The quote is from Jose Rizal, the Ph national hero.
I didn’t include his name coz I have seen an article, which I have yet to read, that says the quote wasn’t originally from Rizal. It said that the meaning of the quote was actually the common sentiments of Filipinos in those times (1800’s). The lack of knowledge of Pre-Spanish Philippines.
I guess even back then, Filipinos are aware of their missing identity.
“The Philippines, with more than seven thousand islands and ten million brown-skinned inhabitants, had been ceded to the United States by Spain (in 1898) for twenty million dollars.I was an infant when this happened, but I was to be nourished to manhood on the indignation and despair of my elders who had fought in the revolution against Spain and known the sweetness of victory only to find that victory tossed aside as a sop to appeasement.
This was the way the Filipinos felt when their country was taken over by America. We would suffer from this resentment many years.
To be frank, the Philippines were acquired by America in her only outburst of imperialism. The outburst did not come from a desire for power. It was salve applied to the wounded pride of a great country. It was a response to a slogan: "Remember the Maine!”
The American military authorities explained why they were in our country.“To develop the country. To open up the Philippines to commerce.”
Such phrases were fine-sounding, like Dewey’s statement that he came to protect the Philippines. The usually good-natured, easy- going Filipino had discovered much in his brief war against Spanish tyranny. He had learned he was a fighter. He had won his revolt against Spain. Had he turned against one foreign rule only to submit to another? No matter how beneficent that rule might be, in the minds of men who had fought for independence it was still tyranny.
The insurgents rallied in swelling forces around Aguinaldo. On February 4, 1899, hostilities broke out in a Manila suburb between American and Filipino forces.
Our revolution against America which the Americans would term “insurrection” began.
As A NATION we were thoroughly aroused by 1899. “The Filipinos are not a warlike people,”General Arthur Mac-Arthur said of us at this time.But we had waged and won our revolution against Spain and had no intention of submitting to America’s claims on our country. The Americans were in the Philippines without our consent.
It was the determination of every Filipino man, woman, and child to drive them out.
We fought American occupation for three years. From the beginning it was a hopeless contest. The United States was rich in resources and man power; it could pour whole armies of soldiers, well trained and well equipped, into our country. Within four years American transports had landed 125,000 khaki-clad Yankees on Luzon.
Without proper training or organization, with primitive weapons and ancient guns, the Filipinos fought to hold the Philippines. Tribes from remote -provinces swung bolos beside their college-educated countrymen. Natives of types we of the cities had never seen came down from the hills to fight with bows and arrows. Even the children formed brigades and threw rocks at the American soldiers, who stood helpless before such ludicrous but telling onslaught.
Both armies fought mud, pestilence, and the dangers of the jungle. Aguinaldo’s men had the additional handicaps of lack of food, equipment, and transportation. It was the same sort of hopeless war that would be waged forty-two years later on Bataan, when Filipinos and Americans yielded to the superior forces of the Japanese
Major General Henry W. Lawton of the American forces said of the Filipinos during this time:
‘Taking into account the disadvantages they have had to fight against…they are the bravest men I have ever seen.“
American occupation was achieved by 1900.
After hundreds of small battles the revolution ended from the American point of view when Aguinaldo went into retreat in the mountains and organized warfare stopped. But the Filipinos did not know they were beaten. Aguinaldo was still their King Bernardo, held captive in the mountains and waiting his chance to free the Philippines. The Filipinos went on fighting as guerrilleros.
Guerrilla warfare began in 1900 with the new century. This mode of fighting, as old as war itself, is particularly adaptable to the Philippine terrain. There are forests in Luzon so impenetrable that they are capable of sheltering entire armies. Thick foliage forms a waterproof roof against the torrential rains. There are trees with hollow trunks that can provide shelter for half-a-dozen men, and caves behind shores and rivers impossible for any but a native to locate. In such places the scattered forces of Aguinaldo went into hiding, to sally out in surprise raids that harried and baffled the American forces. They were aided and abetted by the townspeople. Again, it was everybody’s war everybody was in the fight.
There was no "walkie-talkie” then, no telephone to carry communication between the secret lines. Orders in code were drummed through the forests on bamboo. This was the bamboo telegraph that would sound again in the Philippines when the Japanese invaded. Guerrilla warfare was revived after the Philippines fell to the Japanese. Modern devices aid its efficiency, but as a mode of fighting it remains savage and elemental.
