A-perfect-Vacuum

“If there is energy within the substance it can only come from without. This truth was so manifest to me that I expressed it in the following axiom: ‘There is no energy in matter except that absorbed from the medium…’ If all energy is supplied to matter from without then this all important function must be performed by the medium.”

“When radio-active rays were discovered their investigators believed them to be due to liberation of atomic energy in the form of waves. This being impossible in the light of the preceding I concluded that they were produced by some external disturbance and composed of electrified particles. My theory was not seriously taken although it appeared simple and plausible. Suppose that bullets are fired against a wall. Where a missile strikes the material is crushed and spatters in all directions radial from the place of impact. In this example it is perfectly clear that the energy of the flying pieces can only be derived from that of the bullets. But in manifestation of radio-activity no such proof could be advanced and it was, therefore, of the first importance to demonstrate experimentally the existence of this miraculous disturbance in the medium. I was rewarded in these efforts with quick success largely because of the efficient method I adopted which consisted in deriving from a great mass of air, ionized by the disturbance, a current, storing its energy in a condenser and discharging the same through an indicating device. This plan did away with the limitations and incertitude of the electroscope first employed and was described by me in articles and patents from 1900 to 1905. It was logical to expect, judging from the behavior of known radiations, that the chief source of the new rays would be the sun, but this supposition was contradicted by observations and theoretical considerations which disclosed some surprising facts in this connection.

“Light and heat rays are absorbed in their passage through a medium in a certain proportion to its density. The ether, although the most tenuous of all substances, is no exception to this rule.  Its density has been first estimated by Lord Kelvin and conformably to his finding a column of one square centimeter cross section and of a length such that light, traveling at a rate of three hundred thousands kilometers per second, would require one year to traverse it, should weigh 4.8 grams. This is just about the weight of a prism of ordinary glass of the same cross section and two centimeters length which, therefore, may be assumed as the equivalent of the ether column in absorption. A column of the ether one thousand times longer would thus absorb as much light as twenty meters of glass.  However, there are suns at distances of many thousands of light years and it is evident that virtually no light from them can reach the earth. But if these suns emit rays immensely more penetrative than those of light they will be slightly dimmed and so the aggregate amount of radiations pouring upon the earth from all sides will be overwhelmingly greater than that supplied to it by our luminary. If light and heat rays would be as penetrative as the cosmic, so fierce would be the perpetual glare and so scorching the heat that life on this and other planets could not exist.

“Rays in every respect similar to the cosmic are produced by my vacuum tubes when operated at pressures of ten millions of volts or more, but even if it were not confirmed by experiment, the theory I advanced in 1897 would afford the simplest and most probable explanation of the phenomena. Is not the universe with its infinite and impenetrable boundary a perfect vacuum tube of dimensions and power inconceivable? Are not its fiery suns electrodes at temperatures far beyond any we can apply in the puny and crude contrivances of our making? Is it not a fact that the suns and stars are under immense electrical pressures transcending any that man can ever produce and is this not equally true of the vacuum in celestial space? Finally, can there be any doubt that cosmic dust and meteoric matter present an infinitude of targets acting as reflectors and transformers of energy? If under ideal working conditions, and with apparatus on a scale beyond the grasp of the human mind, rays of surpassing intensity and penetrative power would not be generated, then, indeed, nature has made an unique exception to its laws.

"It has been suggested that the cosmic rays are electrons or that they are the result of creation of new matter in the interstellar deserts. These views are too fantastic to be even for a moment seriously considered. They are natural outcroppings of this age of deep but unrational thinking, of impossible theories, the latest of which might, perhaps, deal with the curvature of time. What this world of ours would be if time were curved…“

–Nikola Tesla

“The Eternal Source of Energy of the Universe, Origin and Intensity of Cosmic Rays.” October 13, 1932.

anonymous asked:

I find it really amusing that Laurens painted and drew things, I wonder if there's any records of anything the founding fathers drew.

Thomas Jefferson’s macaroni machine. 

Franklin drew a doodle of the perfect Vacuum- a Torricellian tube.

Doodles in Ben Franklin’s copy of Proceedings of the Continental Congress 1783-1784.

Here is a picture of a penis that someone drew and sent to James Monroe with: (i.e. cock). You are worthy of the appointment and it is worthy of you. Yours intimately, J. Jinglebolloc.

