Amino Acid

I made this guide for my mom because she is trying to eat more plant based! I hope this helps you too :)

Vitamins:
 
- B1 (Thiamine)
 - B12 (Cobalamin)
 - B2 (Riboflavin)
 - B3 (Niacin)
 - B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
 - B6 (Pyridoxine)
 - B7 (Biotin)
 - Folate
 - Vitamin A
 - Vitamin C
 - Vitamin D
 - Vitamin E
 - Vitamin K

Minerals:
 
- Calcium
 - Copper
 - Iron
 - Magnesium
 - Manganese
 - Phosphorus
 - Potassium
 - Selenium
 - Sodium
 - Zinc

B1: Maintains healthy hair, nails and skin and aids in mental focus and brain function.
-Nutritional yeast, pine nuts, soymilk, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, green peas, asparagus, most beans, rice bran, watermelon, whole grains, macadamia nuts, artichokes, coriander.

B12: Red blood cell production, needed for optimal brain function to prevent depression and mania. Aids in digestion and improves iron uptake.
-Fortified almond milk, fortified cereals, spirulina, vegan protein powder and nutritional yeast. I just take a B12 tablet J

B2: Converts food to energy, maintains healthy hair, nails and skin. Aids in mental focus and brain function.
-Whole grains, almonds, sesame seeds, spinach, fortified soy milk, mushrooms, quinoa, buckwheat and prunes.

B3: Converts food to energy, maintains healthy hair, nails and skin. Aids in mental focus and brain function.
­-Chili powder, peanuts, peanut butter, rice bran, mushrooms, barley, potatoes, tomatoes, millet, chia seeds, whole grains, wild rice, buckwheat, green peas, avocados, and sunflower seeds.

B5: Converts food to energy, maintains healthy hair, nails and skin. Aids in mental focus and brain function.
-Nutritional yeast, paprika, mushrooms, sunflower seeds, whole grains, broccoli, avocados, tomatoes, soy milk, rice bran and sweet potatoes.

B6: Aids in maintaining homeostasis, prevents anxiety by helping the amino acid tryptophan to convert to niacin and serotonin for healthy nerve function. Also helps ensure a healthy sleep cycle, appetite, and mood. Helps with red blood cell production and immune function.
- Almonds, chia seeds, peanuts, sweet potatoes, peanut butter, onions, oats, tomatoes, carrots and walnuts.

 B7: Converts food to energy, helps reduce blood sugar by synthesizing glucose, helps make and break down fatty acids needed for healthy hair, skin and nails.
- Almonds, chia seeds, peanuts, peanut butter, sweet potatoes, oats, onions, tomatoes, carrots and walnuts. 

Folate: Merges with B12 and Vitamin C to utilize proteins and is essential for healthy brain development and for healthy red blood cell formation.
- Spinach, beans, lentils, asparagus, lettuce, tomatoes, broccoli, avocados, mangoes, oranges, whole grains, basil, peanuts, artichokes, peanut butter, cantaloupe, walnuts, flax seeds, sesame seeds, cauliflower, sunflower seeds, peas, celery, hazelnuts, and chestnuts.

Vitamin A: Keeps skin healthy, improves immune system function and aids in the production of healthy blood and cellular function.
- All leafy greens, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, carrots, winter squash, wheatgrass, grapefruit, cantaloupe, red bell peppers, orange bell peppers, and goji berries.

Vitamin C: Helps fight inflammation, improves your mood, and helps fight off diseases and colds. Beneficial for skin, hair and nails and supports natural collagen function in the body.
- All leafy greens, all vegetables, all fruits, chestnuts, goji berries. Oranges, lemons, limes and fortified orange juice are the best sources.

Vitamin D: Helps with bone health, digestive health, overall metabolic health, and important in preventing muscle weakness, cancer and depression.
- All types of mushrooms, fortified cereals, almond milk, soy milk and the sun!!

Vitamin E: Protects your skin, fights the look of aging. It’s a powerful fat soluble antioxidant that helps protect cell membranes against damaged caused by free radicals. Helps with cholesterol.
- All nuts, all seeds, avocado, spinach, rice bran, wheat germ, whole grains, broccoli, mango, tomatoes, kiwi fruit, swiss chard, olives, mustard greens and asparagus.

