A-History-of-Magic

  • Ron: Can I borrow your potions book?
  • Hermione: Borrow?😂you have to earn🙅💦I keep grinding💯nonstop🏃‍♀️💨RIP Merlin👴History Of Magic Chapter 13🙏
Teens Who Graffitied Historic Black School With Swastikas Sentenced To Visit Holocaust Museum

More than $70,000 was raised to restore the school.

A group of Virginia teens convicted of spray-painting an historic black church with swastikas and “white power” have been sentenced to visit the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum.

The Ashburn Colored School opened in 1892 for black students who had been forbidden by law to attend school with white students. The school remained open until the late 1950s after the Supreme Court banned segregated education. Prior to the defacement of the building in September, local students were working to restore the school and open it as a museum.

Source

Graffiti of racist slogans, swastikas, and male genitalia… So typical for racist scumbags! It is so sad to see historical sites destroyed, definitely, this was a hate crime… Too disgusting! Because this is our cultural heritage!

I’m very glad to notice this Historic Black School is going to be restored! And this Black History Month is truly magical!

#BlackHistoryMonth

anonymous asked:

hello! i've been trying to research magic, but unfortunately most books i find are specific wicca, which i'm not interested in. do you have any book reccomendations that arent wicca centric? thank you! i love your blog :^)

Oh heckin yes I do My amazon wishlist is literally like six pages long… ALL BOOKS

WARNING: This Is Going To Be Extremely Long!

First though I want to note that while I 100% understand your feelings about the Wicca stuff (being a very NOT Wiccan Witch), not all books that are Wicca leaning are bad! I’ve gotten loads of useful information from books that tended to be a little new agey. That’s where being objective comes in! With ANY book, you should take it with a grain of salt, and some with a whole shaker. But it’s up to you to pay attention to misinformation and conflation, and to know how to do research to prove or disprove that something in a book you read is true or not. Does that make sense?? 

Anywho, a couple of books that are still kind of “Wicca-y” but great:

Those are all books from my personal collection that I would recommend! Now as for the Non-Wicca Books, Let’s dive in! Not all of these have I read or owned, and they are in no particular order. You’ll notice most of them relate to “Traditional Witchcraft” or West Country, because that is where my practice is focused. 

PHEW!

That was a lot! Okay anon I hope this gives you a good starting place! 

constantly-disheveled.tumblr.com/ask

Ravenclaw Headcanon

Professor Longbottom is the head of Gryffindor house and the Ravenclaws don’t understand why, because if Professor Potter killed Voldemort, shouldn’t he be head of house? So as Ravenclaws do, they pushed the subject even though it wasn’t their business (mostly because Gryffindors just shrug it off and move on). Ravenclaws asked headmistress McGonagall why, and she just responds with “Because Professor Longbottom is a more exemplary Gryffindor.” And the Ravenclaws are like “what? No?” So they take the matter to Professor Potter and ask him. He just laughs and says, “I fought because I had to, because I was chosen by Voldemort, and was magically linked to him, I had no way out. And Neville was chosen by the death eaters. He faced more enemies personally, and he could’ve ran and hid, but he was the face of the revolution here. Neville stood his ground while I was in hiding.”
And all the Ravenclaws become awestruck and ask for more information, and both professors just brush off the subject. And because the Ravenclaws are who they are, when history of magic has it’s lesson on the war at hogwarts, they pay more attention than anyone and soon have a deeper understanding and respect for Professor Longbottom.

1136. O.W.L.s and N.E.W.T.s are weighted differently by subject. To receive an O in Potions or Arithmancy, for example, a student must get 75% of the questions correct and, in the case of Potions, perform admirably in the practical exam. To receive an O in History of Magic, a student must get 90% of the questions correct. To receive an O in Divination, a student must get every question correct, thus proving that they successfully predicted the questions on the exam.

I don’t understand why all of the muggle-raised students (besides Hermione) find their homework at Hogwarts to be so boring. If I went to a real-live magic school, I’d never get tired of studying! An essay about damn werewolves? Hell yeah! History of Magic? How the hell are those little bastards falling asleep during that, even if the Professor’s got a droning voice? I love listening to normal history, but magic history? They get to spend their class period listening to stories about about sorcerers pulling wacky shenanigans and shit, and they’re fucking calling it boring and taking flippin’ naps! Little fuckers. I’d appreciate my magical education.

Dennis Creevey goes on to spend his twenties researching the history of wars in the wizarding world, from 100 AD throughout the years until the war his brother died in, with a focus on Muggleborns. 

