Why are there millions of people who are so poorly informed about basic science, that they think that evolution is about our having evolved from modern-day monkeys. Why are there millions of people who are happy to take an adamant stance about a subject that they should have flunked in high school if they gave these sorts of erroneous answers, and to think themselves smarter than the world’s scientists despite their being badly misinformed?
The platypus is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania. Together with the four species of echidna, it is one of the five extant species of monotremes, the only mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth. It is one of the few venomous mammals, the male platypus having a spur on the hind foot that delivers a venom capable of causing severe pain to humans. The fur is waterproof, and the texture is akin to that of a mole. The platypus uses its tail for storage of fat reserves. It has webbed feet and a large, rubbery snout; these features appear
closer to those of a duck than to those of any known mammal. Monotremes are the only mammals known to have a sense of electroreception: they locate their prey in part by detecting electric fields generated by muscular contractions. The platypus is a carnivore: it feeds on annelid worms, insect larvae, freshwater shrimps, and freshwater yabby that it digs out of the riverbed with its snout or catches while
swimming. It uses cheek-pouches to carry prey to the surface, where it
Crohn’s disease is one of a family of chronic
inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). While it has already been proven to
have genetic causes, scientists have now shown that the presence of
certain intestinal bacteria also plays a role. A study reported in the Gut
journal has shown that in mice, bacterial imbalance in the gut can lead
to an inflammation similar to Crohn’s disease, and this can be
transmitted to other animals. With this knowledge, researchers plan to
further develop the existing practice of transplanting “healthy”
bacteria into patients’ intestines and establish this as a conventional
treatment for Crohn’s disease.
Researchers at Technische Universität München (TUM) have now shown
that an unfavorable configuration of bacterial networks in the gut
really can cause inflammation. As part of the study, they transplanted
the intestinal microbiome from sick animals into the intestines of
germ-free mice. These mice developed symptoms specific to Crohn’s
disease in their small intestine.
“Although we used mice that had an increased genetic disposition
towards Crohn’s-type inflammation, they did not develop symptoms until
we implanted the intestinal bacteria of affected animals,” explains
Prof. Dirk Haller, TUM Chair of Nutrition and Immunology.
Publication:Dysbiotic gut microbiota causes transmissible Crohn’s
disease-like ileitis independent of failure in antimicrobial defence;
Monika Schaubeck, Thomas Clavel, Jelena Calasan, Ilias Lagkouvardos,
Sven Bastiaan Haange, Nico Jehmlich, Martin von Bergen, Aline Dupont,
Mathias Hornef, Marijana Basic, André Bleich, Dirk Haller; Gut Published Online First; DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309333: http://gut.bmj.com/content/early/2015/04/16/gutjnl-2015-309333
Caption: The images show Paneth cells in the small
intestine. These cells play an important role in immune defense. In mice
with Crohn’s-type inflammation, the Paneth cells produce less lysozyme,
an important anti-microbial enzyme. Left: Healthy cells producing high
levels of lysozyme (light green); right: Damaged Paneth cells producing
low levels of lysozyme. Credit: M. Schaubeck / TUM).
“Does a creature have to be of direct material use to mankind in order to exist? By and large, by asking the question ‘what use is it?’ you are asking the animal to justify its existence without having justified your own.”
Thanks to new high speed images, it seems knuckles crack when a bubble forms (and not the other way around!).
As tension increases, a cavity suddenly opens between joints that air rushes into; this creates the loud “crack”. The bubble then remains for about 20 minutes until slowly dispersing, making it impossible to crack until the bubble is completely gone.
Researchers aren’t actually sure why the sound is so loud so research is still ongoing. As for cracking knuckles giving you arthritis? Research points to the ability of being able to crack knuckles as a sign of healthy joints, provided you don’t force it.
Austroraptor was a fairly large species of raptor from the Bajo de Santa Rosa locality of the Allen Formation, in Río Negro, Argentina. It lived in the Maastrichtian age of the Late Cretaceous, about 70 million years ago. It actually is on the upper end of dromaeosaurid size, growing up to 5 meters long and 1.5 meters tall. Only Achillobator and Utahraptor approach its length. It is also the largest dromaeosaur found in the Southern Hemisphere. Its known from a partial skull fragment and partial skeletal remains. It had relatively short front limbs, similar to Tianyuraptor and Mahakala. It had conical, non-serrated teeth like spinosaurids. It had a long, narrowing skull, rather than a box like one like most dromaeosaurids. It lived alongside many early mammals, pterosaurs and the titanosaurids Saltasaurus and Rocasaurus, which it may have eaten.
Super productive day today! After tutoring bio help, I crossed off nearly everything on my to do list and got a huge handle on both biology and SAP. I find that the more productive I am the more I become. Plus, I found a new Starbucks I like a lot better - staff is so nice! All together a great day.
Ove Hoegh-Guldberg is one of Australia’s leading marine scientists and
director of the University of Queensland’s Global Change Institute in St
Lucia. He is also the lead author of Reviving the Ocean Economy,
a report published on 23 April by the conservation group WWF, which
attempts to estimate the value of the ocean and proposes steps for its
The ocean’s riches: a school of brown-striped snapper (Xenocys jessiae), pictured near the Galapagos Islands. David Fleetham/NPL/WWF
Tetrodotoxin is a potent neurotoxin which derives its name from the fish order Tetraodontiformes that include the *pufferfishes, who are packed with this neurotoxin. A bite from a blue-ringed octopus, eating poorly cooked fugu or crab dishes, and prolonged skin contact with poisonous invertebrates are the potential ways TTX enters the human body. Dr. William H. Light who worked with TTX at the California Academy of Sciences said, “It is 10 to 100 times as lethal as black widow spider venom (depending upon the species) when administered to mice, and more than 10,000 times deadlier than cyanide.”