753-bc

THE FOUNDING OF THE CITY

Today on April 21st in 753 BC, the prophecy given to Aeneas by the Gods shortly after he and the remaining Trojans fled the sacking of Troy in 1184 BC came to fruition. The founding of Rome was one that would change the course of world history.

Numitor, a descendant of Aeneas, was King of Alba Longa. His younger brother, Amulius, envied this position, and so sent him into exile to usurp his throne. To prevent any vengeance or competition arising up from Numitor’s heirs in the future, he simply killed them off. Furthermore, he then forced Numitor’s daughter, Silvia, into becoming a Vestal Virgin, having her swear celibacy for 30 years.

Quirinus was a God who emanated from Helios and was carried down by the Goddess of Forethought, Athena. Mars crafted him a mortal body within Silvia’s womb, and thus Quirinus was born Romulus, alongside his twin, Remus. Following the discovery that Silvia had given birth to twins, Amulius imprisoned Silvia and ordered a servant to kill the twins; who instead took pity on the infants and showed them mercy; instead sending them adrift down the river Tiber.

Eventually, the river begun overflowing, leaving the infants in a pool by the bank. There, an animal said to represent both Helios and Mars, the She Wolf, was said to have lost her own cubs when she came across the twins, deciding to nurture them and give them suck. Soon after a farmer named Faustulus came across them, and with his wife Acca adopted and raised the children as shepherds.

On 752 BC, while they were herding their sheep one day, they were met by shepherds under the rule of King Amulius. These shepherds begun a fight with the twins in which Remus was captured and taken before King Amulius. Romulus gathered and incited a band of local shepherds to join him in rescuing his captured sibling. King Amulius believed that Silvia’s children were dead, and hadn’t recognized Remus or Romulus. After a conflict, Romulus freed his brother, and in the process killed King Amulius. Being offered the throne of Alba Longa, they rejected it and instead chose to reinstate Numitor on the throne. However, they did still want to rule a city, and so they left to go and find their own.

After finding a proper location with seven hills, Romulus and Remus were bickering over where their city would be founded. Romulus supported the construction of the city on the Palatine Hill, and Remus supported the construction of the city on the Aventine Hill. Taking the auspices to read the will of the gods, Remus on his hill saw six birds, while Romulus saw twelve. As a result it was decided that Romulus’ choice was the one with divine favour, which lead him and his followers to begin construction of their city on the Palatine Hill. Romulus took to marking the city’s sacred boundary with a plough drawn by a white bull and a white cow to begin building the city’s walls, but Remus scornfully jumped over the furrows, causing the furious Romulus or one of his Chiefs to kill him.

To secure the new settlement’s future population he outlawed infanticide and established an asylum for fugitives, where freemen and slaves alike could both find protection in the new city and recieve Roman citizenship.

At one point, due to a shortage of females since the population of Rome was mostly young and unmarried men, Romulus organised the abduction of single women who were marriageable from nearby Italic tribes by drawing them in with grand festivals & games, most notably the local tribe of the Sabines, and taking the women’s hand in marriages without the consent of their families. A conflict ensued in which enraged Italic tribes warred with Rome, which ended when the women ran between the armies of their fathers and their new husbands, pleading for them to put down their weapons and negotiate for peace. Peace was reached, where Romulus and the King of the Sabines, Tatius, joined together to form one community.

