Indent the first line of each paragraph by half an inch
Use a header that includes your last name and page number in the top right hand corner
The First Page:
In the upper left hand corner:
Your Instructor’s Name
The Class Title
The Date (Day Month Year)
The title of your paper should be one double-space down and should not be bolded, italicized, or underlined
The beginning of your paper should start one double-space down from the title with the first line indented by half an inch
What to Italicize and Quote:
Book titles are italicized
Play titles are italicized
Poem titles have quotation marks
Article titles have quotation marks
Chapter titles have quotation marks
When you know the author’s last name
(Last Name Page Number) or
(Last Name Paragraph or Line Number)
When you don’t know the author’s last name
(Book Title Page Number)
(Article Title Page Number)
Remember to italicize the book titles and put the article titles in quotation marks
Works Cited Page:
Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. It should have the same one inch margins and header as the rest of your paper
Label the page “Works Cited” (do not italicize or put in quotations) on the top of the page and center it
Double space all citations but do not skip spaces between entries
Indent the second line of a citation by half an inch
List sources in alphabetical order
If the source has more than one author, the first given name appears in last name, first name format and the following authors appear in last name, first name format separated by commas. The last author’s name should be preceded by an “and”
Citing Print Sources:
Book or Poem:
Last Name, First Name. Title of Book or Poem. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Print.
Magazine or Newspaper Article:
Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages. Print.
Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): pages. Print.
Citing Web Sources:
Name of Site. Sponsor or Publisher, date of resource creation. Web. Date of access.
Web Page or Web Article:
Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Name of Site. Sponsor of Publisher, date of resource creation. Web. Date of access.
Online Journal Article:
Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): pages. Web. Date of access.
Note: Don’t forget to indent the second line in the citation. I did not indent the examples because the indents on tumblr mobile and tumblr desktop differ starkly and I figured this was probably the less confusing way to write the information needed for a citation (trust me)
Unknown Information in Citations:
If the author is unknown, begin citation with the title
If the publisher is unknown, write “n.p.” in its place (no quotation marks)
If the publishing date is unknown, write “n.d.” in its place (no quotation marks)
I hope this guide is as useful for me as it it for you!
Adapted from a workshop I did at my high school Writing Center. One of my more helpful powerpoints; let me know if you need any clarifications. This is all my original work; please don’t remove the source.
See my previous powerpoint post on note-taking and thesis statements for additional advice.
Contact me if you need clarifications.
EDIT: With regard to paragraph structure, I was describing one body paragraph - assertion, context, evidence, commentary - with two slides. Don’t devote an entire paragraph to the assertion and context and another to the evidence and commentary - that’s a little nutty.
Reading through A Tale of Two Cities made me want to revisit some AP English notes, so here you go:
Allusion: an indirect reference to an existing work
Apostrophe: speaking to an inanimate object (ex. Hamlet to the skull)
Irony: in simple terms, something that happens that wasn’t expected (ex. a firetruck catching on fire)
Juxtaposition: placing two contrasting things or ideas close to each other
Litotes: understatement used for emphasis, usually involving a double negative (ex. “Not unkind”, meaning the positive “kind”, but in a lesser way than simply saying “kind”)
Metaphor: an illustrative comparison, usually involving the words “is”, “am”, “are”, “was”, or “were”
Onomatopoeia: words that read how they sound (ex. sizzle, slosh, cuckoo)
Personification: giving human characteristics to an animal, object, or intangible concept (ex. Mother Nature, Father Time)
Simile: a comparison involving “like” or “as”
Symbolism: using objects or animals to represent ideas or qualities (ex. dove as purity, innocence, and/or hope)
Ethos: establishing credibility/authority (ex. “I’m an expert.”)
Pathos: establishing emotional connection (ex. “Save the cute animals!”)
Logos: logical reasoning (if “p”, then “q”); deductive reasoning (general to specific; think Sherlock Holmes); inductive reasoning (specific to general; think scientific method, start with hypothesis, find info to support it)
Syntactical Devices, deal with sentence structure
Alliteration: a sequence of words that begin with the same letter, usually a consonant (ex. “the snake slithered silently”)
Anaphora: sentences or clauses that begin with the same word (ex. “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness…”)
Asyndeton: a lengthy sentence with successive words/clauses not connected by conjunctions (ex. “she packed shirts, pants, socks, her trusty alarm clock; with these, she was fully prepared for her journey.”)
Parallelism: sentences with the same structure (ex. “girls danced in yellow dresses; men stood with stoic stares” Structure: noun, verb, prepositional phrase)
Polysyndeton: a series of clauses connected in a single sentence by conjunctions (ex. “I am a certified doctor and nurse and psychiatrist and neurologist and a murderer of assholes.”)