Vitamin K: Helps with blood clotting to prevent excessive bleeding. Also helps prevent blood clots. Important for protecting our bones and prevents easy breaks and fractures.
-Kale, spinach, romaine lettuce, swiss chard, parsley, Brussel sprouts, broccoli, cabbage, blueberries, prunes, grapes and raspberries.

Calcium: For bone building, as well as responsible for proper muscle contraction, maintenance of the heartbeat and transmission of nerve impulses.
-Broccoli, Brussel sprouts, butternut squash, carrots, cauliflower, kale, sweet potato, chickpeas (hummus), lentils, pinto beans, black beans, kidney beans, fortified almond milk, fortified soy milk, whole wheat, fortified orange juice, orange and raisins.

Copper: Helps with bone and connective tissue production. Also helps produce melanin. Without it you can cause osteoporosis, joint pain, lowered immunity and helps absorb iron.
-Kale, mushrooms, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, cashews, sesame seeds, chickpeas, prunes, avocado, and tofu.

Iron: Needed to make proteins, such as hemoglobin and myoglobin in the blood. It helps carry oxygen from our lungs to our tissues. Iron rich foods should be eaten with foods high in Vitamin C to help with absorption.
-Molasses, dark leafy greens like kale and spinach, tofu, whole grains, beans, nuts and seeds.

 Magnesium: Important nutrient for a host of regular enzymatic functions throughout your body. Helps with energy, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, lack of energy and fatigue, joint pain, low blood sugar, lack of concentration and PMS. 
-Oats, almonds, cashews, cocoa and cacao, seeds, all leafy greens, bananas, sweet potatoes, whole grains, beans and brown rice.

Manganese: Required by the body for proper enzyme functioning, nutrient absorption, wound healing and bone development.
-Hazelnuts, pecans, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pistachios, pumpkin seeds, chia seeds, sesame and flax seeds, whole wheat bread, tofu and beans.

Phosphorus: Required for proper cell functioning, regulation of calcium, strong bones and teeth, making of ATP, and helps with anemia, muscle pain, bone formation and weakened immune system.
-Pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, chia seeds, sesame seeds, flax seeds, Brazil nuts, tofu, beans and lentils.

Potassium: Important mineral for the proper function of all cells, tissues and organs in the human body. Helps with your nervous system and shin splints or locked toes.
-Lima beans, swiss chard, sweet potato, potatoes, soy milk, spinach, avocado, lentils, pinto beans and coconut water.

Selenium: Mineral that is needed in small amounts by the body to help regulate the thyroid hormones and support a healthy immune system. It is also an antioxidant that protects cells from damage due to free radicals.
-Mushrooms, couscous, whole wheat pasta, rice, oats, Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds, tofu and beans.

Sodium: Needed for proper muscle contractions, nerve transmissions, maintaining pH balance and hydration.
-Everything has sodium, don’t worry about this one. If you use table salt, you are good. (But don’t use too much or it will cause bloating). Drink lots of water when consuming sodium.

Zinc: Helps your body with carbohydrate metabolism, efficient production of testosterone to prevent estrogen dominance, helps enhance skin and nails, helps enhance your sense of smell, healthy growth, healthy eyesight, wound healing and your immune system. 
-Beans, legumes, nuts, seeds, oats, wheat germ, and nutritional yeast.

lifeandthoughtsandtravel  asked:

I know that you are a reptile tumblr but I was wondering if you knew if it were healthy for dogs to be vegans? I'm just curious because of some vegans that have animals and they make them vegans... is it harmful towards the animal or is it completely safe? thank you :)

It’s an absolutely horrible idea. Dogs cannot be vegans and thrive. They’re not vegetarians and they’re not even really omnivores in the same way we are- while dogs will eat everything we do (and more), feeding them a vegan diet is terrible for their health. A lot of vegans who make this decision will blather on about supplements in the vegan food or about how you can make artificial amino acids or how dogs can survive on it so therefore it’s safe, but dogs can also survive eating Ol’ Roy, the worst dog food in the world. Surviving isn’t the same thing as thriving! A dog’s biological structure means that eating plants and only plants isn’t going to work well in the long run- so let’s look at some of the reasons why dogs need to be fed a diet based in animal protein. 

1. The canine digestive tract is not good at digesting plant matter.

Plant matter is really tough to break down! Meat, on the other hand, digests quickly. Carnivores and herbivores have differently structured digestive tracts that work with their diets. Let’s look at a rabbit’s digestive tract and a dog’s.