Over the years, the city and its relations developed. Tatius died, and conflicts with Italic and Etruscan tribes continued to rise as Rome grew more and more powerful. After a reign of 36 years, Romulus mysteriously disappeared in a violent storm, causing an uproar of confusion and accusation of murder to go around; along with a claim that their King had simply abandoned them. However, Proculus Julius, a man who had been friends with the King, came forth, swore a sacred oath in which he could not lie, and revealed the truth of what happened to the missing Romulus. He recounted an experience where Romulus descended from the sky infront of him shortly after his disappearance. Puzzled and shocked, Proculus asked why Romulus had abandoned his city as he did: confused, mourning, suspicious and on edge. Romulus revealed that it was the divine will of the Gods that took him into the Heavens by destroying the mortal part of his body with the fire of lightning during the storm, and that he was ascended into the heavens by the Goddess Athena straight back to Helios, and that in truth he was the God Quirinus. He revealed he was sent forth by King of All, his duty being to build a city that would become the greatest on Earth, and now that work is done. The now-revealed God then promised to watch over his people before ascended back into the heavens. With this information revealed to the people of Rome, the divine truth had overcame them and eased their minds; causing them to abandon their suspicions and anger over their old king having left them. King Numa, a Sabine and a great reformer, was made Romulus’ successor and proclaimed the second King of Rome.

And today the eternal city still stands another year.


Bibliography:

Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus, Hymn to King Helios, 358 AD

Plutarch, and John Dryden. Selected lives: from the parallel lives of the noble Grecians and Romans. Franklin Center, PA: Franklin Library, 1982.

Nubian Hathor-Headed Magic Crystal Amulet, 743-712 BC

From the Napatan Period, reign of Piye (Piankhy), found at el-Kurru, Sudan. The crystal ball amulet is surmounted by a gold head of Hathor crowned with disc and horns. The ball is bored vertically and has a gold disc at the base on which it stands. This probably used to contain substances believed to have magical properties. 

Piye was a Kushite king and founder of the 25th Dynasty who ruled Egypt from 753/752 BC to c. 722 BC. He ruled from the city of Napata, located deep in Nubia, modern-day Sudan. Piye was the father of Taharqa, who would go on to be the most prosperous ruler of the 25th Dynasty due in large part to the successful campaigns of his father.

Another 5 Italy Facts

* The Alps / Dolomiti mountain range form part of Italy’s northern border, and for a long time protected the peninsula from invasion.

* Italy has three active volcanoes: Vesuvius, Etna, and Stromboli.

* Next to Rome, Milan is the 2nd-largest city in Italy.

* Italy has over 3,000 museums.

* Rome was founded in 753 BC. Before it became a republic and an empire, it had 7 kings. The first king of Rome was its legendary founder, Romulus.

NATM Discussion - Sexuality in Ancient Rome and how it affects Octavius

This was in the back of my mind, but I didn’t plan to go anywhere with it until Just-Another-Madman brought the subject up, and I think it’s something worth talking about.

Again, I will talk. A lot. Sorry. ^^

I WILL BE GOING INTO SPOILERS FOR THE THIRD MOVIE HERE!

In the movies, Octavius is I believe based off Gaius Octavius (also known as Augustus), though he could also be based off his father, Gaius Octavius (yes they share the same name), but this is not important. What is important is their era of the Roman Empire (753 BC-476 AD).

Keep reading

On This Day In History~ April 21st

753 BC; Romulus and Remus found Rome

Romulus and Remus as historical figures, would have been born around 771 BC. They were purported to be sons of Rhea Silvia and Mars, the god of war. Because of a prophecy that they would overthrow their great-uncle Amulius, who had overthrown Silvia’s father Numitor, they were, in the manner of many mythological heroes, abandoned at birth; in this case, on the Tiber River by servants who took pity on the infants, despite their orders. The twins were nurtured by a she-wolf until a shepherd named Faustulus found and took Romulus and Remus as his sons. Faustulus and his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When Remus and Romulus became adults, they killed Amulius and restored Numitor. They decided to establish a city; however, they quarreled, and Romulus killed his brother. Thus Rome began with a fratricide, a story that was later taken to represent the city’s history of internecine political strife and bloodshed.

