AminoAcid

Don’t forget to take sanity breaks: going to the gym or finding reasons to smile and laugh! Have to get some comic relief after all that studying!

Quick fact. Ready?
Many plant proteins on their own are an incomplete protein, for they only contain some of the many amino acids that exist. However when combined together, such as brown rice, chia, yellow pea, and cranberry protein to name a few, they synergistically form a complete, well rounded protein source!

A poem about Amino Acids, based on Chaucer.

Amino Acid Tales 

by LeRoy Kuehl, University of Utah

(with apologies to G. Chaucer)

Some other English guy wrote this poem. I just tweaked it a bit.

Prologue

When Fall hath come, and days grow short and cool,

Then eager students hasten back to school;

And freshmen who would gladly doctors be

Begin to study biochemistry,

And memorize a host of useless structures

Because they know that pleaseth their instructors,

But also so that they their boards might pass

And go to practice medicine at last;

For they would fain restore the sick to health,

And also would win fame, respect and wealth.

As first to teach in biochemistry,

The section treating structures falls to me.

With the amino acids we begin,

The building blocks of muscles, enzymes, skin.

 

Glycine

For R-group glycine has an H, that’s all.

It boasts no isomers and is so small;

But when in protein structure space is tight,

Then glycine’s chosen because it is slight;

And this, dear students, is the reason why

In collagen the glycine content’s high.

Alanine

Draw glycine, then with pen a methyl add,

And alanine will be there on your pad.

The methyl group, nonpolar as you know,

Gives alanine a hydrophobic glow.

If alanine you now should modify

And to its methyl various groups apply,

All the amino acids we will learn

Can quickly be produced, each in its turn.

Valine

To valine learn, imagine, if you can

A structure with the outline of a man.

He’s hydrophobic from the waist on down,

And hydrophilic is from waist to crown.

Leucine and Isoleucine

To valine’s leg affix one carbon more,

And isoleucine joins the growing corps.

In valine’s trunk instead a C insert,

And valine then to leucine does convert.

Their R-groups are like little drops of oil;

From water they with loathing doth recoil.

At isoleucine look now carefully;

Two asymmetric carbons you will see.

Proline

Five carbon atoms fastened end to end,

Just look, my students, notice how they bend

Until, in sooth, the circle is perfected,

And the last C is to the N connected

To form a hydrophobic little ring

And to the amino a substituent bring.

Amino acid? Proline’s truly not,

The imino group instead is what it’s got.

Now polypeptide chains coil often round,

In many proteins are such spirals found.

As alpha helices by scientists known,

These coils are by H-bonds together sewn.

But should the chain with proline be corrupted,

Then is the alpha helix interrupted.

Serine and Threonine

To alanine an OH group append,

And serine’s what you’re left with in the end;

And if you add a methyl group as well

Then you have threonine, so chemists tell—

Indeed a very hydrophilic pair,

Because of the hydroxyls that they bear.

Check threonine most carefully and you’ll see

A second center of asymmetry.

Now serine oft is cleaved within the cell

To glycine and a smaller piece as well.

The latter’s then to synthesis remanded

When a one-carbon fragment is demanded.

Methionine

To alanine an extra carbon lend,

And next attach a sulfur to the end,

Then finally if you methylate the S

Methionine is what you will possess.

Examine now the R-group carefully,

It’s truly hydrophobic as you’ll see.

reactions which in living cells transpire

Quite often do a methyl group require;

And usually does the cell such units glean

From the S-methyl of methionine.

Cysteine

Just add an SH group to alanine;

The compound that is formed is cysteine.

Its SH can a proton liberate,

The pK of this group being close to eight.

but more important, you should realize,

That the sulfhydryl group can oxidize,

And that, thereby, two cysteines are joined

(For such a pair the name cystine is coined).

If cysteines are linked, it’s surely true,

The peptide chains they’re part of are joined, too

Thus protein structures, full of folds and kinks,

Are held together by cystine cross-links.

Phenylalanine and Tyrosine

We now consider phenylalanine,

Whose name alone the structure does convene.

And tyrosine, in strucutre close related,

Just phenylalanine hydroxylated.