See how a rabbit has a functional cecum, while the dog’s is just a little snub of a thing? The cecum is an organ that plays a really important role in non-ruminant herbivore digestion. It’s a large pouch where cellulose and tough fibers in plant-based food get broken down. Dogs, like humans, don’t have one that’s functional for digestion. 

In addition, herbivores like rabbits have very long, complicated digestive tracts. Their food sits in there and breaks down over a long period of time. An average adult rabbit (with a body of about 40 centimeters long, we’re not talking the giant breeds or the dwarf breeds here) has about three meters of small intestine. In American units, that’s a 15 inch animal with almost 10 feet of intestines. A dog, on the other hand, has a small intestine that’s about two and a half times the length of its body- so for instance, a dog that’s two feet long would have about five feet of small intestine. There’s neither enough time nor space in the canine alimentary canal for dogs to fully extract the nutrients they need to survive. 

2. Dog drool doesn’t have amylase.

Amylase an enzyme that converts plant starch and glycogen into simple sugars. Herbivores and omnivores typically have amylase in the saliva, which starts to break down those starches immediately. This means by the time the starches hit the intestine, they’ve already started to convert into something that’s actually useful. Dogs, however, only produce it in the pancreas. There’s no salivary amylase in dogs or any other carnivore. This means that digesting plants and converting their energy into something that’s actually useful is really inefficient for dogs; they can only get something like half of the energy and nutrients they’d get from a comparable amount of meat. It also means that to digest plant material, dogs’ pancreases have to go into overtime to make enough amylase, which can lead to severe pancreatic strain.

3. Dogs can’t digest cellulose.

While the dog pancreas makes amylase, something it doesn’t make is cellulase. Granted, herbivores don’t make it either- in fact, very few animals do. Termites are one of the only animals that make their own cellulase. Herbivore digestive tracts have a reservoir of symbiotic bacteria that produce plenty of cellulase. We’ve actually talked about it- it’s what goes on in the cecum! The bacteria in carnivore ceca, however, is linked to the lymphatic system, not the digestive system. 

There’s also the issue of their teeth not being adapted for a plant-based diet or even the way they eat being good at taking in plants- but the same is true for anything that’s not animal carcasses, including kibble and wet dog food. That’s just evidence that defines them as opportunistic carnivores; what makes a vegan diet so bad for dogs is their digestive biology.

There is one exception to this rule, and that is when a vet prescribes a vegan diet for an animal with significant food allergies or other dietary issues. This is not something vets do unless it’s the best course of treatment for the animal. 

Veganism isn’t the same thing as being an herbivore. Herbivores don’t have a choice; their bodies aren’t built for eating meat. While they might take in animal protein on occasion (deer, for instance, will eat birds sometimes), their teeth, their digestive systems, and their metabolisms all work together to make eating plants the best way for them to survive. A rabbit’s not a vegan- it’s an herbivore. Only humans can be vegans. To be a vegan is to make a choice; it’s to evaluate your place in the world around you and to renegotiate your relationship with all sorts of things- your own body, the food industry, the people around you, and of course the animals you don’t eat. Responsible vegans understand that humans can thrive on an all-vegetable diet; they know that we evolved to be really, really flexible when it comes to the source of our nutrition. While humans are biologically omnivores, we can make that choice.

A dog can’t, and it’s not humanity’s place to force that on them. There are some pets that thrive on an all-vegetable diet. Rabbits, tortoises, finches, hamsters, snails- but not dogs. 

If you’d like more information, this is a fantastic write-up, complete with sources! This is a good, short article written by a vet. This is a blog post that talks about some of the other nutritional deficiencies, particularly involving D3. This is another great writeup with diagrams!

13.08.17

Day 7-8/100 days of productivity

Amino acids flashcards using my new Muji memo key chain :

  • one side for the molecule
  • other side for class (color coded), names and chemical properties

I also tried out @emmastudies​ organic chemistry printable, so happy about how things turned out !

You can tell I already love my new highlighters :’)

No your cat cannot be fed a vegan diet.

This is a biological fact not an opinion. Not an agenda or bias. It is pure scientific fact. You cannot feed your carnivorous pets a vegetarian or vegan diet.  Especially cats. Cats are obligate carnivores which means that they live on a solely meat based diet that is biologically essential for their survival. 