Signs as time periods/events (part 3)
  • aries: 753 BC-476 AD (founding and fall of Ancient Rome)
  • taurus: The Jurassic Period
  • gemini: 500 BC (Ancient Greece)
  • cancer: 1920s (The great depression)
  • leo: When Pangaea separated
  • virgo: 1918-1920 (Women's right to vote)
  • libra: 1400-1700 (A lot of explorations)
  • scorpio: 2001 (First country legalized Gay marriage)
  • sagittarius: The Big Bang
  • capricorn: 1893 (Chicago World Fair)
  • aquarius: 500-1500 AD (Middle ages)
  • pisces: 1940s (World War II)
List of paintrist by Isme

First part: Prehistoric art to Perednizhniki

Ism is is a derived word used in art, philosophy, politics, religion or other areas pertaining to an ideology of some sort, sometimes with a derogatory sense. In art it ussally discribes a group of artist with a common style.

Prehistoric Art

In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning somewhere in very late geological history, and generally continuing until that culture either develops writing or other methods of record-keeping, or makes significant contact with another culture that has, and that makes some record of major historical events. At this point ancient art begins, for the older literate cultures. The end-date for what is covered by the term thus varies greatly between different parts of the world.

The very earliest human artifacts showing evidence of workmanship with an artistic purpose are the subject of some debate; it is clear that such workmanship existed by 40,000 years ago in the Upper Paleolithic era, however there is evidence of artistic activity dating as far back as 500,000 years ago performed by Homo Erectus. From the Upper Palaeolithic through the Mesolithic, cave paintings and portable art such as figurines and beads predominated, with decorative figured workings also seen on some utilitarian objects. In the Neolithic evidence of early pottery appeared, as did sculpture and the construction of megaliths. Early rock art also first appeared in the Neolithic. The advent of metalworking in the Bronze Age brought additional media available for use in making art, an increase in stylistic diversity, and the creation of objects that did not have any obvious function other than art. It also saw the development in some areas of artisans, a class of people specializing in the production of art, as well as early writing systems. By the Iron Age, civilizations with writing had arisen from Ancient Egypt to Ancient China.

Many indigenous peoples from around the world continued to produce artistics works distinctive to their geographic area and culture, until exploration and commerce brought record-keeping methods to them. Some cultures, notably the Maya civilization, independently developed writing during the time they flourished, which was then later lost. These cultures may be classified as prehistoric, especially if their writing systems have not been deciphered.

Antiquity

any period before the Middle Ages (476–1453), but still within the period of Western civilization-based human history or prehistory. The term is most often used of Classical antiquity, the classical civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa and Southwestern Asia.

Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer (8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD). It ends with the dissolution of classical culture at the close of Late Antiquity (300–600), blending into the Early Middle Ages (600–1000). Such a wide sampling of history and territory covers many disparate cultures and periods. “Classical antiquity” may refer also to an idealised vision among later people of what was, in Edgar Allan Poe’s words, “the glory that was Greece, and the grandeur that was Rome.”

The culture of the ancient Greeks, together with some influences from the ancient Near East, prevailed throughout classical antiquity as the basis of art,  philosophy, society, and educational ideals.  These ideals were preserved, imitated and spread over Europe by the Romans.  This Greco-Roman cultural foundation has been immensely influential on the language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, science, art, and architecture of the modern world: From the surviving fragments of classical antiquity, a revival movement was gradually formed from the 14th century onwards which came to be known later in Europe as the Renaissance, and again resurgent during various neo-classical revivals in the 18th and 19th centuries.

“Ancient history” generally, and may be used of any historical period before the Middle Ages.

Ancient history is the aggregate of past events from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Postclassical Era. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC.
The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to history in the Old World from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC (First Olympiad). This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece. Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD (the most used), the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD, the coming of Islam or the rise of Charlemagne as the end of ancient and Classical European history.
In India, ancient history includes the early period of the Middle Kingdoms, and, in China, the time up to the Qin Dynasty.

Medieval period

In European history, the Middle Ages, or Medieval period, lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: Antiquity, Medieval period, and Modern period. The Medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, the High, and the Late Middle Ages.