Guerrilla warfare comes from the inside of a people it is waged, encouraged, and aided by the people. It cannot exist without the loyalty of the general population. The guerrilla army must be fed, armed, sheltered, protected, and kept informed by the civilians.
As the son of a guerrillero father I learned much of the methods of these fighters.
Townsmen, countrymen, or guerrilla at large worked under the very noses of the occupying forces. The most peaceful citizen by day might be a prowling tiger by night. Your next-door neighbor, a man of sedentary occupation and mild manners, might be the leader of a guerrilla band. Such men were inured to dangerous living and hardship. The guerrilla fighter trained by night. He became a master marksman who used his gun only when necessary not only to save ammunition but to keep from exposing himself to the enemy. He carried food on his person and went hungry, to accustom himself to semi-starvation. He learned to suffer pain without whimpering, because a sound might betray him to the enemy. He learned to endure rain and heat and jungle discomfort and knew which herbs of the forest were useful in warding off jungle diseases. Wounded, he nursed his wounds in silence until he could reach a physician that could be trusted. Captured, he died without speaking.
The guerrillero of the town was in constant touch with the guerrillero in the hills. He sent messages of advice or warning to those in hiding by the bamboo telegraph, church bells, or messenger. Arms, ammunition, and provisions were received and dispatched in strange ways, under mounds of dried cogon grass or in carts heaped with buffalo dung.
Women played an active part in the campaign. They maintained much of the communication between the guerrilla forces. Housewives haggling with vendors in the market place might be discussing in code the movement and troop numbers of the Americans. Mango and guava prices they argued were translatable into terms of arms and men to the farmer-vendor, who served as courier to the forces hiding in the surrounding hills. At nightfall, driving his empty cart homeward, he would pause to relay his information to other couriers waiting along the roads.
Women patched the clothing of the fighters, prepared bandages, medical kits, and food, and left these on kitchen tables in the evening. In the morning all would be gone.
The youngest child knew he must observe much and tell nothing. He might be playing ball outside his home when an American sentry appeared at the corner. The ball would fly in an open window the guerrillero father within would be warned in time.
War such as this is impossible to stamp out. The Americans realized it would continue indefinitely in the Philippines unless some means could be found to convince the Filipinos that American intentions were friendly.
Certain officers decided upon more violent steps to quell what the Americans called the “insurrection,” but which we of the Philippines termed our second revolution. The American forces continued to spread through the occupied towns and fought back as best they could the surprise sallies of the Filipinos. But to bring the guerrilla forces to terms they would have to learn two things: where were the guerrilla leaders hiding, and where were the ammunition and guns hidden?
American soldiers asked these questions of captive Filipinos. The ugly chapter began.
Filipinos were encouraged to talk by means of the rope and water cures. The rope method was a slow strangling and a painful release to life. This was repeated.
The water cure was revived from the Inquisition. A man’s stomach was pumped full of water and then jumped upon until it emptied. This was repeated until the victim was unconscious. Then he was revived, and the process repeated.
But the tortured Filipinos did not talk. The hidden guerrilla army remained hidden. Even Filipinos who by this time had become sympathetic to the Americans and were willing to accept the occupation refused to talk under torture.
All through the year 1900 the guerrilla fighting continued. By this time a great deal about the Filipinos and the Philippines was finding its way into the American newspapers. Americans talked of Luzon, Zamboanga, Iloilo strange names for American-held places.
There was much sympathy for the Filipinos in the United States. A definite wave of “anti-imperialism” swept the country. Added indignation followed reports of the “cures.” Aguinaldo of the Philippines became surrounded by a symbolic aura, not only to his own people, but to many sympathizers in theUnited States.
No less an authority than Washington investigated the reports of the rope and water cures. Officers who had been in charge of such cases were found guilty, reprimanded, fined, and dismissed from the Army. Several received prison terms.
Impossible to translate the effect of such reprisal on the military mind! Consider, then, its effect on the simpler reasoning of the Filipino. He was impressed and awed that the United States he had been fighting as a tyrant should take such pains to uncover and punish tyranny.
It was our first experience with American justice. Its effect was recognizable. As American officers were punished, more and more Filipinos brought in their guns and ammunition and yielded to the American military heads. Among these one of the most respected by the Filipinos was the father of Douglas MacArthur. General Arthur MacArthur was one of the first of the Americans to win our wholehearted trust.