Not only does the meat contain enzymes, amino acids, nutrients and other essential minerals, cats can’t utilize plant-based proteins at all. Cats require high levels of amino acids like taurine and arginine that plants do not provide and require vitamin D (D3) that is only found in meat. So while eating a vegetarian / vegan based diet might “fill” their stomachs they cannot get any nutrients from it as they are unable to break down plant matter. 

This is because of a number of reasons. Firstly plant matter if hard to digest and herbivores require special biological systems to be able to live on a plant-only diet. Such as an enzyme called cellulose that that breaks down the cell wall of plant matter and bacteria that live in their gut, that herbivores cannot do themselves. Cats instead have an enzyme called amylase that can be used to break down small amounts of plant matter. But it is only produced in small amounts and therefore cannot handle high levels of plant matter. 

There is also the fact their digestive tracts are vastly different from that of herbivores. 

As you can see, carnivores have a rather short digestive tract. This because the nutrients and energy in meat is easier to absorb then an animal eating a herbivorous diet.  

Herbivores therefore have long digestive tracts in order to lengthen the time the plant matter is in their body and therefore have a chance to absorb more of the energy. In fact ruminant herbivores have a hour chamber stomach and ruminant (regurgitate) their food in order to better break down the plant matter and absorb more of the nutrients.

The dental structure of a carnivore such as a cat and a herbivore is also vastly different as they are adapted for their different diets. Cats have teeth (incisors and canine) that are used for tearing flesh and holding onto prey. They have only one set of molars as shown and three sets of pre-molars. These teeth are used for grinding / chewing. Compared to that of a herbivore, it’s hardly enough to break down and chew a plant based diet.

A herbivore’s dental structure (horse) contain of mostly molars rather then teeth used for tearing / holding onto prey. As shown below, a horse has many sets of large molars and a large mandible. That allows for long periods of chewing and grinding down on tough plant-matter / grains ect. 


Your cat cannot live on a meatless diet  Any good vet will tell you this and if they don’t they are either not properly qualified or pushing an agenda. If you are uncomfortable with feeding meat to a cat or dog or any other carnivorous pet. Then don’t get that pet. Get an animal that lives on grains or plant matter because you should not own a cat if you’d rather put your own agenda / “morals” over that of an animals life and well being. 

3

Knowing the 20 Amino Acids is definitely a MUST for the 2015 MCAT 

Amino acids that are usually negative (i.e. de-protonated) at physiological pH:

- Glutamate (E) Glu, and Aspartate (D) Asp

Amino acids that are usually positive (i.e. protonated) at physiological pH:

- Lysine (K) Lye, Arginine ® Arg 

Histidine is sometimes charged at physiological pH. 

physiological pH = 7, Neutral 

How the food you eat affects your brain

If you sucked all of the moisture out of your brain and broke it down to its constituent nutritional content, what would it look like? Most of the weight of your dehydrated brain would come from fats, also known as lipids. In the remaining brain matter, you would find proteins and amino acids, traces of micronutrients, and glucose. The brain is, of course, more than just the sum of its nutritional parts, but each component does have a distinct impact on functioning, development, mood, and energy. So that post-lunch apathy, or late-night alertness you might be feeling, well, that could simply be the effects of food on your brain.

Here are four fascinating facts about your brain on food!

Your brain runs on fats! The good kinds, that is. As we mentioned before, your brain is made mostly of fats. Of the fats in your brain, the superstars are omegas 3 and 6. These essential fatty acids, which have been linked to preventing degenerative brain conditions, must come from our diets. So eating omega-rich foods, like nuts, seeds, and fatty fish, is crucial to the creation and maintenance of cell membranes.

Food can make you super sleepy! But, it can also keep you up. Proteins and amino acids, the building block nutrients of growth and development, manipulate how we feel and behave. Amino acids are one of the reasons we might feel calm after eating a large plate of pasta, or more alert after a protein-rich meal. While the human brain only makes up about 2% of our body weight, it uses up to 20% of our energy resources. Most of this energy comes from carbohydrates that our body digests into glucose, or blood sugar. The frontal lobes are so sensitive to drops in glucose, in fact, that a change in mental function is one of the primary signals of nutrient deficiency. Carbs come in three forms: starch, sugar, and fiber. While on most nutrition labels, they are all lumped into one total carb count, the ratio of the sugar and fiber subgroups to the whole amount affect how the body and brain respond. A high glycemic food, like white bread, causes a rapid release of glucose into the blood and then comes the dip. Blood sugar shoots down, and with it, our attention span and mood. On the other hand, oats, grains, and legumes have slower glucose release, enabling a steadier level of attentiveness. For sustained brain power, opting for a varied diet of nutrient-rich foods is critical.

