These thirteen beads in the shape of pomegranates have been formed from thin gold foil shaped over a core which is still present. The metal has been folded back at the top of the neck to provide the jagged edge which is characteristic of the fruit. Each piece is pierced from end to end for stringing.
The pomegranate bush was introduced into Egypt from Western Asia early in the 18th Dynasty and is frequently depicted in garden scenes. Its fruit not only served as a foodstuff and its juice to give flavour, the pomegranate also had medicinal uses. The pomegranate’s distinctive shape was copied in various materials to serve as a flask.
Pomegranate beads such as these have thus far only been recorded as elements of ear ornaments. All excavated examples come from burials dated to the 18th Dynasty, are made from silver and provided with a loop for suspension in order to hang on a thick wire or tube which passed through the pierced earlobe.Pomegranate pendants in polychrome glass must have served the same purpose. However, the large number of the present beads and their method of stringing suggests these are elements from a collar, perhaps strung vertically between rows.
All beads are in a good and stable condition without defects or restorations. The core material has been chemically consolidated to prevent deterioration. [x]
Ancient Egypt was a civilization located in North Eastern Africa. According to Egyptian chronology, it began around 3150 BC and ended in 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire. It is one of the six civilizations globally that rose independently, and owes its success partly to the way they adapted their agriculture to the conditions of the Nile river. The surplus of crops supported the growing population and the following social and cultural development. Among the many achievements of the ancient Egyptians, there is the quarrying, surveying and construction techniques needed for the building of their monumental pyramids, temples and obelisks, as well as the development of a new written language and the making of the earliest known peace treaty. The Egyptians also left a lasting legacy; its art and architecture is widely admired and copied, and became the starting point of ancient Greek sculptures and building.
The Kingdom of Yam certainly existed as a trading partner and possible rival of Old Kingdom Egypt, yet its precise location has never been determined. (Kingdoms like Egypt with written records get so much unfair attention.) Based on the funerary inscriptions of the Egyptian explorer Harkhuf, it seems Yam was a land of “incense, ebony, leopard skins, elephant tusks, and boomerangs.” Until recently, it was believed that the Egyptians did not know how to cross the vast and arid Sahara. But hieroglyphs recently discovered over 700 kilometers (430 miles) southwest of the Nile confirm the existence of trade between Yam and Egypt and point to Yam’s location in the northern highlands of Chad.
Temple of Khonsu, in Karnak temple complex. Photos (c) In-Taier, 2015
This perspective to adorations scenes becomes visible, if you get up to the roof. I first saw it in 2012 (we also climbed to the roof) and the irresistible beauty of this relief just made me freeze in awe.
Akenaten is a unique figure is the Egyptian history. Pharaoh of the famous 18th dynasty, he tried to establish a monotheistic religion, created a brand new capital on the Nile bank, faraway from the traditional southern capital Thebes and the northern one, Memphis. He is also known as the husband of queen Nefertiti.