  • Jan van Eyck
  • Hans Memling
  • Albert van Ouwater
  • Geertgen tot Sint Jans
  • Rogier van der Weyden

Renaissance (Italy)

Italian Renaissance painting is the painting of the period beginning in the late 13th century and flourishing from the early 15th to late 16th centuries, occurring in the Italian peninsula, which was at that time divided into many political areas. The painters of Renaissance Italy, although often attached to particular courts and with loyalties to particular towns, nonetheless wandered the length and breadth of Italy, often occupying a diplomatic status and disseminating artistic and philosophical ideas.
The city of Florence in Tuscany is renowned as the birthplace of the Renaissance, and in particular of Renaissance painting.

  • Sofonisba Anguissola
  • Francesco Bassano
  • Jacopo Bassano
  • Leandro Bassano
  • Giovanni Bellini
  • Ambrosius Benson
  • Joachim Beuckelaer
  • Sandro Botticelli
  • Michelangelo Buonarroti
  • Bernardino Campi
  • Jan Wellens de Cock
  • Albrecht Dürer
  • Lavinia Fontana
  • Giorgione
  • El Greco
  • Catharina van Hemessen
  • Hans Holbein the Younger
  • Filippo Lippi
  • Andrea Mantegna
  • Antonello da Messina
  • Francesco Pesellino
  • Piero del Pollaiuolo
  • Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis
  • Raphael
  • Levina Teerlinc
  • Paolo Veronese
  • Leonardo da Vinci

Manierism (Italy)

Mannerism is a period of European art that emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. It lasted until about 1580 in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it, but Northern Mannerism continued into the early 17th century. The word mannerism derives from the Italian maniera, meaning “style” or “manner”.

  • Pieter Aertsen
  • Lucia Anguissola
  • Giuseppe Arcimboldo
  • Hendrik Goltzius
  • Bartholomeus Spranger
  • Tintoretto
  • Vincenzo Campi
  • Joachim Wtewael

Baroque  (Italy)

The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe.

The popularity and success of the Baroque style was encouraged by the Catholic Church, which had decided at the time of the Council of Trent, in response to the Protestant Reformation, that the arts should communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement. The aristocracy also saw the dramatic style of Baroque architecture and art as a means of impressing visitors and expressing triumph, power and control. Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. However, ‘baroque’ has resonance and application that extend beyond a simple reduction to either style or period.

  • Caravaggio
  • Agostino Carracci
  • Annibale Carracci
  • Antonio Carracci
  • Lodovico Carracci
  • Juan del Castillo
  • Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra
  • Anthony van Dyck
  • Domenichino
  • Gerrit Dou
  • Justus van Egmont
  • Georg Flegel
  • Francesco Furini
  • Artemisia Gentileschi
  • Orazio Gentileschi
  • Hendrik Goltzius
  • Abraham Janssens
  • Jacob Jordaens
  • Claude Lorrain
  • Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
  • Josefa de Óbidos
  • Rembrandt
  • Guido Reni
  • Francisco Ribalta
  • Hyacinthe Rigaud
  • Peter Paul Rubens
  • Karel Skréta
  • David Teniers the Younger
  • Tiberio Tinelli
  • Georges de la Tour
  • Diego Velazquez
  • Simon Vouet
  • Francisco de Zurbarán

Dutch Golden Age (Netherlands)

The Dutch Golden Age (Dutch: Gouden Eeuw) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. The first half is characterized by the Eighty Years’ War which ended in 1648. The Golden Age continued in peacetime during the Dutch Republic until the end of the century.
The Netherlands’s transition from a possession of the Holy Roman Empire in the 1590s to the foremost maritime and economic power in the world has been called the “Dutch Miracle” by historian K. W. Swart.