Trans fats are not your friends. While omegas are good fats for your brain, long-term consumption of other fats, like trans and saturated fats, may compromise brain health. Some research shows that trans fats may impair your memory and may actually affect the size of your brain??!?

Food affects your mood. The complex combinations of compounds in food can stimulate brain cells to release mood-altering norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. But getting to your brain cells is tricky, and amino acids have to compete for limited access. A diet with a range of foods helps maintain a balanced combination of brain messengers, and keeps your mood from getting skewed in one direction or the other.

How’s that for ‘food for thought’?

From the TED-Ed Lesson How the food you eat affects your brain - Mia Nacamulli

Animation by Private Island

SKAM S04E09 Clip 5 - Maghrib

SANA: Please accept my fast, even though I’ve behaved badly. Please watch over Eva and Vilde and Noora, Chris. Please watch over Isak and Even and Elias and Yousef.

[VILDE: Hi, are you ready to meet up?

EVA: Sana! Chris and I will pick you up with the van in 20 minutes.

SANA: Ok cool

SANA: I regret cancelling the date with Yousef

NOORA: YEEES! Call him! Go!

EVA: Do it girl!! Life is NOW!!

SANA: According to Islam, life is after death. Which is one of the reasons why I should stay away from him

CHRIS: According to me, the abdomen is dead after death. Which is one of the reasons why you should meet him!!

VILDE: Yousef! Yousef! Yousef!

SANA: Hahaha I get why mom is worried that I don’t have any Muslim friends

NOORA: Hello! OK!! I can argue from an Islamic perspective

SANA: Now I’m intrigued

NOORA: Ok, doesn’t Islam believe in destiny?

Keep reading

Our Asteroid-Bound Mission is Set to Slingshot Around Earth

NASA’s first spacecraft to travel to an asteroid will get a boost from Earth tomorrow, Sept. 22. 

Earth’s gravity is going to slingshot OSIRIS-REx toward its target, an asteroid named Bennu.

Asteroids are relatively small, inactive, rocky bodies that orbit around the Sun. Scientists think asteroids like Bennu may have collided with Earth a long time ago, seeding our planet with the organic compounds that made life possible. That means that there’s a good chance Bennu contains answers to fundamental questions about the origins of life and how our solar system came to be. We sent OSIRIS-REx on a journey to investigate.

One of the best ways to change the trajectory of a spacecraft is by using the gravity of a planet or large moon to catapult it. It sounds like science fiction, but this type of maneuver, called a gravity assist, is a fuel-efficient way of traveling through space.

We’re not using the slingshot to speed the spacecraft, we’re doing it to change its direction. That’s because the asteroid’s orbit is tilted six degrees in comparison to Earth’s orbit. When OSIRIS-REx swings by, Earth’s gravity will lift it up and sling it toward Bennu.

Spot the spacecraft

Because at its closest approach OSIRIS-REx will only be 11,000 miles above Earth, you can see it with a backyard telescope. For most observers, the spacecraft will appear between the constellations Cetus and Pisces, but its exact position in the sky will vary by location.

For specifics on locating and photographing OSIRIS-REx, visit our Spot the Spacecraft page.

Wave to OSIRIS-REx

After its closest approach, OSIRIS-REx flip around and look back at Earth, so here’s your chance to say hello! Take a picture of yourself or your group waving to OSIRIS-REx. Then share your photo using the hashtag #HelloOSIRISREx and tag the mission account on Twitter @OSIRISREx or Instagram @OSIRIS_REx.

To Bennu and back

In about a year from now, OSIRIS-REx will arrive at asteroid Bennu.

After it surveys and maps Bennu, OSIRIS-REx will “high-five” the asteroid with its robotic arm to collect a sample, which it will send to Earth. This asteroid sample will be the largest amount of space material transported to Earth since we brought back rocks from the Moon. High-fives all around!

If everything goes according to plan, on Sept. 24, 2023, the capsule containing the asteroid sample will make a soft landing in the Utah desert. That’s the end of the spacecraft’s seven-year-long journey to Bennu and back.