Hurra for the shitter presidents 

Technological development means the ruin of culture? It provides freedom where hitherto reigned the constraint of biology? But of course it does! And instead of shedding tears over our captivity, we should hasten our step to leave its dark house. And therefore (the finale begins, in cadenced conclusions): everything that has been said about the threat to time-honored culture by the new technology is true. But one need not be concerned about this threat; one need not patch together a culture coming apart at the seams, or fasten down its dogmas with clamps, or hold out valiantly against the invasion of our bodies and our lives by superior knowledge. Culture, still a value today, will tomorrow become another value: namely, anachronistic. For culture was the great hatchery, the womb, the incubator in which discoveries bred and gave agonizing birth to science. Indeed, just as the developing embryo consumes the inert, passive substance of the egg white, so does the developing technology consume, digest, and turn into its own stuff - culture. Such is the way of embryos and eggs.
—  Die Kulture als Fehler, A Perfect Vacuum, Stanislaw Lem.

Nikola Tesla talking about black holes in 1935. The proof he mentions are based off his many experiments with vacuum tubes and radiation which he conducted as early as 1896.

“Is not the universe with its infinite and impenetrable boundary a perfect vacuum tube of dimensions and power inconceivable? Are not its fiery suns electrodes at temperatures far beyond any we can apply in the puny and crude contrivances of our making? Is it not a fact that the suns and stars are under immense electrical pressures transcending any that man can ever produce and is this not equally true of the vacuum in celestial space? Finally, can there be any doubt that cosmic dust and meteoric matter present an infinitude of targets acting as reflectors and transformers of energy? If under ideal working conditions, and with apparatus on a scale beyond the grasp of the human mind, rays of surpassing intensity and penetrative power would not be generated, then, indeed, nature has made an unique exception to its laws.”

–Nikola Tesla

“The Eternal Source of Energy of the Universe, Origin and Intensity of Cosmic Rays.” October 13, 1932.

Alolan Exeggutor is one of the sillier pokémon this generation. This guy measures in at 10.9 meters tall, nearly 36 feet! As a result, Alolan Exeggutor hardly fits on the 3DS screen.

Obviously, Alolan Exeggutor is based on a Palm Tree. Different species of palms can grow to different heights: the Quindio wax palm, for example, is the tallest species in the world: it can grow up to 60 meters tall (197 feet). For reference, the tallest Redwood tree in the world is only 114 meters tall (379 feet). Palms can grow half as tall as Redwoods! Here is a picture of some Wax Palms, with a person for scale: 

Despite this, palm trees aren’t really trees. They’re more closely related to grass than to trees. For example, the trunk of a palm tree does not have any bark outside of it, or rings inside of it. A palm tree grows upwards, not outwards, which means it’s not really a tree.

According to the pokédex, when Exeggutor grew taller and taller, it “awakened the power of the sleeping dragon”, and therefore swapped its psychic-typing out for dragon. But, what does that mean? It’s a bit vague for a pokédex entry, but we wouldn’t be the Scientific Pokédex if we didn’t explain this.

For one, Exeggutor might be based on the Dragon Tree, native to Hawaii. This plant has dark red sap called “dragon’s blood”, which is where it gets its name from.

In my opinion, however, simply having dark red sap can hardly be “the power of the sleeping dragon” that Exeggutor was able to harness. Instead, I’d like to talk about one of the coolest superpowers of tall trees: their ability to transport water from their roots up all the way up to their leaves.

Plants have tissue called xylem to transport water from the roots upwards into the leaves. Gravity is trying to pull the water downwards, so sucking it up is quite the feat. In fact, if you had a really long straw, the farthest you could suck up water would be 9.8 meters. This would create a perfect vacuum in the straw, and beyond that you can’t generate enough pressure to fight gravity. Not to mention the water at the top would boil due to the low pressures.

Yet we’ve shown trees that are hundreds of meters tall. In order to suck up water to that height, these trees create pressures below a perfect vacuum: they create negative pressures. That’s right, the inside of a tree has a lower pressure environment than literally outer space. The tops of redwoods can have a pressure as low as -15 atm. For reference, Earth’s atmosphere is 1 atm of pressure, and a perfect vacuum is 0 atm. That’s what I call the power of the sleeping dragon.

The xylem creates this pressure essentially by evaporating water through the leaves at the top. Water leaves the leaves, which pulls up the water molecules underneath it in a process called transpiration. Up to 95% of the water that enters a tree is evaporated in this way to create the astronomical pressure difference. Only 1% is ever used in photosynthesis, and the rest is used for making new cells.

Normally in these conditions, liquid water would instantly evaporate. However, since the water was liquid when it entered the base of the tree, unless it is disturbed it will stay in a delicate, unstable meta-liquid state. Much like when you take water out of a freezer, sometimes it won’t turn to ice until you shake it up. Trees preserve this delicate balance until the water can evaporate through the leaves.