Dutch Golden Age painting was among the most acclaimed in the world at the time, during the seventeenth century. There was an enormous output of painting, so much so that prices declined seriously during the period. From the 1620s, Dutch painting broke decisively from the Baroque style typified by Rubens in neighboring Flanders into a more realistic style of depiction, very much concerned with the real world. Types of paintings included historical paintings, portraiture, landscapes and cityscapes, still lifes and genre paintings. In the last four of these categories, Dutch painters established styles upon which art in Europe depended for the next two centuries. Paintings often had a moralistic subtext. The Golden Age never really recovered from the French invasion of 1671, although there was a twilight period lasting until about 1710.

  • Ferdinand Bol
  • Hans Bollongier
  • Gerrit Dou
  • Frans Hals
  • Pieter de Hooch
  • Sir Godfrey Kneller
  • Gabriël Metsu
  • Willem van Mieris
  • Pieter  Mulier the Elder
  • Rembrandt van Rijn
  • Jacob van Ruisdael
  • Godfried Schalcken
  • Jan Steen
  • Abraham Storck
  • Johannes Vermeer
  • Jacob Ferdinand Voet
  • Gaspar van Wittel
  • Joachim Wtewael

Veduta (Italy)

A veduta (Italian for “view”; plural vedute) is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting or, actually more often print, of a cityscape or some other vista. The painters of vedute are referred to as vedutisti.

As the itinerary of the Grand Tour became somewhat standardized, vedute of familiar scenes like the Roman Forum or the Grand Canal recalled early ventures to the Continent for aristocratic Englishmen. By the mid-18th century, Venice became renowned as the centre of the vedutisti. The genre’s greatest practitioners belonged to the Canal and Guardi families of Venice. Some of them went to work as painters in major capitals of Europe, e.g., Canaletto in London and his nephew Bernardo Bellotto in Dresden and Warsaw. In other parts of 18th-century Italy, idiosyncratic varieties of the genre evolved.

  • Bernardo Bellotto
  • Giuseppe Bernardino Bison
  • Canaletto
  • Luca Carlevarijs
  • Francesco Lazzaro Guardi
  • Giovanni Paolo Panini
  • Giovanni Battista Piranesi
  • Gaspar van Wittel

Rococo (France)

Rococo , less commonly roccoco, or “Late Baroque”, is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, affecting many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, and theatre. It developed in the early 18th century in Paris, France as a reaction against the grandeur, symmetry, and strict regulations of the Baroque, especially of the Palace of Versailles. Rococo artists and architects used a more jocular, florid, and graceful approach to the Baroque. Their style was ornate and used light colours, asymmetrical designs, curves, and gold. Unlike the political Baroque, the Rococo had playful and witty themes.

  • François Boucher
  • Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun
  • Jean-Honoré Fragonard
  • Thomas Gainsborough
  • Marguerite Gérard
  • François Lemoyne
  • Jean Antoine Watteau

Academic Classicism

Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies of art. Specifically, academic art is the art and artists influenced by the standards of the French Académie des Beaux-Arts, which practiced under the movements of Neoclassicism and Romanticism, and the art that followed these two movements in the attempt to synthesize both of their styles.

The art influenced by academies in general is also called “academic art.” In this context as new styles are embraced by academics, the new styles come to be considered academic, thus what was at one time a rebellion against academic art becomes academic art.

Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained:.

