Edmonia Lewis

Edmonia Lewis was the first Native American and African American woman known internationally for her sculptures. Lewis was born in the early 1840s; her father was a free Black and her mother a Chippewa Indian. By age 5, Lewis was orphaned and went to live with her mother’s family. Lewis attended Oberlin College starting in 1859 but was forced to leave in 1863 after she was accused of poisoning her roommates. Lewis was acquitted of the charges, but only after she went through a very public trial. She moved to Boston and began studying under sculptor Edward Brackett. Lewis began making portraits of famous abolitionists and after selling one of John Brown and Colonel Robert Gould Shaw she was able to afford a trip to Europe. Lewis settled in Rome, a common place for American artists. Her specialties were sculptures that represented her heritage.

 (Photo Credit: National Portrait Gallery)

How to Address Wedding Invitations

You may have finalized the guest list, but that doesn’t mean your wedding work is done. (But you’re so close!) Sending the invitations sounds like a hassle-free to-do (off to the calligrapher they go!), but now’s not the time to slack-off. You need to make sure those formal invitations are addressed properly.

Married Couple

In this case, it is proper to use Mr. and Mrs. Dean Wooley. Spell out the husband’s first name. If you decide to include the husband’s middle name, it should be spelled out, not abbreviated as an initial.

Single Female

In the case of a single female guest, it is proper to use Ms. if she is over age 16 or 18. If she is younger, than Miss is the acceptable choice.

Hyphenated Last Name

In the case of a wife who has chosen to hyphenate her last name, then she should be addressed using Ms. (Mrs. is also acceptable) + her first name + maiden name + married name: Mr. David Crosby and Ms. Lynn Carter-Crosby.

Unmarried Couple Living Together

The word “and” was once used to represent a marriage, a union. This rule no longer applies. In the case of a couple who is living together, address the male first, followed by the female: Mr. Luke Davis and Ms. Mary Carter.

Divorced Female Who Kept Her Married Name

After a divorce, a woman might keep her married name. In this instance, it is okay to use Mrs. or Ms. to address the guest and use her first name (spelled out). It is often best to find out what she prefers to go by.

Same Sex Couple

In this case, it is totally acceptable to put either guest first. If you can’t decide, address them in alphabetical order.


Traditionally, a widow retains her husband’s name until she remarries. Some widows prefer to use their own first name as well. In this case, it is best to ask what she prefers. Mrs. John Dunlop or Mrs. Jane Dunlop would be acceptable.

Divorced Female Who Uses Her Maiden Name

After a divorce, a woman often stops using her husband’s last name. Addressing her by either Ms. or Mrs. is acceptable.

Married Couple, Both Doctors

In the case of married doctors and the wife has taken her husband’s last name, it is proper to use: The Doctors. Another acceptable option: Drs. Barbara and John Kline.

Wife is a Doctor

If her husband is not a “doctor,” address invitations to Dr. Linda Smith and Mr. Mark Smith. Her name comes first because her professional title “outranks” his social title.

Married Doctors With Different Last Names

If both guests are doctors, but she has chosen to keep her last name, it is appropriate to address her first and with both full names: Doctor Maura Lydel and Doctor John Morris.

Wife is a Commissioned Officer

If her husband is not a “Captain,” address invitations to Captain Sara Trace and Mr. Jake Trace. Her name comes first because her professional title “outranks” his social title.

Husband is a Retired Commissioned Officer

In this case, it is important to recognize the husband’s position or ranking: Colonel and Mrs. Kurt Shaw.

Husband is a Non-Commissioned Officer or Enlisted Man

Husband is a Judge

In this case it is appropriate to recognize a title, such as a judge: The Honorable Judd Walter and Mrs. Walter.

Wife is the Judge

If her husband is not a judge, address invitations to the Honorable Ann Lewis and Mr. John Lewis. Her name comes first because her professional title “outranks” his social title.

Edward “Ned” Needles Hallowell: A Name Forgotten To History

He was an officer that commanded the all black 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry following the death of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw at the Second Battle of Fort Wagner in 1863. (of the Movie “Glory” Fame).  Legacy: The character of Major Forbes in the film Glory is based somewhat on Edward Hallowell.

He was a Quaker from Philadelphia who’s father was an abolitionist.  Lt. Edward Hallowell accepted an appointment in the 54th Massachusetts, which was to be led by Robert Gould Shaw as colonel and his brother Norwood as Lieutenant Colonel. The regiment was to be made up of white and black abolitionists fighting together for black freedom. Edward recruited African-American soldiers in Philadelphia and was actually the first officer to occupy the barracks set aside for the 54th at Camp Meigs in Reedville. Recruiting for the regiment proved so successful that a second regiment, the 55th, was formed. Norwood Hallowell was designated as the 55th’s colonel and Edward was promoted to major and was second-in-command to Shaw.

