atmosphere; this includes radiation from both the ground and the atmosphere. The Mars Climate Sounder instrument, by observing both sideways toward the horizon from orbit and downward, can record infrared emissions from a cross-section of the atmosphere, as well as from the planet’s surface. Analysis then reveals the true – colder – ground temperature.

The same instrument also provides readings at multiple infrared wavelengths, yielding results consistent with the presence of microscopic-scale carbon dioxide frost crystals forming a layer no thicker than a few sheets of paper.

“If at night you form little frost crystals between the grains of dust on the surface, pushing the grains apart, then the frost crystal becomes a little puff of air in the morning, that might be helping to maintain the fluffiness of the surface,” Piqueux said. “You prevent the cementation of grains, the locking together of grains into a more consolidated surface. It’s a self-maintaining process: Where you keep the soil fluffy, you maintain the conditions to form frost at night.”

“A cycle of carbon dioxide frost that happens every night could be related to other active processes on Mars,” said Rich Zurek, JPL’s chief Mars scientist. “This agitation of the soil would affect surface physical properties and could have implications for erosive processes and for the exchange of water vapor between the atmosphere and surface.”

Many streaks on Martian slopes appear to be slides of dry material, with no liquid involved. The lubrication effect of carbon dioxide frost thawing directly into gas has been linked to such slides where winter frost thaws in spring. Daily frost cycles may have similar effects.

Another type of slope activity on Mars is called recurring slope lineae (RSL). These appear as dark streaks advancing downhill in a warm season, then fade away, then re-appear the next warm season. Hydrated salt has been confirmed at some of these sites, and they are considered the strongest evidence for the possible presence of liquid water on the surface of modern Mars. “Although RSL appear to start on steep, rocky slopes, the realization that overnight carbon dioxide frosts occur even during warm seasons adds another factor to be considered in RSL activity,” Zurek said.

The science instruments on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have been examining Mars since 2006. JPL, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington and built the Mars Climate Sounder. Lockheed Martin Space Systems of Denver built the orbiter and supports its operations.

IMAGE….Where on Mars Does Carbon Dioxide Frost Form Often? This map shows the frequency of carbon dioxide frost’s presence at sunrise on Mars, as a percentage of days year-round. Carbon dioxide ice more often covers the ground at night in some mid-latitude regions than in polar regions, where it is generally absent for much of summer and fall.
Color coding is based on data from the Mars Climate Sounder instrument on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. A color-key bar below the map shows how colors correspond to frequencies. Yellow indicates high frequencies, identifying areas where carbon dioxide ice is present on the ground at night during most of the year. Blue identifies areas where it is rarely present; red is intermediate. Areas without color coding are regions where carbon dioxide frost is not detected at any time of year.
The areas with highest frequency of overnight carbon dioxide frost correspond to regions with surfaces of loose dust, which do not retain heat well, compared to rockier areas. Those areas also have some of the highest mid-afternoon temperatures on the planet. The dust surface heats up and cools off rapidly.
Six science instruments on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have been examining Mars since 2006. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington and built the Mars Climate Sounder. Lockheed Martin Space Systems of Denver built the orbiter and operates it in collaboration with JPL.

tnb: has an incredible main cast that are extremely layered and likable and all very unique and beautifully written, like, no exceptions

my predictable, horrid ass: [points to the villain of the last 20 minutes of the second movie whose one and only purpose is to showcase how far one of the protags has come] That One