When phenyl group has a hydroxyl gained

Then are its prperties substantially changed:

Decreased is its hydrophobicity;

More strongly it absorbs in the UV.

And should the pH over ten arise,

Then does this new hydroxyl ionize.

In proteins this OH is wont to form

H-bonds, and these, and others, do transform

A random polypeptide, as a rule,

To a precisely folded molecule.

An enzyme found within each living cell

Performs this same hydroxylation well;

But should there in this enzyme lie a fault,

Phenylketonuria is the result.

Tryptophan

Let alanine an indole function gain,

And from the two arises tryptophan.

(The indole group, in case you don’t remember,

Has benzene ring and pyrrole fused together.

And pyrrole – is it hard remembering? –

Has four carbons and an N joined in a ring.)

Now indole is a planar residue;

Aside from this, it’s hydrophobic, too.

The indole group so strongly resonates

That it impinging photons captivates –

To an absorption spectrum this gives rise

When is presented for you to apprise.

Aspartic and Glutamic Acids

Now aspartate has carbon atoms four;

And glutamate has these and then one more.

Carboxyl groups at each extremity

Make these compounds acidic, you’ll agree.

Alpha carboxyls have pK’s near two,

So it may come as a surprise to you,

That pK values close to four attend

Carboxyl groups placed at the other end.

And now about an enzyme I’ll relate

Which the amino cleaves from glutamate

To yield ammonia, there inside the cell,

And alpha ketoglutarate as well.

A second enzyme then the latter takes,

And from it glutamate regenerates.

For this amino groups are now required,

And from amino acids they’re acquired.

Thus using glutamate, as you can see,

The cell has this broad capability:

Diverse amino acids can it take,

And every one of them deaminate.

And residues which then are left behind,

To metabolic pathways are consigned.

Asparagine and Glutamine

Aspartate’s amide is asparagine,

And glutamate’s is known as glutamine.

The two are neutral—amides have no charge,

But polar still with dipole moments large.

Arginine

If alanine’s two carbons more extended,

And a guanido’s to the end appended,

A compound’s formed which arginine we call—

Most base amino acid of them all;

For the guanido group has pK high;

At nearly 12.5 it’s known to lie.

(Now the guanido group, my freshmen friends,

Is but a C surrounded by three N’s.)

A liver enzyme, arginase by name,

Does act on arginine and cleaves the same

By hydrolysis, for water comes between,

To yield urea and ornithine.

The latter converts back to arginine

By a complex, by key, reaction scheme

In which excess ammonia is consumed,

Except for this, the cell were surely doomed.

Thus arginine—you should remember this—

Is the source of the urea in your pi**.

Lysine

This unbranched basic molecule is lysine.

It has four carbons more than are in glycine,

And an amino group on its tail end

Which has a pK value over ten.

Histidine

The residue which histidine we call

Is alanine with an imidazole.

The latter is—now listen closely, please—

A pentagon with two N’s and three C’s.

To histidine a proton can affix;

Its R-group has a pK close to six.

Dear students, this is, as you know full well,

Not far from the pH within the cell.

And since the pK of a group may change

Influenced by other groups lying at close range

So histidine within a protein structure

Shows sometimes one ionic form, sometimes the other.

 

Epilogue

With the amino acids we are through.

The learning of them now is up to you.

Do not despair, but work industriously;

And you will have them mastered presently;

And think, when it is late and you grow bored,

Of the M.D. that will be your reward.

Quick fact. Ready?
Consuming protein prior to bed time may enhance sleep quality by providing the body with amino acids necessary to create human growth hormone. This hormone plays a role in deepening sleep, as well as muscle recovery following exercise.

Forever & Always

So… this has been on my mind for a while now. Hope you like it!!!

(All the characters belong to SKAM)

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

“When do you leave tomorrow” she said looking at him

“Tomorrow morning” He answered

Sana nodded, she didn´t want him to go to Turkey, but she knew that he missed his family, so she was trying to be strong about it.

“But I´m coming back” He added. Both of them smiled “When you´re over Stephen Curry”

She couldn´t resist her laugh, she secretly loved his jokes.

“Okay” Was everything she could answer, it´s kind of weird but when she is around him she suddenly doesn´t know what to say so she just laughs. He does too.