But the mission doesn’t stop there. On Earth, the sample material collected by OSIRIS-REx will be analyzed to determine the asteroid’s chemical composition. Scientists will look for organic compounds like amino acids and sugars — the building blocks for life. 

Bennu is approximately 4.5 billion years old. Our solar system is 4.6 billion years old. That means that Bennu is made up of some of the oldest stuff in our solar system. So samples from Bennu could tell us more about how our solar system evolved and possibly even how life began on Earth!
Learn more about asteroid Bennu, the OSIRIS-REx mission and the Earth gravity assist. 

Follow the mission on Facebook and Twitter for the latest updates. 

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

9

Saturn’s Moon, Enceladus, Is Our Closest Great Hope For Life Beyond Earth

“Cassini provided scientists with a wealth of data about Enceladus’ surface and the composition of its powerful plumes. This data showed evidence of a deep saltwater ocean with an energy source beneath Enceladus’ surface. The presence of water, warmth, and organic molecules are the necessary requirements for sustaining life as we know it. Water is proven to exist, while the tidal forces from Saturn provide the necessary heat. Based on observations of other bodies in the Solar System, Enceladus likely contains the raw ingredients for life as well. The suspected existence of all three hints at the possible presence of the precursors to amino acids in this vast subsurface ocean. Should we find extraterrestrial life on Enceladus – or in the geyser-like plumes erupting into space – the implications are almost incomprehensible.”

When you think about life beyond Earth, you likely think of it occurring on a somewhat Earth-like planet. A rocky world, with either a past or present liquid ocean atop the surface, seems ideal. But that might not even be where life on Earth originated! Deep beneath the Earth’s surface, geologically active hydrothermal vents currently support diverse colonies of life without any energy from the Sun. Saturn’s icy moon, Enceladus, has a subsurface ocean unlike any other world we’ve yet discovered. The tidal forces of Saturn itself provide the necessary heat, and also create cracks in the Enceladean surface, enabling massive geysers. This subsurface ocean rises hundreds of kilometers high, regularly resurfaces the world with a coat of fresh ice, and even creates the E-ring of Saturn. But most spectacularly, it may house actively living organisms, and could be the next-best world for life, after Earth, in the Solar System today.

Come get the full story on Enceladus, and welcome Starts With A Bang’s newest contributor, the remarkable Jesse Shanahan!

Teen Wolf Preference – He walks in on you naked

Once again, thank you @pissheadofficial, my source of SHARED filthy ideas.

Warnings: Some of them have SLIGHT sexual content (heh what ya think..)

Scott McCall

Scott had a habit to climb through your window at night. You knew roughly what time he used to come by and you decided to change into something more comfortable to sleep in before he arrived, instead of always having to go into the bathroom to change every time.

You started to undress and search for the shorts you use to sleep in when you heard a gust of wind behind you. “Man, now I REALLY don’t regret arriving earlier.” the familiar voice behind you made you turn around in terror.

The smirking face of Scott met yours and you quickly took your dirty shirt and tried to cover your bare body. “Scott!” you squealed with widened eyes and he just nodded in appreciation.

You cursed under your breath as you bend down to gather the rest of your clothes but kept on drop your clothes and Scott still stood in front of your window, smiling proudly as he eyed you up and down. “Stop staring and get out!”

He shook his head and you roared at him, still panicking over your naked body, deciding to run towards the bathroom with or without clothes. You yanked backwards by an overly strong and warm hand gripping around your forearm.

Your naked back flushed against Scott’s chest as he was able to lean in to whisper in your ear. “No, I’m not going anywhere.” panting as he spoke. “You’re coming over here.”

Stiles Stilinski

“Holy-moly!” you got surprised by the slight numb voice of Stiles behind you. You turned around and flinched, realizing you didn’t wore a shirt, neither pants, or a bra, or panties..

“Stiles!” you gasped as you saw him standing in the door opening. His mouth was slightly open and his mesmerized gaze were focused on your body. “I wasn’t prepared for this-” he began and raised his eyebrows.

“But I like it.” he continued with what you thought was him being seductive and approached you. You furrowed your brows as he took a few step forward, his brown eyes almost piercing you were you stood, face slightly red due to his affection.