Alolan Exeggutor is a species of palm, which is more closely related to a grass than a tree. As it grows taller, Exeggutor must create pressures lower than the vacuum of space to supply water to the leaves at the top.

I See Your Dads and Raise You Mine: The Dad Stories to Rule All Dad Stories
  • He hoards waffles. Like, his freezer is just filled with boxes and boxes of waffles. That’s it. That’s all there is in his freezer. He pretty much clears out all the frozen waffles in a store when he goes shopping. He tells my sister and I that he’s preparing for the Waffle-Pocalypse.
  • A few years ago we were having dinner, and the whole time he was insisting that he was a ninja. We all just laughed along with it but denied that it was true. Later, I’m cleaning up from dinner with my sister, and he disappears. This is oddly a regular occurrence for him despite his size. I finished cleaning up from dinner and I’m walking by the basement stairs, and all of a sudden someone dressed in black and yelling in Japanese jumps out at me. It was my dad. Dressed as a ninja.
  • He somehow speaks fluent German. He’s never taken German. His family speaks French and he took three years of it but he hardly knows a single word.
  • He’s obsessed with broccoli. He started singing about it while we were cooking and had my sister and I both join in. Then before we ate, he had us say a broccoli prayer. I led the prayer.
  • He’s the straightest straight man to ever straight unless your name is Benedict Cumberbatch, Tom Hiddleston, or Jared Padalecki. Steve Rogers is also an exception to this.
  • He once tried grounding me for not drawing Benedict Cumberbatch. I refused to be grounded for such a thing so then he tried bribing me with ice cream.
  • When he’s on the phone with my sister all he wants to talk about is Matt Murdock.
  • When I told him I was bi, he just nodded his head and proceeded to ask me if I thought Scarlett Johansson was hot.
  • Had an imaginary friend named Johannsen. But he now denies he ever had an imaginary friend. When we ask him about him he just says, “Who?”
  • He took me to a doctor’s appointment because there was something wrong with my nose, saw there was an automatic door, and when it opened he spread his arms and yelled, “I am Magneto!” He accidentally hit me in the nose with the dramatic arm flair.
  • Began practicing Tai Chi in the pool and when I asked him what he was doing he told me he was a waterbender and then splashed me in the face.
  • Goes in ‘exit’ doors and out ‘enter’ doors.
  • Sounds like Batman when his voice is hoarse.
  • Gave me an empty cereal box on my birthday and insisted that I keep it with me all day. I did.
  • Can do spot-on impressions of Palpatine from Star Wars and Gingy from Shrek.
  • Showed me an essay that he wrote in which he was a potato. There was also another essay that he wrote as a bar of soap. (The bar of soap died).
  • Started writing a dystopian-humor book in which the characters are broccoli (and cannibalistic).
  • There’s an incident I like to call the Benedict Cumberbatch Hangover. One day he spent all afternoon and evening watching everything with Benedict Cumberbatch in it. He was still at it when I went to bed. He came downstairs the next day at around noon clutching his laptop and looking like he’d been drinking all night, mumbling “need more Benedict Cumberbatch” over and over again.
  • Fashion is very important to him in online gaming. He’ll often call my sister and I over for help with picking clothes for his characters. He’ll spend hours on making sure they have the perfect outfits.
  • My dad vacuumed my sister. He was vacuuming the apartment, saw her on the couch, and then started vacuuming her leg.
  • He cries while watching movies. He watched Braveheart for the millionth time and when my sister checked on him ten minutes after the movie ended he was still crying.
  • He named our 70-inch flat screen TV Zûl and had us all bow to it when we first “met” it. He also bowed.
  • “You’re the bad guy. I know it. You just shaved your little bald-ass head.” - commentary on Zaheer while watching The Legend of Korra.
  • He calls people motherless goats as an insult.
  • An exclamation of his is “Jesus Christopher Columbus!”
  • “It’s great. Instead of playing on the computer, you can just go outside in the woods and shoot your friends.” - explaining airsoft to his mom.
  • My dad calls me strange things such as Pumpkin Patch and Brown Cow.
  • He insists that my sister is now a were-husky since she was bitten by a Siberian Husky.
  • “Get a job, cat! You party all night, then you freaking throw up! Do something with your life!” - talking to my cat Loki after he ran around the house all night, threw up, and then continued to run around before passing out.
  • We were coming home from seeing a movie and we were at a red light on a bridge with a waterfall. He rolled down the window, stuck his head out, and then screamed: “Hi, Mr. Waterfall!”