He attacks history as an academic discipline, looking at causes and effects, analyzing key players, and common threads, rather than on recounting events like the torturous history classes of his youth. It comforts him - Colin didn’t die in an isolate bloodbath, but in a triumphant turning point in the arc of history.

After his third book is published, and perused by the school board, he’s offered a Professor Binn’s teaching post at Hogwarts. History of Magic is soon a much more beloved subject in the castle. 

9

“It was nearly midnight, and he was lying on his front in bed, the blankets drawn right over his head like a tent, a torch in one hand and a large leather-bound book (A History of Magic, by Bathilda Bagshot) propped open against the pillow.”

                                      ― Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban

Modern Day Hogwarts!AU

Originally posted by rose-wexsley

  • Oh my GOD being a Witch/Wizard in the 2010-2017 era would be so much fucking fun I swear I’ve never wanted to be a modern witch more than I do now
  •  Imagine every Friday night to celebrate the weekend, whatever year you’re in has a battle of the bands tradition, where everyone gathers in the Hufflepuff common room to rock tf out.
  • Pureblood student’s learning muggle music and instruments and LOVING it.
  • Every person in the year having mad hangovers the next day, and being dragged to the Quidditch pitch. All of the older students who attended the battle the previous night would all be dying, some of them even conjuring their own potions in an attempt to stop their hangovers.
  • FUCKING FIRST/SECOND YEARS DABBING 
  • “10 points to Ravenclaw” *AGGRESSIVELY DABS* 
  • If you weren’t in Hufflepuff yourself, the Hufflepuffs would be so fucking annoying. In EVERY SINGLE HOUSE EVENT they would all be chanting this song. (Even better if there was a Hufflepuff vs Slytherin Quidditch match and all the fucking Hufflepuff’s start shrieking the snake part)
  • I’m convinced there would be a Wizarding equivalent to social media apps like vine, instagram etc. Imagine the fucking vines that would be made through the school year im dyigreqdasiuf
  • Some Ravenclaw students using the room of requirement as a gym, because they know not only the importance of a healthy mind, but a healthy body too. Some Gryffindor students tagging along too when they notice what they’re up to, interested in muggle ‘leg day’, as they call it.
  • Piercing’s getting banned but most students being like lol fuck ya, wearing nose rings, septums etc all the time without fail.
  • Skater kids would enchant their skateboards to be able to hover, riding them in the corridor to their classes. Some teachers like Professor Longbottom would let it slide, others such as Filch wouldn’t be as forgiving.
  • Voldemort would become a meme.
  • He would definitely be a meme oh my god I am CONVINCED of this
  • In the History of Magic studies, the selected teacher would be expressing how dangerous and fearful the Dark Lord had once looked, one of the Slytherin students yelling out, ‘He doesn’t even have a bloody nose?! Dark Lord my arse.”
  • Muggle born students would take their pureblood friends to Muggle music festivals like Glastonbury and Reading Leeds, and they would go OFF. 
  • Wizards/Witches enchanting their camping tents so it’s like a small cabin, so it wasn’t uncomfortable to sleep in after a long day of seeing all the bands.
  • Kids who stay over the Christmas holidays would so stay up and play beer pong for New Years- all the Ravenclaws using advanced magic to cheat.
  • In Charms class, the students in their last year would do the mannequin challenge, making objects levitate while someone records it all.
  • Gryffindor students being annoying little fucks and trying to see how many teachers they could get to dab over the year. This turns into an annual house event for students, Slytherin always winning.
  • For Halloween all the older students enchanting their image to look like professors, which may become problematic through the day.
  • Hufflepuffs coming to class stoned, but never get told off for it. Sure, the odd point or two will be taken away if it’s that obvious, but those little shits always get away with it. Bonus points because their common room is so close to the kitchen.
  • If you haven’t heard this song before, I believe the Gryffindor would change the lyrics to “Gryffindor sound, we aint fucken around, fuck our classes man so we keep it underground, cause potions each day got me feeling like shit but it’s all worth while when the weekend hits.”
  • Slytherin students playing odds on, getting their Gryffindor mates to jump into the black lake to see the giant squid. 
  • Muggle borns taking their pureblood friends to rugby/hockey/soccer games, and them not having a fucking clue what’s going on.
  • KIDS IN THE CHOIR USING THEIR FUCKING FROG’S TO DO DUBSTEP AND TRAP BEATS FUCK 
  • Students using Snapchat to record small snippets of Mandrakes screaming then slow it down- Professor Longbottom finds this hillarious.

