Pont Flavien (English: Flavian Bridge)

Saint-Chamas, France

~12 BCE

25 m. in length

The bridge probably replaced an earlier wooden structure on the same site. It measures 21.4 metres  long by 6.2 metres wide.The two arches at either end, each standing 7 metres high with a single wide bay, are constructed of the same local stone as the bridge and are broader than they are tall. At the corners of the arches are fluted Corinthian pilasters at the top of which are carved eagles. Acanthus scrolls extend partway along the pediments, in the middle of which is an inscription that reads:




In translation, this means:

Lucius Donnius, son of Caius, Flavos, flamen [priest] of Rome and Augustus, has ordained in his will that [this monument] be built under the direction of Cauis Donnius Vena and Caius Attius Rufius.

rundown of the Italian renaissance

more notes.. YAY!!!


  1. black death = basically the end of the nobles and the rise of the kings 
  2. europe isn’t alone anymore cuz of the crusades and is now interacting and getting new ideas and spreading new ones 
  3. wealthy merchants are getting big cuz of trade and are now using arts and writing to show their wealth
    1. the competition leads to more education and art 


  • well they are right SMACK in the middle of the Mediterranean sea (MARE NOSTRUM) and basically are at the best location for trade. 


  • all of the di’ Medicis
    • literally they were the coolest
    • they were bankers who were patrons of the art 
    • pretty much ran all of Florence (oligarchies) 
    • sponsored libraries, the arts, the Socratic school there 
    • it reached its peak under Lorenzo the Magnificent 


  • medieval
    • God is the fucking best and were all puny humans
    • we have no purpose and are pretty much insignificant 
    • even art was for god and not for the glory of the individual artists 
    • spiritual values and salvation 
  • renaissance
    • people are like the bets thing so set foot on this earth 
    • we gotta focus on the individual and we are awesome
    • people became focused on themselves and the merit
    • new idea of an “ideal renaissance man”
      • well rounded 
      • full range of human abilities
    • people interested in their material possessions: expensive foods, fine music and arts 


  • new focus on secularism and not on religion 
  • people revering back to the classical text from Greeks and Romans
  • studying literature, rhetoric, and history from the classics 
  • Lorenzo Valla 
    • proved that the Donation of Constantine was a sloppy forgery and made the church look stupid


  • the humanist during the Renaissance used the classics to study human nature and use it practically (ehem common core ehem) 
  • taught things like history, grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy form the Roman and Greek classics 
  • believe that this new curriculum would influence the future youth -__-


  • wrote The Courtier
  • spoke about how upper class men and women could become courtiers 
  • it was like a guide to be rich and noble 
  • Men
    • charming, witty, can dance, sing, play music, physically graceful and strong 
  • Women
    • don’t seek fame as men do 
    • be perfectly well rounded but hold your tongues 
    • be well educated but do not act upon it 
    • expected to be an ornament of her husband or father


  • Italy
    • in 1492 when Lorenzo died everything fell to shit 
    • then in the Hapsburg-Valois Wars France and Spain fought over Italy 
  • Machiavelli 
    • Florentine diplomat 
    • believed that Italy needed a ruler who was ruthless and could unite Italy during this turmoil 
    • wrote The Prince to explain this 
  • The Perfect Prince 
    • Eugene Fitzherbert 
    • Li Shang 
    • or…. 
      • the prince must do whatever it takes to get stuff done 
      • he though humans were evil, selfish,and corrupt and the ruler needed to be strong and shrewd to keep the peace
      • the end justifies the means 


  • Patrons
    • Catholic church 
    • guilds 
    • wealthy families
      • art used to display wealth and fame 
  • Characteristics
    • Perspective
      • depth om a flat surface 
    • Chiaroscuro 
      • blending of light and shade 
      • creates volume 
      • real people in real space 
    • Pyramid Configuration 
      • 3D configurations to create symmetry and balance 
    • Classical forms and Christian Subjects 
      • revive standards of beauty- perfect people 
      • combined classical forms with Christian themes 


  • Leon Battista Alberti, The West Facade of Sant’ Andrea 
    • roman arch with Corinthian pilasters that supported a pediment inspired by the classical design 
    • break with Christian traditions because of the Christian building with Roman designs 
  • Michelangelo, David
    • focused on the beauty and perfection of the human 
    • the perfect body emphasizes the Greek influence 
    • in a strong pose rather than serene like in Greek times 
  • Raphael, The School of Athens 
    • has a 3D view 
    • physical representation of past philosophers from the classics 
    • also includes popular philosophers of the time
    • focused on unity, symmetry, and order 


  • humanists began to debate about women’s character, nature and role in society 
  • Christine De Pizan 
    • the first feminist 
    • wrote a history of women to get rid of the male perspective eon women 
  • Isabella D’Est 
    • most famous Renaissance women 
    • large patron of the arts 
    • patron of the arts was an acceptable role for a women during the time 


Cabinet des Dépêches

This occupies the original salon Ovale which Louis XIV had installed in 1692: decorated with Corinthian pilasters and four niches housing bronze statues, including the famous Jupiter, or “chenêts” de l’Algarde, this salon gave on to the Petite Galerie on the right and the cabinet des Coquilles on the left. In this room, named after the shell decoration of its cornice, Louis XIV kept his most precious manuscripts and books and twenty or so paintings, including Titian’s Concert Champêtre.

Reference : Chateau de Versailles