They just stayed there, looking into each other´s eyes and smiling at the same time. There was a nice silence between them while they finished their soup, sometimes words were not necessary when they were together.

“So, I´ve been wanting to ask you something for a long time now and I want to do it before I leave” Yousef broke the silence and turned around so he was now facing Sana.

“You do?” Sana was nervous, she kind of knew what he was going to say, or at least she hoped he would ask her what she was thinking.

“Yes and I think this is the perfect moment so don´t interrupt me because I´ll lose the feeling” He was also nervous and she could notice it, he was so cute.

“ Huh? I never interrupt you” She wanted to tease him a little.

“Shh just let me finish, okay?”

“Okay” Sana said.

“Sana Bakkoush” He closed his eyes and shaked his head “Do you want to be my girlfriend?”

Sana was in shock, she was definitely in shock, even though she knew he was going to ask her that, the excitement of the moment left her without words.

“Oh my God, Sana don´t let me like this”

“Of course I want to be your girlfriend Acar, we are soulmates aren´t we?” It was time to tell him about those adorable messages.

“Did Noora?…” He asked ashamed

“Yes she did, she showed me everything because I thought you were dating her”

“Noora and I? Dating? WHAT?” He started laughing until she punched him soflty in the arm.

“Hey, I saw you kissing her and then I heard the boys saying that you went out with her and I just assumed you were a couple”

“That kiss was a mistake” He didn´t want her to believe that he was the kind of guy that kissed with every girl.

“I know, she told me that, everything is okay now” Sana smiled at her boyfriend. Wow HER boyfriend, it was nice saying that.

“I want everyone to know that you are my grilfriend, and I want to spend a lot of time talking about things you like, like your aminoacids…”

“Antibiotics” she corrected him

“It´s the same, stop bullying your boyfriend, you got the point” He was laughing with her.

“My boyfriend” she said soflty, it was weird saying that but it was so nice at the same time that she could feel thousands of butterflies in her stomach.

“Yes, and I want to be at your side forever, we´ve been through many things, and now that we are finally together I want it to last forever”

“Awwww” He was such a romantic dork, her romantic dork.

“Hey! I told you, don´t awww at me”

They kept looking into each other´s eyes for a while until Yousef stood up and helped her to do the same. They were facing each other.

“Can I hug you?” He asked. He didn´t know if she´ll want to but he´ll try.

She just streched her arms and hug him very tight, he told her something at her ear, something that is going to be kept between them forever. They were now officially together.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Quick fact. Ready?
Glutamine is a special amino acid that the body naturally produces and stores within muscle tissue. This AA helps with muscle recovery, muscle glycogen and protein synthesis, and helps to combat the increasing acidity that occurs during intense workouts.
We get about 1-6 grams from high protein foods, however this is often times not enough for intense marathoners, weight lifters, are athletes of any kind.

Medical school notes - update

So I have uploaded three new files which you can find here! Also a very exciting give away will be up soon as a 40K celebration 

Here are the new notes uploaded:

Human Biology 

  • The nervous system

Chemistry notes

  • Aminoacids
  • Acid and Bases

More to come soon! 

The science of Jello

*Opens 1580 page Physics book* (No Joke)

*opens thousands tabs on protein structure*

Lets talk physiiiicssss and Chemistryyyyy

In order to understand the bouncy movement of jello. We need to understand what jello is made out of. So jelloooooo chemistryyyy

Jell-O is sold prepared (ready to eat) or in powder form, and is available in colors and flavors. The powder contains powdered gelatin and flavorings, including sugar or artificial sweeteners. It is dissolved in hot water, then chilled and allowed to set. 

Gelatin, a protein produced from collagen extracted from boiled bones, connective tissues, and other animal products, has been a component of food, particularly desserts, since the 1400’s. 

Now what exactly is that funny sounding protein named Gelatin?????

*mumbles like a mad scientist*

Gelatin is produced by Collagen. Collagen is the main structural protein of the various connective tissues in animals. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals, making up from 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. Gelatin is collagen that has been irreversibly hydrolyzed. 