  • He gives my sister and I fake boyfriends and often asks us how the relationship is going. Then when I came out as bi he started giving me fake girlfriends as well.
  • He calls my cat Loki “Mr. Floppers.”
  • One time I went in his desk to look for something and all I found was cookies.
  • He has a locked box filled with rubber bands.
  • Calls himself the “Supreme Being.”
  • He blames everything on sharks. He drops a fork on the floor? “Those damn sharks.” The dishwasher is broken? “The sharks did it.” He felt justified when Mary was killed in an aquarium in season 4 of Sherlock because they showed a shark: “I knew the sharks did it.”
  • I was at physical therapy with him one time. The physical therapist asked him how the ice was and he just responded with: “It’s cold.”
  • He made up a character for himself called Dr. Cornelius because one time he got something in the mail that had his name as Cornelius instead of Neal. Dr. Cornelius has a German accent and is an “ear doctor.” One time my dad called and left a message as Dr. Cornelius. Still one of the funniest things I’ve ever heard.
  • He often makes jokes about his own name. He was told to kneel in physical therapy one time and he just said: “I am.” Then, while watching The Avengers, he got all exasperated during the Germany scene when Loki yells for everyone to kneel and just shouted: “I’m right here! Stop yelling!”
  • One time just left a note saying that “Broccoli was here.”
  • He wants to be Jackie Chan when he grows up.
  • He tried giving my sister and I theme songs that he would start playing whenever we walked into a room.
  • He and my sister broke the ceiling together.
  • He’ll hand my sister and I pieces of trash as “gifts” without saying a word.
  • One New Year’s he ate an entire bag of licorice (after eating a large bowl of frozen yogurt) while watching Kung Fu Panda and crying because it was so beautiful. Then he pretended to do Kung Fu while the credits were rolling.
  • Used me as a towel even though there was a towel right next to him.
  • He dropped an ice cube down the back of my shirt and then ran away.
  • He and my sister chased each other around the house with spray bottles. (He started it). They got soaked and so did the floor.
  • He insisted upon being a princess while playing a board game and was excited that his character had a unicorn.
  • Everything is a movie reference.
  • He once asked my sister to write a Supernatural fanfiction.
  • He came up with a character who is a stable boy at an inn (he has an accent too) and he pretends to be him sometimes. His character has a crush on a girl in the village, but he’s too shy to talk to her, and he doesn’t have enough money to provide her with a proper home. One time he told my sister (as the character) that he’d taken to eating dirt out by the roadside of the inn because he couldn’t afford bread. According to him, it’s rich in minerals. Rainwater is good too.
  • I went to ask him a question once and he ended up turning on his lamp and shining it on himself, and then started acting like he was being interrogated.
  • He’s had holy water thrown on him.
  • He likes to put boxes on his head.
  • He occasionally tries to talk to my sister about women because he forgets she’s straight.
  • One time I came downstairs and found him and my sister in the dining room with the lights dimmed and a candle lit, holding hands and speaking in gibberish. His explanation was that she needed to find inner peace.
  • He likes to pretend he’s Darth Vader.
  • He treats grocery shopping like it’s a secret mission.
  • The payment for overdue books at his personal library is hugs.
  • His version of a bedtime story is telling my sister and I about Loki running around the Asgardian palace completely naked. (His clothes were eaten by a giant version of our cat Alley who is called the Witty Witten in the story). He occasionally gets requests from our friends to tell a Witty Witten story.
  • I was passing him in the hallway and he gave me a version of the One Ring without any explanation and just said: “Keep it secret. Keep it safe.”
  • He added his name to a bunch of the school clubs in his high school yearbook during senior year even though he wasn’t in any of them, so every once in a while he’ll claim to have been on the basketball team and in the jazz band. He even showed up for the club pictures.
  • My sister was at his apartment and she had to go to the bathroom so he made her write out a hall pass that he signed.
  • He decided it was a good idea to play a fantasy RPG while high on pain medication, and he ended up using all his character’s supplies to make hundreds of meatballs. He was shrieking while doing it.
  • While sitting at the dinner table and playing a card game he walked by and dumped a bottle of ice water down the back of my sister’s shirt.
  • He’s convinced his sister is a hyena.
  • My dad’s response to the suggestion to go to bed is, “Yeah, probably,” and then he doesn’t.
  • He celebrates his “birth week” instead of just his birthday.
  • Once he wanted pasta so badly he cooked up enough to last a whole week.