  • Lawrence Alma-Tadema
  • Albert Aublet
  • Paul Barbier
  • Julius Victor Berger
  • Eugene de Blaas
  • Joseph Paul Blanc
  • Adélaïde Binart
  • William-Adolphe Bouguereau
  • Gustave Boulanger
  • Marie-Geneviève Bouliard
  • Karl Bryullov
  • Alexandre Cabanel
  • Marie-Gabrielle Capet
  • John Singleton Copley
  • Fernand Cormon
  • Jacques-Louis David
  • Paul Delaroche
  • Rose-Adélaïde Ducreux
  • Carolus-Duran
  • Marie Ellenrieder
  • Henri Fantin-Latour
  • Anselm Feuerbach
  • François Flameng
  • Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin
  • Eugène Fromentin
  • François Pascal Simon Gérard
  • Jean-Léon Gérôme
  • Henri Gervex
  • John William Godward
  • Christian Griepenkerl
  • Antoine-Jean Gros
  • Jean Auguste Ingres
  • Paul Joseph Jamin
  • Angelica Kauffman
  • Adélaïde Labille-Guiard
  • Thomas Lawrence
  • Jules Joseph Lefebvre
  • Emanuel Leutze
  • Konstantin Makovsky
  • Auguste Antoine Masse
  • Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier
  • Charles August Mengin
  • Alfred Munnings
  • Léon Bazille Perrault
  • Jean-François Portaels
  • Nicolas Poussin
  • Allan Ramsay
  • Joshua Reynolds
  • Giulio Rosati
  • Guillaume Seignac
  • Alfred Stevens
  • Virgilio Tojetti
  • Horace Vernet
  • Frederik Vezin
  • John Reinhard Weguelin
  • Franz Xaver Winterhalter

The Barbizon School (France)

The Barbizon school of painters were part of an art movement towards Realism in art, which arose in the context of the dominant Romantic Movement of the time. The Barbizon school was active roughly from 1830 through 1870. It takes its name from the village of Barbizon, France, near the Forest of Fontainebleau, where many of the artists gathered. Some of the most prominent features of this school are its tonal qualities, color, loose brushwork, and softness of form.

  • Jean Baptiste Camille Corot
  • Charles-François Daubigny
  • Narcisse Virgile Diaz de la Peña
  • Jules Dupré
  • Henri Joseph Harpignies
  • Charles-Émile Jacque
  • Emile van Marcke
  • Jean-François Millet
  • Théodore Rousseau
  • Constant Troyon
  • Félix Ziem

The Hudson River School (USA)

The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. The paintings for which the movement is named depict the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding area, including the Catskill, Adirondack, and the White Mountains; eventually works by the second generation of artists associated with the school expanded to include other locales in New England, the Maritimes, the American West, and South America.

  • Albert Bierstadt
  • John William Casilear
  • Frederic Edwin Church
  • Thomas Cole
  • Samuel Colman
  • Jasper Francis Cropsey
  • Thomas Doughty
  • Robert Duncanson
  • Asher Brown Durand
  • Sanford Robinson Gifford
  • Régis François Gignoux
  • James McDougal Hart
  • William McDougal Hart
  • William Stanley Haseltine
  • Martin Johnson Heade
  • Hermann Ottomar Herzog
  • Thomas Hill
  • David Johnson
  • John Frederick Kensett
  • Jervis McEntee
  • Thomas Moran
  • Robert Walter Weir
  • Thomas Worthington Whittredge

Luminism (USA)

Luminism is an American landscape painting style of the 1850s – 1870s, characterized by effects of light in landscapes, through using aerial perspective, and concealing visible brushstrokes. Luminist landscapes emphasize tranquillity, and often depict calm, reflective water and a soft, hazy sky.
The term luminism was introduced by mid-20th-century art historians to describe a 19th-century American painting style that developed as an offshoot of the Hudson River school.

  • Sanford Robinson Gifford
  • William Stanley Haseltine
  • David Johnson
  • John Frederick Kensett
  • Fitz Henry Lane
  • Robert Salmon

The Skagen Painters (Denmark)

The Skagen Painters (Danish: Skagensmalerne) were a group of Scandinavian artists who gathered in the village of Skagen, the northernmost part of Denmark, from the late 1870s until the turn of the century. Skagen was a summer destination whose scenery and quality of light attracted northern artists to paint en plein air, emulating the French Impressionists—though members of the Skagen colony were also influenced by Realist movements such as the Barbizon school. They broke away from the rather rigid traditions of the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts and the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts, espousing the latest trends that they had learned in Paris. The group gathered together regularly at the Brøndums Inn.