• Gelatin contains some 18 distinct amino
acids
• Of these ¼ are basic or acidic
– Lys, arg, his, asp, glu
• 1/3 is glycine or (occasionally) alanine
• ¼ is proline or hydroxyproline

The amino acid composition of gellatin is: Aspartic acid 6%, Arginine 8%, Glycine 27%, Alanine 9%, Proline and Hydroxyproline 25%, Glutamic acid 10% and other amino acids 15%

Now lets look at some physics concerning Gelatin or Jello.

Well first of all, light doesn’t go through matter with the same speed as in a vacuum, if it did there would be some really cool Chernenkov radiation visible. A lot of experiments are one finding the speed of light in jello. cause like jello is a bit translucent and stuff. 

Under what state matter does jello fall on? 

Jello is a sort of semi-rigid structure suspended in a liquid. That’s an example of something that’s called a “colloid”. If you heat it up enough it will become a liquid. If you cool it down it will become a solid. 

So Jello movement, what about that science person?

Jello movement is kinda like.. uhmmm… oscillations. Bouncyness an stuff. 

If we were to see how mechanical waves propagate in jello, we would notice that its just like if we were to drop something in water and waves would form. If we take a cube of jello, those wave forms would be three dimensional.

The motion of any set of wavefronts can be indicated by rays, which
are directed lines perpendicular to the wavefronts. For
circular or spherical waves, the rays are radial lines.
In a homogeneous medium, such as air or Jello at constant density, the
wavefronts travels in straight lines in the direction of the rays, much
like a beam of particles. At a great distance from a point source, a sufficiently
small section of the wavefront can be approximated by a flat
surface (a plane), and the rays are approximately parallel lines; such a
wave is called a plane wave.

And we can measure that wave going through jello using the wave intensity equations 

Also there is elastic movement and the elastic coeficient of jello and what not.

Also deformation and elastic deformation.

In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-

  • an applied force (the deformation energy in this case is transferred through work) or
  • a change in temperature (the deformation energy in this case is transferred through heat).

The first case can be a result of tensile (pulling) forces, compressive (pushing) forces, shear, bending or torsion (twisting). Just like in jellooooo

Deformations which are recovered after the stress field has been removed are called elastic deformations. In this case, the continuum completely recovers its original configuration. 

So basically if we had to do some phsyics on jello and its unusual movement we could do that by..uhmm..

Strain: (engineering strain, or Cauchy strain)

stretch ratio: or extension ratio is a measure of the extensional or normal strain of a differential line element, which can be defined at either the undeformed configuration or the deformed configuration. It is defined as the ratio between the final length ℓ and the initial length L of the material line.

The extension ratio is approximately related to the engineering strain by

True strain :

Shear strain:

AND A BUNCH OF OTHER STUFF I AM NOT WILLING TO COPY AND PASTE CAUSE MY BRAIN IS JELLY AT THIS POINT

Post By: rudescience

Requested by: anonymous, who wanted the science of unusual suspensions like Jello and kinetic sand! but i just..uhm.. yeah, no suspensions, idk what that is and at this point i’m not even gonna google it. 

Got something you want to know??? Then ask rudescience, no matter what, ill try and answer it. 

Quick fact. Ready?
The branch chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, are very important for synthesis of muscle, and are often contributors to energy during high intensity workouts.

Out of all of them, leucine is the most anabolic, thus is contributes the most towards the building of stronger muscles.

Quick fact. Ready?
When we wake up in the morning, our bodies are in a fasted state. Our bodies, after have been deprived, require an immediate high quality source of protein first thing in the morning; whether it’s an egg omelette, some turkey bacon, or a meal replacement shake. Just make sure that you’re giving your body those amino acids that it needs!

so i played with 8track a bit and created my first mix, which is full of khiphop. there are 50 tracks, that play for over two and a half hour. you’re more than welcome to give it an ear!