  • While peeling potatoes with my sister he claimed he could predict the future and then proceeded to tell her she was going to marry a potato.
  • I asked for an apple and he grudgingly gave me one while saying he didn’t support cannibalism.
  • He randomly yells out words in French like “fish” and “chicken”, going as far as to mix the two words and yell “poulet-poisson!
  • He told me he could do a magic trick and then put a nickel in my ear.
  • Sometimes while sitting in the movie theater waiting for the movie to start he’ll poke me and tell me to “pass it down”.
  • While checking my sister in for an appointment he started sparring with her, but instantly stopped and pretended to act all normal whenever the receptionist looked up.
  • Whenever the trunk of his car is full he claims we can’t use it because that’s where the bodies are.
  • For dessert he just eats chocolate chips out of an ice cream bowl. He doesn’t even use a spoon.
  • He throws his clean socks on my sister and pretends they’re filthy.
  • Claims my sister is also a Frost Giant, and when she was complaining about shoveling a lot of snow he said, “Don’t even start. You can probably swim in this shit.”
  • Says he has Tony Stark on speed dial and that they’re besties.
  • Whenever he wants my sister to bake something he’ll just leave out a box of baking mix on the counter or have a recipe book open to what he wants and he just waits until she notices.
  • Claims that the moon is evil because it’s made out of cheese and he’s lactose intolerant.
  • His mortal enemies are peas.
  • My sister caught him outside on the deck howling at the moon one time.
  • Bought a walking stick that looks like Gandalf’s staff just so he can be “cool”.
  • Once took my sister and I upstairs to show us a surprise. It was nunchucks that he had hidden under the bed. He has nunchucks.
  • Owns a bunch of wooden poles and won’t explain why.
  • At breakfast my sister complained that her ear was itchy so he left and came back with a screwdriver.
  • Had to drive my sister to morning gym one time and he saw McDonald’s on the way there and started screaming because it was “too early in the morning for anything to be that bright”.
  • Wants to be a vampire but hates blood.
  • He sometimes lounges around in a red cloak.
  • He’ll pretend to be James Bond and have a conversation with himself (usually while leaving a room).
  • He keeps a jar of dirt under his bed.
  • He tried putting candy wrappers in my sister’s hair.
  • Keeps a velvet-lined pouch of dice in his desk for “special occasions”.
  • Bought my sister and I Game of Thrones shirts to ensure that we’d watch the show.
  • Always puts two pickle slices in every bowl of salad he eats.
  • Is sad that he never got his Hogwarts letter, and says that they must have mixed up his age and thought that he was older than 11.
  • Occasionally checks the back of his closet to see if it leads to Narnia.
  • He was outside and decided it would be fun to ding-dong-ditch his own house.
  • Recently prank called his mother.
  • After bingeing Trollhunters with my sister he told her to “stay crispy”.
  • Kept my sister up in the middle of the night because all he wanted to do was talk to her about Lucifer from Supernatural.
  • Laughs every time he sees a gnome.
  • Once wanted to audition for American Idol dressed as a banana.
  • He gave my sister a pan lid and had her hold it like a shield. He then proclaimed that she was Kitchen America; like Captain America, but instead of saving the world she saves him by baking his favorite foods.
Pioneer travel has always been hazardous and expensive. Even in fairy stories only courageous, well sponsored princes really got around. As centuries rolled by and the horse became mechanized, travel agents started package deals, long journeys were divided into stages. Traveling steadily became quicker, cheaper and more comfortable, providing we kept our heads down and remained in earth’s orbit.
Outer space put travel back to square one. A different breed of prince in a different kind of armour returns from the moon with a different kind of treasure. (Imagine the Fairy King after financing his son’s trip getting no more than a few rocks and some dust.) Now it is only a question of time before transport and travel agents step in and take over outer space travel. Perhaps they have started, for there is already talk of Skylabs for research, possibly followed by SkyFactories, where weightless men in perfect vacuum and unlimited solar radiation will soon be running up hotels of unheard-of purity. Where would the power come from? Why not harness those electric currents on the ionosphere which flow around the earth? After all, they are doing nothing.
Satellites may soon have us wondering how our world has supported life for so long with such wastage, so much mineral and agricultural wealth untouched. People may even stop talking about the weather; it will now be as predictable as night following day.
—  Make Another Signal, by Captain Jack Broome, RN (Ret.), written in 1973

