Polyphemus, head of Hellenistic statue (marble), 2nd century BC, (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston).
This head comes from a group, probably of the blinding of Polyphemos, similar to that constructed from fragments found in the grotto at Sperlonga, along the Italian coast southwest of Rome. Polyphemos is based, in details of hair and beard, on a Pergamene centaur. The sculptor was wise in rejecting the… older tradition, one seen in Hellenistic terracottas, of showing the monstrous giant as a kind of fat-faced baboon, with large ears and his eye set like a beacon light in the middle of his forehead. Here the rugged, animal power of the creature has been stressed. Broken off through the neck and the lower whiskers, the head is in relatively excellent condition, save for the damage to the beard below the mouth. The marble has a yellow-buff tone.
This is the head of the one-eyed, man-eating Cyclops whom Odysseus finally outwitted and blinded. Here the monster is in a peaceful mood, either waiting to receive the cup of wine offered him by Odysseus, or, more likely, gazing love-struck at the indifferent sea nymph Galatea. The head comes from a sculptural group that might have adorned a public fountain or a luxurious seaside villa. The type originated in the second century B.C., yet the lively and direct style of this piece makes difficult to judge whether it is a contemporary variant or a Roman copy. (uploaded by Ancient Hellas on facebook)
Iron helmet from a Vendel era (550-793 AD) boat grave in Vendel, Uppland, Sweden, Museum of History in Stockholm. (orig. photo in color - via: wiki user: Thuresson - Flickr user: Mararie - creative commons)
“In Swedish prehistory, the Vendel era (550-793) is the name given to a part of the Germanic Iron Age (or, more generally, the Migration Period)” (text via: spottinghistory.com)
This is one of the most important archaeological finds of the 20th Century and
the oldest depiction of the universe so far. Called the Nebra sky disc, named for the town where it was found in
1999, the artifact has been dated back to 1600 BC. It was buried about 3,600 years ago but could be much older. It has been associated with the European Bronze AgeUnetice culture.
When it was first crafted, it would have been golden brown
because the disc itself is made from bronze. Over time, the it
corroded to green. Fortunately, the symbols are made of gold and thanks to them we know it was possibly an astronomical instrument. There’s Sun, a central to northern European Bronze Age
religion and the crescent moon (in ancient times, the moon was used to represent time). The clump between the sun and moon are
thought to be the Pleiades constellation, which was an imporant
constellation for Bronze Age farmers because it appeared
and disappeared in important farming times. So the Nebra disc could have told people the right time to plant and harvest.
What’s more, astronomer Wolfhard Schlosser, at the University of Hamburg, found that if you draw a line from the
center of the disc to the top and bottom end of the right arc, the angle
between the two ends measures exactly 82 degrees. And it’s the same
value for the left golden arc. This number is very important for only a small group of people who
live at the same latitude as the current German town of Nebra since it’s the angle between where the sun sets on the horizon in
mid-winter and mid-summer.