    FEEL FREE TO ADD TO THIS LET ME SEE WHAT YA’LL GOT

james: scuffed elbows, tapper of nails, drums fingers on knees, leans on walls, leans on tables, leans on anything stationary, also leans on people, terrible at chess, greets with a hug, ink stained knuckles, scar on temple from dolohov’s bludger, loves a girl, loves the girl, sings off-key, runs in the morning for fun, wanted to be a holyhead harpy when he was seven, ridiculously blind, chipped a canine in a fight with avery after he called sirius a traitor, takes stairs two at a time, only child but not really, playing card house architect, has never been seen with unrolled sleeves, kissed sirius after winning the quidditch cup, sends his mum flowers every week, meetings with mcgonagall every fortnight to discuss the others, named his owl quaffle, sprints down corridors after sirius, buys remus chocolate and hides it for him to find, sleeps shirtless, wakes up most nights from nightmares, bounces knees relentlessly, overflowing with energy, cannot stand still, can’t remember last time his mind shut up, wants to grow old so badly it hurts

sirius: cheekbones to die for, thinks he’s a connoisseur of firewhiskey, is not, has never had a spot, always has an arm round someones shoulders or a knee draped over their leg, rocks on chairs, asked out mcgonagall for odds on, rarely takes his shirt off, has a kitten called seraphina who he carries around in his pocket, once bet dumbledore five galleons he could beat him in a stare-off, lost, immaculate nails, has long conversations with lily where they plait each others hair and gossip about james, was the first to notice when marlene stopped eating, sits at the top of astronomy tower and shreds letters from his mother, president of protect the bees, won’t sleep with less than two pillows, spends a lot of time by the lake with remus, writes puns on parchment and leaves them round the castle, write’s pete’s charms essays for him when he’s bored, very proud of regulus when he catches the snitch, sits on the floor, sits on tables, sits on james, can’t cook pasta, has a map of all the places he wants to visit, infatuated with fresh air, can’t stand the city,  never wants to go back there

remus: reigning champion of ‘how many objects can we put on sirius whilst he naps’, terrible prefect, cracks knuckles, bites inside of cheeks, too tall to fit under tables, sarcastic little shit, stronger than he looks, runner of the hogwarts betting pool, mastermind of pranks, never gets caught, bites nails till they bleed, sits on windowsills, probably knows the nooks and crannys of the school better than the founders, memorises lyrics accidentally, owns too many jumpers, odd socks, sleeps in class a lot, slammed crabbe’s head into a desk so hard he broke his nose in three places, drinks hot chocolate by the gallon, has a book club with lily, official group photographer, terrified of the violent anger that bubbles under his skin, doesn’t talk in class but laughs under breath, drinker of tea, hates eggs, main seller of banned substances, uncomfortable with affection, except sirius, grammar pedant, can’t swim, falls asleep whilst reading, thought he was a monster until he was fourteen, has to remind himself he’s not on a daily basis, sometimes needs someone else to do it, loves the others with his whole heart

peter: marshmallow lover, chews the end of quills, dreams in black and white, cannot tie a tie to save his life, always leaves his bag somewhere, allergic to oranges, crosses his fingers when lying, twenty twenty vision, good at history of magic, has weird memory for dates, laughs at jokes even if he doesn’t understand them, trousers always just too long, watery eyes all year round, jumps at loud noises, wants to fit in so badly, spills ink over most of his work, burns in the sun, trips down stairs a lot, keeps wand behind his ear, nearly burnt one off once, always sides with james, daydreams in lessons, gets through four cauldrons a year, only one to like liquorice wands, notes up entire arm, never has parchment, found the kitchen in his first month, sleeps through every alarm, normally late for breakfast, eats toast without butter, worries about not being brave enough, doesn’t want to be average, would rather not fight, thinks the war has enough soldiers without him, terrified of them and what they can do

sirius black: a few facts

  • flamboyant as fuck
  • would probably lose a drinking contest to a house elf
  • sees more colours than most others
  • im talking “why do you own this pair of shoes twice” - “oh my god prongs one of these is onyx and the other is clearly midnight blue are you taking the mickey”
  • sleep walks and has to be tucked back in very gently
  • shit at most games bc he gets fidgety and distracted, but will pout for hours if he loses
  • his intimidating/sexy glare is actually him zoning out
  • astonished at the simplest facts bc “NO ONE TOLD ME THE MUGGLES HAVE BEEN TO THE MOON HOW THE F”
  • when he borrows something he returns it either (1) broken (peter’s quill), (2) glittery (james’ pants) or (3) after two years (also james’ pants) or (4) all of the above (don’t ask)
  • hates wearing baggy or thick clothes so he’s always whining about being cold and demanding cuddles
  • the one time in history of magic he raised his hand it was to ask if quentin the queer was gay and prof binns actually floated away backwards through the wall
shades of wrong (m)