anonymous asked:

Well, I saw some information about experiments conducted showing that the ether was proven to be non-existent. Could be kind enough to explain why you think it the ether does exist? And if so, what do you think about it & its properties as well as its purpose? Thanks (: Any misinterpretation please let me know and pardon me for it.

You’re all good man thanks for being cool. I’ll answer the best I can, and since this page is dedicated to Tesla I like to share quotes from him to argue his points. He can better explain it than I can. But hope you’re ready for a somewhat long one.

Anyways, it is well known that light travels at the same speed (186,300 miles per second) regardless of the source (ex. the sun emits light at the same speed as a light bulb does). The ether was theorized because light travels at a constant, but limited speed, so there must be some substance that light travels through limiting its speed. Even Einstein road the ether train but threw the ether out after the Micheleson-Morley experiment (which you might be referring to) in 1887 was performed by two physicists who tried to prove the existence of the ether by splitting a beam of light into different directions, bouncing the two beams off mirrors, and recombining them back at their split point, then towards a detector. The hope was to look at the pattern interference in the beams recombination to measure any change in speed to determine the “ether’s wind” which the light was supposed to travel through (like when you’re driving on the interstate and there’s wind resistance). The experiment failed because the two beams of light reached the detector at the same time and showed no sign of a substance having any effect on the light. This lead to the conclusion that there is no ether and the speed of light is constant no matter what direction it goes.

But a similar experiment that gets ignored is the Sagnac Experiment performed in 1913. Pretty much the same experiment, but with a added rotation. This experiment showed that there was a delay in the light travel, unlike in the Michealesen-Morley experiment, and that the light returned to the detector at different times. Now I’m not saying this is definite proof against relativity, but the experimenters purpose of the demonstration was to show that there was indeed an ether that Einstein had discarded.

But back to Tesla…

“The fascination of the electro-magnetic theory of light, advanced by Maxwell and subsequently experimentally investigated by Hertz, was so great that even now, although controverted, the scientific minds are under its sway. This theory supposed the existence of a medium which was solid, yet permitted bodies to pass through it without resistance; tenuous beyond conception, and yet, according to some, one thousand times denser than platinum. According to our conceptions of mechanical principles and ages of experience, such a medium was absolutely impossible. Nevertheless, light was considered essentially a phenomenon bound up in that kind of a medium; namely, one capable of transmitting transverse vibrations like a solid.

“It is true that many scientific minds envisaged the theory of a gaseous ether, but it was rejected again and again because in such a medium longitudinal waves would be propagated with infinite velocity. Lord Kelvin conceived the so-called contractile ether, possessing properties which would result in a finite velocity of longitudinal waves. In 1885, however, an academic dissertation was published by Prof. De Volson Wood, an American, at a Hoboken institution, which dealt with a gaseous ether in which the elasticity, density and specific heat were determined with rare academic elegance. But, so far, everything pertaining to the subject was purely theoretical.”

“What, then, can light be if it is not a transverse vibration?

“I consider this extremely important. Light cannot be anything else but a longitudinal disturbance in the ether, involving alternate compressions and rarefactions. In other words, light can be nothing else than a sound wave in the ether.

“This appears clearly if it is first realized that, there being no Maxwellian ether, there can be no transverse oscillation in the medium.”

The Newtonian theory is in error, because it fails entirely in not being able to explain how a small candle can project particles with the same speed as the blazing sun, which has an immensely higher temperature. We have made sure by experiment that light propagates with the same velocity irrespective of the character of the source. Such constancy of velocity can only be explained by assuming that it is dependent solely on the physical properties of the medium, especially density and elastic force.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Tesla Sees Evidence Radio and Light Are Sound.” New York Times, April 8, 1934.

And here’s Tesla’s proof of the ether…

“When Dr. Heinrich Hertz undertook his experiments from 1887 to 1889 his object was to demonstrate a theory postulating a medium filling all space, called the ether, which was structureless, of inconceivable tenuity and yet solid and possessed of rigidity incomparably greater than that of the hardest steel. He obtained certain results and the whole world acclaimed them as an experimental verification of that cherished theory. But in reality what he observed tended to prove just its fallacy.

“I had maintained for many years before that such a medium as supposed could not exist, and that we must rather accept the view that all space is filled with a gaseous substance. On repeating the Hertz experiments with much improved and very powerful apparatus, I satisfied myself that what he had observed was nothing else but effects of longitudinal waves in a gaseous medium, that is to say, waves, propagated by alternate compression and expansion. He had observed waves in the ether much of the nature of sound waves in the air.

“Up to 1896, however, I did not succeed in obtaining a positive experimental proof of the existence of such a medium. But in that year I brought out a new form of vacuum tube capable of being charged to any desired potential, and operated it with effective pressures of about 4,000,000 volts. I produced cathodic and other rays of transcending intensity. The effects, according to my view, were due to minute particles of matter carrying enormous electrical charges, which, for want of a better name, I designated as matter not further decomposable. Subsequently those particles were called electrons.