“I mean, WOW!” Stiles exclaimed with the most flustered face you’ve seen as he gesture towards your body. You followed the motions of his hands just to freeze when your eyes met his crotch.

You let out a muffled giggle, making Stiles look at you in confusion. “Stiles? Is that a boner?” you asked boldly with a smirk, quirking your eyebrows as you met his eyes again.

His gaze moved towards himself and immediately tried to cover it. His face turned even more red as he stumbled backwards towards the door. “Shit, I-” he began and hit his back in the door frame, letting the door guide him out from your room. “B-bye Y/N.”

Liam Dunbar

It was 10 minutes left until Liam’s arrival. You had invited him over to help him study for his test on Friday. You wrinkled your nose after sniffing your armpit, unbuttoned your shirt with one hand, letting the other one trying to open the buckle of your bra.

“I can’t invite him over and smell like crap.” you mumbled to yourself and decided to undress completely just to find a whole new outfit, all from underwear to your favorite over-sized cardigan.

“So I thought about what you’ve said about the combinations of the amino acids and-” Liam were looking intently down in his folders of papers, not realizing what he walked in on. You froze and your eyes widened as you held your clean underwear in your hand, smiling at him always being so unaware of his surroundings.

He closed the door behind you, still not looking at you as you answered him. “-yes Liam?” you replied him, with the most exaggerated seductive voice you could disguise.

Liam turns around slowly, meeting your eyes. You flash him a smirk as you place your hand on your hip as you pop it, twirling your underwear between your fingers.

In what seem to be in slow motion, he drops all his books, papers flying around him as his eyes Liam’s eyes widen, mouth drops and the mortification immediately covers his face as he tries to talk. 

“I-I, I’m-” he stutter before he quickly turns around, opens the door, hits his nose on the frame, leaving a trail of blood before running out from your room. When he close the door behind him you can’t help but let out a giggle.

Brett Talbot

You didn’t hear anything due to the harsh sound of your nearly broken hairdryer. The sound might resemble a nuclear power plant and you didn’t hear that someone had opened your door and stepped in.

Brett caught you in action just in that time when you had blow dried your hair upside down and were flipping your hair back over your shoulders, making it look quite sensual as Brett had seen it in slow motion. “Save that for tonight Y/N.” he purred and you dropped the hair dryer on the floor, almost hitting your foot but flinched in the right second.

“What the hell! What are you doing here? Get out!” you roared in panic and grabbed the wet towel you had hung on the back of the chair beside you, trying to cover your body as Brett pursed his lips into a smirk before stepping backwards out from the room.

“Woah.” Brett sighed for himself, he felt his heart rate increase in his chest when he realized what he had walked in to. He leaned back against the door and thought about how beautiful your naked body were in the daylight. He’d only seen the dark silhouette of it when you had sex during late nights, when your parents were asleep.

Theo Raeken

You’ve told Theo a thousand times not to come to your place until 8 p.m. since you wanted to get home from practice and shower before his arrival.

The clothes you had decided to wear laid properly on the end of your bed, waiting for you to put them on as you stood in front of your bookshelf, taking your brush out from one of the shelves to start to even out the wet tangles in your hair.

“Nice.” the hiss of Theo’s voice made you freeze, then turning around just to see the door to your room were wide open, having him leaning against the door frame. “THEO!” you quickly dive down the floor to look after something to cover your naked body with.

You felt your heart start to pound in your chest as you saw him lick his bottom lip before taking it between his teeth. “What are you doing?” you tried to sound threatening but your voice betrayed you when you spoke.

With a quirk of his eyebrow, he tugged the hem of his shirt, lifting the fabric over his head to let it fall to the floor. He started to striding towards you, having his dark gaze eyeing you up and down as he approached you and with just that look, he was devouring you.

Fitness tip #2

To build your muscles, fuel your body before and after a workout!

Make sure you’re getting a good balance of carbs, proteins, fats, amino acids, and calories!

I like to have a meal or snack and protein bar an hour or so before your workout and a protein shake and meal after! Everybody’s body is different and has different needs so listen to your body, If you are feeling tired and sluggish after or during a workout you probably need to eat more.