Summary: In which you’re sure you’ll hate Park Jimin with every fiber of your being for the rest of your existence, even after he is assigned your tutor for History of Magic.
Pairing: Jimin | Reader
Genre: Fluff/Smut; Harry Potter AU 
Word Count: 17,321
Author’s Note: This got insanely long, and I apologize but also not really. Inspired by @jeonbegins + her really dope HP Slytherin Jimin AU edit. I also had a little conversation with @minsvga about this and she helped me figured out the basic idea for what this story has become; and @chokemejimin has asked to be tagged in my HP work so here you go my dear!!!

.

No matter how hard you try, it seems as if you are always bested by Park Jimin in every aspect of life: from Quidditch to school to class popularity.

And you absolutely despise him for it.

Granted, it’s probably because he’s always simply excelled in everything while you could only manage the minimum requirement for things outside of the sport you’ve grown to be so passionate about—but that’s only deepened your dislike for the boy. It’s been like this since the pair of you were children, a rivalry already planted between you even before you knew what the term meant. Truthfully, it was pretty much written in the stars that you would develop some deep-rooted grudge against Jimin, for he was organized into Slytherin while you were put in the fiery red and gold of Gryffindor.

Beyond the clashing Houses that have officially formed your backgrounds, it doesn’t help that the boy has seemed to uphold a particular interest in doing whatever he could to see you fidget or watch you squirm or just catch you at your worst moments—although you humor yourself on the idea that these unfortunate incidents occur to you because of Park Jimin’s constant hovering. It’s a habit that’s grown since the first week of your admission into Hogwarts, in which your big mouth scored you your first detention with the infamous Professor Snape.

It’s a moment that marks the beginning of an unspoken battle between the pair of you—in which you would constantly attempt to prove yourself better than Park Jimin and Park Jimin doing everything he could to make sure you could never have that victory. During the first two years of school, this would mean beating you on every exam, knowing the answers to every question and teasing you for not knowing. Professors putting Jimin on a pedestal, marking him up as the ‘ideal student’ and unknowingly intensifying the dagger of hatred you wished to plunge deeper and deeper into his chest.

When you are twelve, you are told that there is certainly no way for you to truly despise of something (or someone)—for you are young and naive and not entirely capable to understand what it means to hate something with every fiber of your being.

But they’re wrong.

Keep reading

‘Celtic’ Witchcraft

I remember in my early days trying to find resources on historical Celtic witchcraft. I wanted to learn about the witchcraft from the places I descended from. So, I searched for answers. I read book after book on the supposed witch practices found in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland (Raymond Buckland never steered me so wrong, and that’s really saying something). However, I remember feeling…unsatisfied. It didn’t seem historical or based in any pre-Gardnerian lineage. It seemed like Wiccan influenced witchcraft based in Gaelic and Gallic mythology. However, the authors of the books were claiming that it was truly historical and traditional. Lo and behold, I was correct. So then came the question “What is historical ‘celtic’ witchcraft and where can I find it?” 

First of all, there is no one Celtic witchcraft. The word ‘Celtic’ applies to both Gaels and Gauls (though it’s said that Gauls aren’t included in that term at all, but for now, we’ll use it). There are six nations covered under ‘Celt’; Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Brittany, The Isle of Man, and Cornwall. Any witchcraft that originates from those lands can be considered ‘Celtic’, but the use of that term can create confusion and misinformation. Though they may look similar at times, and though they are all witchcraft, they are not the same. Methods changed from environment to environment. The witchery has always been based in the Land. 

I’ll briefly describe the practices and lore found in each land, but it is by no means exhaustive. 