“One of the first striking observations made with my tubes was that a purplish glow for several feet around the end of the tube was formed, and I readily ascertained that it was due to the escape of the charges of the particles as soon as they passed out into the air; for it was only in a nearly perfect vacuum that these charges could be confined to them. *The coronal discharge proved that there must be a medium besides air in the space, composed of particles immeasurably smaller than those of air, as otherwise such a discharge would not be possible. On further investigation I found that this gas was so light that a volume equal to that of the earth would weigh only about one-twentieth of a pound.*

“The velocity of any sound wave depends on a certain ratio between elasticity and density, and for this ether or universal gas the ratio is 800,000,000,000 times greater than for air. This means that the velocity of the sound waves propagated through the ether is about 300,000 times greater than that of the sound waves in air, which travel at approximately 1,085 feet a second.  Consequently the speed in ether is 900,000 x 1,085 feet, or 186,000 miles, and that is the speed of light.

“As the waves of this kind are all the more penetrative the shorter they are, I have for years urged the wireless experts to use such waves in order to get good results, but it took a long time before they settled upon this practice.

“Although the world is still skeptical as to the feasibility of my undertaking, I note that some advanced experts, at least, share my views, and I hope that before long wireless power transmission will be as common as transmission by wires.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Nikola Tesla Tells of New Radio Theories.” New York Herald Tribune, September 22, 1929.

That was Tesla’s experimental proof and the math all adds up. The above is how he developed his Ether Wave Theory and based his wireless transmission of energy off this theory. He used shorter electromagnetic waves and urged other radio experts to do the same. This is why our wireless technology today is so advanced.

Now for the ether purpose…

“Long ago he recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, of a tenuity beyond conception and filling all space–the Akasha or luminiferous ether–which is acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never ending cycles, all things and phenomena.

“The primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance.

“Can Man control this grandest, most awe-inspiring of all processes in nature? Can he harness her inexhaustible energies to perform all their functions at his bidding, more still–can he so refine his means of control as to put them in operation simply by the force of his will?

“If he could do this he would have powers almost unlimited and supernatural. At his command, with but a slight effort on his part, old worlds would disappear, and new ones of his planning would spring into being.

“He could fix, solidify and preserve the ethereal shapes of his imagining, the fleeting visions of his dreams. He could express all the creations of his mind, on any scale, in forms concrete and imperishable.

“He could alter the size of this planet, control its seasons, guide it along any path he might choose through the depths of the Universe.

“He could make planets collide and produce his suns and starts, his heat and light. He could originate and develop life in all its infinite forms.

“To create and to annihilate material substance, cause it to aggregate​ forms according to his desire, would be the supreme manifestation of the power of Man’s mind, his most complete triumph over the physical world, his crowning achievement which would place him beside his Creator and fulfill his ultimate destiny.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Man’s Greatest Achievement.” San Antonio Sunday Light, San Antonio, Texas, July 20, 1930.

The moon had been observing the earth close-up longer than anyone. It must have witnessed all of the phenomena occurring - and all of the acts carried out - on this earth. But the moon remained silent; it told no stories. All it did was embrace the heavy past with a cool, measured detachment. On the moon there was neither air nor wind. Its vacuum was perfect for preserving memories unscathed. No one could unlock the heart of the moon. Aomame raised her glass to the moon and asked, “Have you gone to bed with someone in your arms lately?”
The moon did not answer.
“Do you have any friends?” she asked.
The moon did not answer.
“Don’t you get tired of always playing it cool?”
The moon did not answer.
—  1Q84 by Haruki Murakami

“The moon had been observing the earth close-up longer than anyone. It must have witnessed all of the phenomena occurring - and all of the acts carried out - on this earth. But the moon remained silent; it told no stories. All it did was embrace the heavy past with a cool, measured detachment. On the moon there was neither air nor wind. Its vacuum was perfect for preserving memories unscathed. No one could unlock the heart of the moon. Aomame raised her glass to the moon and asked, “Have you gone to bed with someone in your arms lately?”
The moon did not answer.
“Do you have any friends?” she asked.
The moon did not answer.
“Don’t you get tired of always playing it cool?”
The moon did not answer.”