By the time of the famous assault by the 54th on Fort Wagner Hallowell was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. In the assault on Fort Wagner he commanded the left wing with half the regiment’s companies. Because of the narrow defile through which the 54th had to pass the left wing was deployed directly behind Shaw and the right wing. Hallowell suffered three wounds in the assault and went home to recuperate. Upon returning he commanded the 54th as a full colonel for the rest of the war, except when he was in temporary command of a brigade. The 54th and Hallowell continued to serve with distinction during the war. He fought at the Battle of Olustee, the Battle of Honey Hill and the Battle of Boykin’s Mill. At Boykin’s Mill, Hallowell was in command of Major General Potter’s 3rd Brigade.

He was mustered out of the Union Army volunteer service in 1865. Hallowell marched with the Massachusetts members of the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment at a post-war victory review held in Boston in December 1865. After the war Edward returned to Medford and became a wool commission merchant. His wounds from the war undoubtedly cut his life short and he died in 1871. He is buried with his wife Charlotte at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge.

Little lasting recognition of either Edward or his brother Norwood exists. One exception is at the famous Union Club off of Boston Common which has meeting rooms dedicated to Edward and Norwood as well as Robert Gould Shaw.

Lieutenant Colonel Warren Adams of Co. H, 1st South Carolina Infantry Regiment In Uniform

Lt. Colonel Warren Adams commanded of the 1st South Carolina Infantry Regiment in defense of Battery Wagner at Charleston. He fended off the attacks of the African American 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry led by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw. Attacked twice on July 11 and July 18, 1863, he repelled the Union forces with modest losses. Colonel Robert Gould Shaw was killed in the second assault on the fort. It eventually succumbed to siege when the Confederates abandoned it on the evening of September 6-7, 1863. The Battles of Battery Wagner are the source of the 1989 movie Glory. Adams went on to serve the 2nd South Carolina Cavalry and was shot from his saddle at the Battle of Bentonville in 1865.- He was the son of South Carolina Governor James Hopkins Adams and Jane Margaret Scott Adams.

  • Purchased from: Cowan’s Auctions, Cincinnati, Ohio, June 2015.
  • Forms part of: Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs (Library of Congress).
Do I Have A Movie For You Guys Or What?

Yes! Yes I do! Listen up bc I’m about to give you the sweetest movie rec you’ll get all week.

Glory is quite possibly the greatest movie I’ve seen in a while, and I think it deserves a hell of a lot more of a fan following on this site. It’s not new ofc, but its plot is awesome (and a true story) and its characters are the absolute greatest. You will fall in love with them. Trust me. I hope this post will convince some of you guys to watch the movie and then come fangirl with me bc I need it in my life and so do you. Let me tell you why:

THIS baby-faced motherfucker is Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, everyone’s favorite white guy. He’s smol, reads poetry, and Will Fight You and probably win out of sheer audacity. He’s the definition of bright-eyed and bushy-tailed. He’s also mentally ill and is THE BRAVEST KINDEST SWEETEST GUY YOU’LL EVER MEET. 

(image from glorycaptions)

Basically, Glory is set during the civil war, and Colonel Shaw is the commander of the Massachusetts 54th, aka the first black regiment in the union army. It starts out rough, as you can imagine, but Shaw does eventually earn the respect of his men and vice versa, and he does so much to help them prove their worth to both the Union and the Confederacy. This movie is based on true events ofc, so there was a real Massachusetts 54th and a real Colonel Shaw. The amazing bravery of this regiment convinced Lincoln to allow more African Americans into the Union army, without which the Union would not have won. The 54th instigated the turning point in the civil war, and this movie is so so worthy of a watch as it portrays the events in a very interesting, emotional way.

(and how could you not love that face?)

ANOTHER reason to watch is this guy:

That’s Thomas, he grew up with Shaw and is the first volunteer for the 54th. He’s super smart and bookish and also probably reads poetry. It’s especially rough for him in the military because he’s not used to the physical activity and all around hard life, but he learns to deal with it and is also incredibly brave for everything he does, and does great things for people even though he’s taunted at first. Definitely also one of the nicest people you’ll ever meet.  

There’s also this guy:

Private Jupiter Sharts. (Yes, really). He’s also incredibly nice and very enthusiastic and nothing should ever hurt him because he’s too good for war and for this world. But he fights anyway and he’s a hell of a good shot.

You also get to see great supporting characters including Shaw’s Edgy White Friend, Yelling Irishman, and Morgan Freeman. 

So yeah, who wouldn’t want to see this great, true story with these amazing characters. Does this movie have some problems? Of course it does. I have beef with some aspects of it, and I would be happy to talk smack about them with you, or to talk about any aspect of this movie because it’s great and deserves more of a fanbase,

In conclusion, you should watch Glory and when you’re done you should come talk to me about Colonel Shaw and his men. 

Smile Colonel Shaw~

“There they march, warm-blooded champions of a better day for man. There on horseback among them, in his very habit as he lived, sits the blue-eyed child of fortune, upon whose happy youth every divinity had smiled . .  ” Oration by William James at the exercises in the Boston Music Hall, May 31, 1897, upon the unveiling of the Shaw Monument.