Cornwall

In the circles of traditional witchcraft, Cornish witchery has been made very clear and accessible with much thanks to the wonderful Gemma Gary. Cornwall has perhaps one of the strongest histories of magical practice out of the Celtic Fringe. Not only witches, but Pellars (cunning folk), were a large part of the culture. Folk magic, the basis of both witch and pellar magic alike, ran rampant through Cornwall. The Pellars of Cornwall held a very strong likeness to witches, so much so that some folklorists consider them the same. The Pellars made it a point to have a wide range of services available to their customer. That meant that they would both curse and cure. The magic of Cornwall often came in the form of small spell bags filled with either powders, folded written charms, or other magical ingredient. These bags did a number of things, from love conjuring, curse breaking, and spirit banishing to healing, luck magic, and finding lost possessions. According to Cornish witch lore, a witch’s power fluctuates with the seasons, and it was in the spring that a witch’s power was renewed. The different pellars and witches of Cornwall would also clash through reputation of power. Though they clashed, the witches of Cornwall would also gather for their sabbats, which were a strange thing to behold to outsiders. Witches, both young and old, would dance with the Devil around fires, faster and closer to the flames with each pass, and never be singed. The ability to spontaneously disappear is spoken of (which may suggest flying). Black animals, especially black cats, are often spoke of in Cornish witch lore. The association with witch and toad is especially strong here, and it can be seen as a familiar, a shapeshifting witch, a charm, or an indicator of a witch. 

Wales

Witchcraft that comes from Wales can be particularly tricky to find. The term ‘Welsh Witch’ has been popular since the early days of Stevie Nicks. This makes it notoriously difficult to find any historical references on actual Welsh witches. In actuality, there were two kinds of magical practitioner in Wales. The first was a wizard (known as a cunning man in England) and the second was a witch. Wizards were very popular and plenty in number in Wales. Their practice was based mainly in healing the ill and livestock. They also did favors, like giving love potions and undoing witch spells. One Welsh tale, however, tells about a conjuror who is unable to undo a witch’s spell on a butter churn, so the farmer must turn to another witch to reverse it. Welsh witches were thought to have great power. They were able to raise the dead, curse their enemies, and according to older legends, shape shift and fly. Observing the myth of a sorceress named Cerridwen and the legends of Morgan le Fey and Nimue, there comes a general idea of what a witch was in Wales and Welsh legend. The idea of someone brewing potions and poisons was most definitely associated with witches, but more broadly, elements of water and weather seem to have importance. Interaction with the fairies also holds a very strong importance in Welsh craft. Walking between worlds, particularly this world and the world of the Fairy (Avalon, anyone?), was a skill that many wizards, witches, and heroes of Welsh myth acquired. All in all, the witchcraft in Wales is quite similar to the witchcraft found in England, as is the interaction between Wizard (cunning folk or Wise Men and Women) and Witch. 

Brittany 

In Brittany, a very strong fear and dislike for witches is found that is unlike Wales. Witches in Brittany were thought to be many in number. The legends suggest that they targeted farmers especially, making sure always to turn milk sour and spoil butter. They were also accounted to be particularly dangerous and vicious. Any man who watched their Sabbat would either not be found, found dead, or found scared witless and unable to speak. The witches of Brittany, however, were also sought out by the townsfolk. Indeed, there were witch doctors to fix their issues, but the witches were sought out for love spells and favors. Witch-cats are also mentioned, which could be either a reference to familiars or shapeshifting. Most strangely, Breton witches are said to very rarely cast spells on their targets and instead cast spells on the animals and possessions of the target. Every village is said to have a local witch. Some villages are said to be completely filled with witches. Many of them carry cane-like sticks with which they cast their spells. They were also said to be skilled in spells to find things, like lost objects and buried treasure. The line between village conjuror/wizard and witch is difficult to draw here. They may choose to help or harm, depending on their inclinations. For that reason, they still hold a strong reputation in Brittany, despite it being a place noted for its skepticism. 

The Isle of Man

On the Isle of Man, both witches and magicians were an important part of the environment. The first thing you’ll find on the witches from the Isle is that they practiced much magic involving the weather and the sea. Magic was used to help the fishermen catch more fish, make sure the winds were good for travel, and settle storms at sea. A charm was made by a witch and given to a sailor that stored the winds inside. When he was at sea and in need of a gust, he would use the charm. Interestingly, the line between witch and cunning person seemed to blur here. Cunning folk were known as Charmers and Witch Doctors. Witches, however, were employed when needed. There was a perceived difference between the magic of different kinds of practitioners. Do not be mistaken, though. The fear and dislike of witches still existed. Many farmers feared the wrath of witches, especially when their crops failed and their cattle died. To reveal the witch responsible, they would burn whatever died. The person in pain the next day was thought responsible. As throughout all of Europe, witches were thought to have gained their power either through birth or through the Devil’s grace. However, witches were looked upon differently in the Isle than other places. Because of its long associations with magic, it had many kinds of magical practitioners and witches were not always considered to be the most powerful of them. Magicians, who practiced an art to compel and work with spirits and powers beyond other kinds of practitioners, were revered. They were usually compared to the image of Manannán Mac Lir, considered both a sea god and a powerful magician. The ability to fly and walk between worlds was also attributed to the witches and magicians of the Isle of Man, most likely due to the latter. 