Haruki Murakami, 1Q84

The moon had been observing the earth close-up longer than anyone. It must have witnessed all of the phenomena occurring - and all of the acts carried out - on this earth. But the moon remained silent; it told no stories. All it did was embrace the heavy past with cool, measured detachment. On the moon there was neither air nor wind. It’s vacuum was perfect for preserving memories unscathed. No one could unlock the heart of the moon.
—  1Q84 by Haruki Murakami
MBTI Compatibility

I’ve been meaning to write this for a while, but I usually got interrupted or bored halfway through. Today I’d like to talk a bit on the subject of compatibility. We’ve all seen these types of asks before asking about basic compatibility, to how to tell if another type likes them, to how to impress a certain type, etc. Compatibility seem to make up a good proportion of MBTI asks in general. And really, it’s not surprising. People want to know if their squishes/crushes/established relationships can last the span of time. I’d like to cover a few things about basic compatibility that I think it’s good to know in general before going down that route.

First off, let me say that regardless of what anybody says, certain type combinations do share more compatibility than others. This is because of shared preferences. Types that share the same judging pairs (Fe-Ti/Fi-Te) or perceiving pairs (Si-Ne/Se-Ni) usually have a good rapport with each other. It is upon these preferences that compatibility posts/articles are based off of. However, it is good to take every compatibility post with a bit of caution.

Compatibility is nothing better than an experiment performed under perfect conditions. Compatibility is usually based upon the presumption that both types are functioning properly and optimally. There are no toxic functions, no loops, no immaturity, nothing. Like a physics experiment performed in a vacuum, perfect success is always guaranteed.

The thing with MBTI types in general is the realization that your type is not a cookie cutter. You will never fulfill every single part of a type description. Enneagrams, toxic functions, loops, developed and under developed functions, upbringing, beliefs, values—these all bring complexity to an individual. These are the the external factors that that throw off the perfect equation of compatibility. It is because of these things that some people find no compatibility with types they should be getting along wonderfully with.

Like your weekly weather forecast, compatibility is meant to point you in the right direction, but it also has a good chance of being wrong. It can lead you to bring a metaphorical umbrella to sunny skies and light clothes to a downpour. This is the reason why most blogs say that a pairing between any type is possible. Regardless of supposed compatibility, every relationship takes work to be successful.

Gravitational waves detected 100 years after Einstein's prediction

For the first time, scientists have observed ripples in the fabric of spacetime called gravitational waves, arriving at Earth from a cataclysmic event in the distant universe. This confirms a major prediction of Albert Einstein’s 1915 general theory of relativity and opens an unprecedented new window onto the cosmos.

Gravitational waves carry information about their dramatic origins and about the nature of gravity that cannot otherwise be obtained. Physicists have concluded that the detected gravitational waves were produced during the final fraction of a second of the merger of two black holes to produce a single, more massive spinning black hole. This collision of two black holes had been predicted but never observed.


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komradekrispy  asked:

Can you kill a star?

yes, like any fusion reaction a star can theoretically be stopped before reaching exhaustion of the limiting reactant by a massive force or anti matter. Stars are basically plasma and gas, not really a giant fire, adding more mass to them only increases the reserves of what element they are crushing together to form another element, (hydrogen being fused to create helium in the case of our sun currently) you would need some way to siphon and use up all the helium produced so the sun would have no way to switch over to helium fusion when it runs out of hydrogen, but we are still talking billions of years here. you would need to somehow remove the very core of the sun, which would be very hard to do. 

You would need some way to manipulate gravity to siphon the core of the sun out, to eject the suns core and basically suck it up, like a blackhole of some kind, then again, its gonna do a lot more than just that star, you would take out that entire solar system and start sucking in nearby stars.  it would be akin to dropping an atomic bomb to kill a single ant.

Antimatter would be the way to go, the reaction and annihilation event that would occur would be catastrophic, you would need so much antimatter, and theres nothing quite as dangerous and unwise as a weapon that requires constant suspension inside a perfect vacuum using gravitational forces at all times, or else you risk blowing up your entire planet. how one would contain and produce antimatter on that level is unknown, we don’t know that much about it, we know far more about the theory of evolution than we know about the theory of gravity.  you get into some quantum physics and advanced stuff that is way beyond my scope at that point. 

really, its a lot easier to ruin all the planets around a star than it is to destroy a star itself. 

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(Inspired by morkaischosen’s comment on a previous post about Rincewind becoming the DADA professor at Hogwarts, i.e. that he’d most likely have to leave the job quite suddenly. Come to think of it, if Rincewind ended up teaching Harry’s third year instead of Lupin, the wizzard’s successor during the fourth year would be the only person who can rightfully be called even more paranoid than Rincewind himself.) ;-)

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