1 Simon D, Dynamic Duo and Epik High Cypher @SBS 2012 가요대전 / 2 Simon D x Control / 3 Simon D x 돈은 거짓말 안해 (Money Don’t Lie) / 4 LT Time x Don’t Know Why (ft. Demento) / 5 Rap Monster x 130305 / 6 Rap Monster x Too Much / 7 Rap Monster x Unpack Your Bags / 8 Suga x 싸이하누월 / 9 Suga x Diss / 10 Bangtan Boys x BTS Cypher PT.2:Triptych / 11 Jucy x Come On / 12 P.O x Do It / 13 P.O x Aminoacid (ft. Mino) / 14 P.O x Fuxx the System / 15 P.O. x I Believed in Me / 16 Zico x 다음부터 잘할게 (I’ll Treat You Better Next Time) / 17 Zico x Wake Me Up / 18 Zico x Sam / 19 Choi Sam x 시선 / 20 T.O.P x Doom Dada / 21 G-Dragon x Niliria (ft. Missy Elliott) / 22 G-Dragon x Light It Up (ft. Tablo, DOK2) / 23 CL x 멘붕 (MTBD) / 24 CL x 나쁜 기집애 (The Baddest Female) / 25 Epik High x Over / 26 Tablo x 눈,코,입 (ft. Taeyang) / 27 Epik High x Orchestras. Spotlights. Turntables. (ft. MYK) / 28 Choi Sam x 생일기념 Birthday + 광대 / 29 Wiki Young x I Can Do Anything / 30 Wiki Young x Crush (ft. Mustrad) / 31 Jay Park x Metronome (메트로놈) (ft. Simon D, Gray) / 32 Fame-J x Not Human (ft. Jeebag) / 33 AOMG Cypher (Loco, Gray, Ugly Duck, Jay Park and Simon D) / 34 Supreme Boi x Amen / 35 Wutan x Dododo (ft. Don Mills) / 36 Rimi x Rap Messiah / 37 Troy x Green Light (그린라이트) / 38 Crush x Hug Me (ft. Gaeko) / 39 Dynamic Duo x Three Dopeboyz (쌔끈해) (ft. Zion.T) / 40 Lil Cham x 나빠 (ft. I11evn) / 41 Swings x Fallin’ (ft. Jay Park) / 42 Basterd x Bad News / 43 Kid Ash X G2 x First Cypher / 44 Nada x Bang Bang / 45 Kanto x What You Want (말만해) (ft. Kim Sung Kyu) / 46 kkakku x 이름을 걸어 / 47 Lil Cham x Bad Girl’s Anthem / 48 Mino x I Hate Fuckin 개미 / 49 Yong Jun Hyung x Flower / 50 Simon D, Dynamic Duo and Epik High x Gangnam Clique @SBS 2012 가요대전

anonymous asked:

Proteins are so overrated, this whole 'central dogma' BS is only pharmaceutical propaganda from companies who want to sell you 'The best' aminoacids.

i just….cannot fathom how deeply wrong this is….like just so unendingly wrong…so let me enumerate the ways in which you, my dear anon, are wrong

  1. proteins are great. they do like all the shit. DNA? DNA just sits there and looks pretty and then the proteins do all the real work. RNA at least pulls it’s weight but proteins still do everything (s/o to lipids for also doing work)
  2. sure the central dogma is oversimplified and the there are some wrinkles in how it actually works (s/o to transposons and retroviruses) but it pretty much holds for all DNA based life that we have yet encountered, although tbf RNA world is pretty great, ngl
  3. really the most problematic thing about the central dogma is the word dogma, which means something that CANNOT be questioned because it is TRUE, which you will recognize as inherently unscientific, but like, whatevs no one actually thinks that anymore
  4. even Big Pharma isn’t that powerful like
  5. I’m not gonna sit here and defend Big Pharma or anything but wow if they were faking all of modern biology I would be so impressed because like, i literally wouldn’t have a job?
  6. Oh My God maybe i’m really a Big Pharma shill?!?!?!? (*psst Big Pharma* who do I need to talk to to get a raise around here?)
  7. I’m so confused by what the best amino acids are? Like, I’m partial to ILV and like alanine because they don’t scramble but I realize that’s a very inside baseball answer
  8. I mean not all amino acids are created equal but like, it’s like picking my favorite child, yaknow? (don’t tell the others but it’s totally phenylalanine)
  9. Maybe that’s you’re point but why would Big Pharma profit from selling you amino acids? pretty much only weight lifters consume large amounts of them and like, they’re dirt cheap
  10. Serious amino acids are so cheap, just so so cheap
  11. I’m more confused now than I was before?

In conclusion, proteins are great and you are wrong