Scotland

Witchcraft flourished in Scotland perhaps as much, if not more than, in Wales. Scotland’s witch trials are famous, and perhaps the most famous among them was Isobel Gowdie. In her free confession, she detailed a story that most labeled imaginary. She spoke of fairies, elf bolts, curses, shapeshifting, flying, and lewd activities with the Devil. When comparing it with the confession of Alison Pearson, another Scottish witch she had never met, a Scottish fairy tradition begins to appear. Alison also details stories of going under the hills to meet the fairies, as well as them making elf bolts. More trials begot more folklore and legends. Stories of witches working the weather to destroy crops, sink ships, and cause havoc spread. More tales of a Man in Black appearing to future-witches and witches alike began to run rampant. John Fian, a male witch, was famed for his botched love spell, teaching witchcraft, harshly bewitching people whom he didn’t like, and attempting to sink the fleet of King James VI with a storm. Much of Scotland’s witchcraft was influenced by Gaelic legend and myth. Scotland’s witchery was not Gaelic alone, however. Norse invaders came and brought their magic with them. In Orkney, a Scottish Isle filled with witch history, the Vikings came often. Their language and culture mingled with the Scots’. Soon, cunning women were referred to as Spae Wives. The word Spae comes from the Old Norse spá,which means ‘prophesize’These spae wives told fortunes, created charms, and protected against foul magical play. The witches of Scotland, however, proved a match for them. They killed cattle, cursed babies, and brought general havoc with them. 

Ireland

Historical Irish witchcraft is perhaps the most difficult to find out of all the Celtic regions, and this is for a few different reasons. The first being that many lineages of Wicca have taken Irish mythology and applied it to the Gardnerian influenced witchcraft that they have. Many times when the word ‘Celtic Witchcraft’ or “Celtic Wicca’ comes up, this is what is being referred to. The second reason that it’s difficult to find is because the witch trials in Ireland are few and far between. The trials barely touched Ireland, amounting to a whopping 4 trials. The generally accepted reason for this is that Ireland was extraordinarily lax with its witchcraft laws. Most times, using witchcraft against another person’s possessions or livestock resulted in prison time. Only by harming another magically would a witch be executed. Interestingly, many people took this as a sign that Irish witches were generally less severe than their other Celtic counterparts. Florence Newton, the famed witch of Youghal, put the assumption to rest. When a woman refused to give her any food, she kissed her on the street. The woman became extremely ill and began to see visions of Florence pricking her with pins and needles. Florence also kissed the hand of a man in jail. He became very ill, cried out her name, and died. In a Northern Ireland trial, eight women were accused of causing horrific visions and poltergeists in the home of a woman. The ability to create illusions is a trait attributed to fairies in Gaelic myth. Those fairies are said to have taught the witches their skills in both Ireland and Scotland. Irish witches were said to turn themselves into animals, especially hares and crows, to spy on their neighbors. They would also place spells on those whom they wish in their animal form. They were also said to have used bundles of yarrow and branches of elder to fly. These sticks they flew upon, before brooms, were known as ‘horses’. They were said to fly up out of the chimney of their own homes. A tale of witches using red caps to fly also appears in Irish lore. This is another example of their strong ties to the fairies. The similarity between Irish and Scottish witchery has been noted, as they both have strong ties to Gaelic lore.

Witchcraft from the Celtic lands is a complex and unique thing, changing between each of the six nations. To lump them under a single title would be to lose the subtleties and differences between each. Saying that Irish witchcraft and Welsh witchcraft are the same is a fool’s lie. Saying that they are similar is true. Shapeshifting, flying, fairies, storms, and charms are found in each. But they are different.
It isn’t a bad thing when the myths of these lands are paired with Wicca or Wiccan influenced witchcraft. However, the historical practices from those places mustn’t be overwritten. 

6

promo for the hpminorcharnet: Professor Binns

“Easily the most boring class was History of Magic, which was the only one taught by a ghost. Professor Binns had been very old indeed when he had fallen asleep in front of the staff room fire and got up next morning to teach, leaving his body behind him.”