Also try to keep your calorie and protein intake up even on days you are not working out!

how to wake up happier ♡

For the past few days I’ve woken up feeling a lot happier and way more positive, simply by starting a few more healthy habits. I figured that I might sprinkle and share some of my positivity with you peeps! ♡ 

If you are recovering from any mental health issues, or want to take the next step, this might be benefitial to you, as it was to me - however, I will warn you that different things work for different people :)

before bed:
practise self-care and self-love, think positive thoughts, breathe fresh air, listen to calming music, read a good and positive book, drink water - stay hydrated kiddos, drink some calming tea, take any medication you need to, make sure everything you need for tomorrow is prepared and make sure that you room is in good conditions to sleep in. 

when you wake up:
don’t reach for your phone the moment you wake up, open your curtains, open your window and let some fresh air in, have a drink, stretch and remember the positive thoughts you went to bed with.

some helpful words from some beautiful peeps
if you have trouble sleeping at night (x) | @fuwaprince
tips for getting up earlier when you’re not a morning person (x) | @halseystudy
tips for balancing sleep & education (x) | @brbimstudying
the science behind sleep, and how to sleep well (x) | @tobeagenius
the masterpost of all sleeping masterposts (x) | kudos to @shelbys-advice-blog this post is amazing♡

“Quick fact. Ready? Consuming protein prior to bed time may enhance sleep quality by providing the body with amino acids necessary to create human growth hormone. This hormone plays a role in deepening sleep, as well as muscle recovery following exercise.” | @thepowerwithin

2

15-06-17
Studying the structure and properties of Amino Acids. Next week is our midterm exam then next month is the reporting, hope to do well in both. 😊

Neurotransmitters

Central nervous system

  • Glutamate 
  • GABA 
  • Glycine 
  • Dopamine 
  • Serotonin 
  • Noradrenaline 
  • Histamine 
  • Orexin 
  • Endorphins 

Peripheral nervous system 

  • Noradrenaline 
  • Acetylcholine 

Neurotransmitter synthesis/packaging 

  • Some neurotransmitters are readily available amino acids eg Glutamate, glycine 
  • Some are synthesised by the cells that secrete them eg GABA, noradrenaline, dopamine 

Noradrenaline synthesis:

Packaging

  • In the presynapse, neurotransmitter is contained in vesicles 
  • The neurotransmitter must be packaged into the vesicle ready for release 
  • Uses transporters and proton gradients to package 

[packaging and release - above]

  • Neurotransmitter release is quantal – Each vesicle contains the same amount of neurotransmitter 
  • Therefore it is the number of vesicles fusing which determines the post synaptic potentials 
  • membranes must fuse for release - membrane fusion is energetically unfavourable so must be catalysed by something

SNARE Hypothesis 

  • Proteins on the presynaptic membrane ‘grab’ proteins on the vesicle membrane 
  • These SNARE proteins pull the two membranes close together 
  • SNARE proteins provide most of the energy for membrane fusion
  • v-SNARE (VAMP2) – on vesicle membrane 
  • t-SNAREs (syntaxin1A, SNAP-25) on target membrane 
  • Bind together to make SNARE complex 
  •  SNARE ‘zippering’ forces the membranes close together 
  • Spontaneous, highly energetically favourable 
  • Once assembled, they require ATP hydrolysis to separate them 
  •  Ca2+ binding to synaptotagmin provides extra energy to fuse the membranes

Neurotransmitter release

  • synaptic vesicle release sites are highly organised and regulated
  • exocytose into synaptic cleft

presynaptic active zone:


Neurotransmitter detection

  • Ionotropic (ion channel coupled) – Glutamate, GABA, Glycine 
  • Metabotropic (G-protein coupled) – monoamines, histamine etc. 
  • Some have both kinds, e.g. glutamate, GABA 
  • Ionotropic responses are faster 
  • Metabotropic responses can have more diverse effects 

Glutamate receptors

  • Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain 
  • Three classes of ionotropic receptor – AMPA – NMDA – Kainate 
  •  Named after pharmacological agonists 
  • All let in positive ions when they bind glutamate 
  • Glutamate also has a family of metabotropic receptors – mGluRs – These modulate neurotransmission 

AMPA Receptors 

  •  Main fast excitatory receptor 
  • Strength of a synapse is largely determined by its complement of AMPARs
  •  More AMPAR in the post-synaptic membrane = stronger synaptic transmission 

NMDA Receptors 

  • Minor role in postsynaptic firing 
  • Major role is in synaptic plasticity 
  • NMDA receptors are calcium permeable 
  • require strong neurotransmitter release to open