Chemistry of galaxies

Weird ‘Buckyballs’ May Be at Root of Milky Way Mystery

By Charles Q. Choi

Soccer-ball-shaped carbon molecules known as buckyballs may be the cause of mysterious bands seen in light across the Milky Way that have puzzled astronomers for nearly a century, a new study reports.

The discovery suggests these carbon spheres may be commonplace across the universe, and may even be sources of organic molecules that are key to the origin and evolution of life, scientists added.

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As the two #galaxies approached each other, the colossal forces emanating from the wandering giants tortured and disrupted each other’s structures, leaving us with the irregularly-shaped galaxies we have #today . The larger #galaxy has had two long tails of #stars ripped away, flinging vast amounts of material out into the #space between the giants. I freaking #love #astronomy #now #science #universe #cosmos #interstellar #likeforlike #follow #earth #blackhole by g3n3ralist
Telescope detects ionised carbon in early galaxies | Chemistry World
Dust discovery reveals youthful universe went through a rapid process of evolution

Astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have found evidence for carbon in galaxies from only 1 billion years after the Big Bang. 

Array telescopes like ALMA use multiple small telescopes spread over a wide area to get a higher resolution picture than a single telescope can get, using complex computer calculations to combine the data from the individual small scopes. In the case of ALMA, they use 66 individual dishes that can be spread out to cover 16 kilometers, giving superb resolution.

This high resolution has enabled the astronomers to see through the spaces between closer objects to get much clearer pictures of distant galaxies and measure their composition using spectroscopic techniques. Their research shows that the carbon that is such a key component of life has been around for a very long time.


Vines by Terry Virts Aboard the ISS.


anonymous asked:

So, I'm trying to write a book that takes place in a different world. Small detail: in this world there's a very bright star, kind of a second sun. I have very little idea how orbital patterns work. Can I make it visible both at night and in the day? Can I make it always due south? Would it rise and set, or stay in one place? I'd be hugely grateful for any light you could shed on the matter (heh. heh. light.)

Hmm, I guess I have a couple of things to think about:

1) When you a say a second Sun, there would be an issue with seeing it both night and day. Firstly, night is just a word to describe the point at which a particular side of the Earth isn’t facing the sun. So a second Sun? There would be no night time if we assume “a second Sun” means a star close enough to the planet for it to be large and not just a distant point of light. So bear in mind, the bigger (or closer) the star at night, the more light there would be from it.

2) You can make stars always due a certain point. Think of the North star in the northern hemisphere, or the Southern cross in the southern hemisphere. Sure they move in the sky slightly as we orbit the Sun, but they are still in the same general direction. Again, keeping in mind these stars are light years away and that their orbital patterns have nothing to do with ours. We only have one star that mainly affects us, being the Sun. 

Also lets think of the moon. From here on Earth, we always see the same face of the moon right? It’s basically in a strange equilibrium where it spins about its axis and orbits the Earth at a perfect amount that pairs with the Earths orbit and revolutions, that the same side (generally) faces the Earth. So that’s something to ponder on. 

3) Look into Binary systems. Pluto and Charon are a binary system. In fact, the Earth and the moon is a binary system; albeit to a lesser degree. It’s where two objects in space have particular gravitational interactions, that they orbit about a kind of “center of mass”, as opposed to one orbiting the other. 

I feel like this hasn’t been much of a help. But I’ve gone off some limited info. So please don’t hesitate to send me other messages when you have a more detailed idea of what you’re trying to do.

My last bit of advice is just to look up basically how orbits move and work, such as why things rise and set, why there is night and day, and particularly look up the things I mentioned. If you look up the North star, Binary Systems, and the fact that the moon always has a same side facing the Earth, you should be off to a good start. 

- Konner

      How to See Venus, Saturn, Jupiter & Mercury in July’s Night Sky

Even though their closest pairing came on the final day in June, Venus and Jupiter continue to be quite close together during the first several days of July.

Unfortunately, the two planets are also setting closer to the sun each evening, making it difficult for most observers to see them by month’s end. As a consolation, both planets shift closer to the star Regulus, and on July 18, the trio will be joined by a lovely crescent moon. Saturn is in the southern sky at nightfall this month; on July 25, the moon will sit to Saturn’s upper right. Mercury is visible at dawn, low in the sky, until about mid-month, while Mars continues its “summer sabbatical,” lingering much too close to the sun to be seen.

July 18: About 45 minutes after sunset this evening, look low toward the western horizon for the thin (8-percent illuminated) crescent moon. Hovering about 1.3 degrees above it is Venus, while about 6 degrees to Venus’ right is Jupiter. About 4 degrees above and slightly to the right of the moon shines Regulus in Leo, but you’ll probably need binoculars to see the star against the bright twilight backdrop.

July 23: Mercury is in “superior conjunction,” passing on the far side of the sun as it enters the evening sky.

July 25: As darkness falls, look almost due south for the waxing gibbous moon. That bright yellow-white “star” shining with a steady glow to the moon’s lower left is Saturn. The famous ringed planet is gradually fading and slowly but surely backing into the sun’s glare. Throughout this month, it is not too far from the star Antares in the constellation Scorpius. Saturn is the higher and brighter of the two objects, lying about 13 degrees to the star’s upper right.