As Military Governor he held the Philippines under martial law, policed the country, imprisoned and tried captured insurgents, and deported those found guilty. He was stern, courteous, and fair. He issued the proclamation of amnesty that promised a reward and no punishment to anyone turning over a rifle to the American authorities.
Thousands of Filipinos took advantage of the amnesty by turning in their arms and taking the oath of allegiance to die United States.
General MacArthur established in the Philippines the writ of habeas corpus which is the foundation stone of the American Bill of Rights. This was a daring act in a country still at war. And in this turbulent year 1900 he organized the Filipino Scouts, the military organization composed of Filipino soldiers under American officers which later became the nucleus of the American armed forces in the Philippines.
Many of these were Filipinos who had fought in the revolution against Spain and the revolution against America. Proud of their new organization and their new uniforms, they told their friends: “This General MacArthur is a great man!”
Stories spread of this American leader. His friendly, democratic attitude toward the Filipino soldiers was often cited. He was one with his men, they said. He was also a hero he had been awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for valor in the Civil War. His son would wear that medal later in recognition of Bataan and Corregidor.
Officers like General MacArthur helped quell the revolution by the weight of their personal integrity. But the guerrilla fighting continued. Without sufficient arms, food, medicines, or hope the guerrilleros carried on the three-year-old fight against America.
It was General MacArthur who reasoned that the resistance would never end while Aguinaldo remained free. The Philippine leader, who was encamped in the mountains with his movements handicapped by the sick wife who had to be transported by litter, had become a legend and the symbol of freedom to his people.
“Capture Aguinaldo,” MacArthur ordered finally, “but capture him alive.”
In March 1901 Aguinaldo was taken prisoner by General Frederick Funston, by a ruse.Pro-American Filipinos went to the leader’s camp pretending to be Aguinaldo sympathizers. With them were American officers disguised as prisoners. General MacArthur received the captive Aguinaldo with the respect one military leader tenders another. The result of their meeting was agreement and complete understanding, and out of that understanding came the full capitulation of Emilio Aguinaldo with his historic proclamation that brought peace to the Philippines:
“The country has declared unmistakably for peace… By acknowledging and accepting the sovereignty of the United States throughout the entire Archipelago, as I do now without any reservations whatsoever, I believe that I am serving thee, my beloved country.”
The words ended protest against America.
Following Aguinaldo, leader after leader, fighter after fighter, made his way into Manila and took the pledge of allegiance to the United States of America.
Aguinaldo retired under pension to serve as head of the Philippine Veterans* Association.
So the last of the fighters for freedom laid down his arms.
- Excerpts from the book of General Carlos Peña Romulo, Mother America
“To know nothing of what happened before you were born is to remain forever a child.” - Cicero
Credits as well to YouTube User: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UC93ugQlICVXItOg_ShkIe0Q
(( The Amigo Movie gave us both chills and feels. ;;A;; )) (( So you guys see, the illustration I did was very much based on the movie AMIGO by John Sayles which is by the way, one of the most well-written movies I’ve ever seen. ;v;b ))
(( The actors were very well-chosen and ugghhh, look at the art therreeeee!! ;A; ))
(( So yeah, it could be an AU something-something…. *coughsIt'sPartOfTheColonial!PhilippinesAUThoughcoughs* ))
If you say your Philippines OC is Spain’s precious Mija, I will slap a “Noli Me Tangere” by Jose Rizal book in your face.
If you say America is Philippines awesome sugoi hero/big brother/lover, I will slap a “Philippine Society and Revolution” by Amado Guerrero book in your face. Same if you say that Spain civilized us. Actually, this book kinda covers almost all…=3=
I can give you a library full of books that says how much US is not our sugoi hero, (namely, the UP Diliman main library).
If you say Romano and Philippines is historically canon, I will slap a history book on your face. Simple as that.
If you ship Philippines and Japan as kawaii otaku pair without considering the war crimes that are still denied ‘til today, I’ll slap “Without Seeing the Dawn” by Stevan Javellana on your face. There’s also “Comfort Women: Slave of Destiny” an autobiography of Maria Rosa Henson but it’s only 120 pages or so so it won’t hurt that much. Also the PSR book I mentioned because Japan also contributes in monopolizing capitals and resources in the Philippines.
If you make a Mindanao OC yandere, I’ll slap a “Bangsamoro Quest” by Datu Michael Mastura on your face. I’ll also slap you.