  • Anna Ancher
  • Michael Ancher
  • Oscar Björck
  • Holger Drachmann
  • Viggo Johansen
  • Christian Krohg
  • Oda Lasson Krohg
  • Johan Krouthén
  • Marie Triepcke Krøyer Alfvén
  • Peder Severin Krøyer
  • Carl Locher
  • Karl Madsen
  • Eilif Peterssen
  • Frits Thaulow
  • Laurits Tuxen

The Hague school (Netherlands)

The Hague School is the name given to a group of artists who lived and worked in The Hague between 1860 and 1890. Their work was heavily influenced by the realist painters of the French Barbizon school. The painters of the Hague school generally made use of relatively somber colors, which is why the Hague School is sometimes called the Gray School.

  • Gerard Bilders
  • Johannes Bosboom
  • Paul Gabriël
  • Johannes Hubertus Leonardus de Haas
  • Jozef Israëls
  • Jacob Maris
  • Matthijs Maris
  • Willem Maris
  • Anton Mauve
  • Hendrik Willem Mesdag
  • Willem Roelofs
  • Jan Hendrik Weissenbruch

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (UK)

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848. The group’s intention was to reform art by rejecting what it considered the mechanistic approach first adopted by Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo. Its members believed the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art, hence the name “Pre-Raphaelite”. In particular, the group objected to the influence of Sir Joshua Reynolds, founder of the English Royal Academy of Arts, whom they called “Sir Sloshua”. To the Pre-Raphaelites, according to William Michael Rossetti, “sloshy” meant “anything lax or scamped in the process of painting … and hence … any thing or person of a commonplace or conventional kind”. In contrast, the brotherhood wanted a return to the abundant detail, intense colours and complex compositions of Quattrocento Italian art. The group associated their work with John Ruskin, an English artist whose influences were driven by his religious background.

  • Philip Hermogenes Calderon
  • James Collinson
  • John Atkinson Grimshaw
  • William Holman Hunt
  • John Everett Millais
  • Dante Gabriel Rossetti
  • Hans Thoma
  • John Wilson Carmichael

Pre-Raphaelite Painters non-members

  • Henry Meynell Rheam

Macchiaioli (Italy)

The Macchiaioli were a group of Italian painters active in Tuscany in the second half of the nineteenth century, who, breaking with the antiquated conventions taught by the Italian academies of art, did much of their painting outdoors in order to capture natural light, shade, and colour. This practice relates the Macchiaioli to the French Impressionists who came to prominence a few years later, although the Macchiaioli pursued somewhat different purposes.

  • Giuseppe Abbati
  • Vito D’Ancona
  • Odoardo Borrani
  • Vincenzo Cabianca
  • Giovanni Fattori
  • Silvestro Lega
  • Telemaco Signorini
  • Serafino de Tivoli

Peredvizhniki (Russia)

Peredvizhniki (Russian: Передви́жники; IPA: [pʲɪrʲɪˈdvʲiʐnʲɪkʲɪ]), often called The Wanderers or The Itinerants in English, were a group of Russian realist artists who in protest at academic restrictions formed an artists’ cooperative; it evolved into the Society for Travelling Art Exhibitions in 1870.

In 1863 a group of fourteen students decided to leave The Imperial Academy of Arts. The students found the rules of the Academy constraining; the teachers were conservative and there was a strict separation between high and low art. In an effort to bring art to the people, the students formed an independent artistic society; The Petersburg Cooperative of Artists (Artel). In 1870, this organization was largely succeeded by the Association of Travelling Art Exhibits (Peredvizhniki) to give people from the provinces a chance to follow the achievements of Russian Art, and to teach people to appreciate art. The society maintained independence from state support and brought the art, which illustrated the contemporary life of the people from Moscow and Saint Petersburg, to the provinces.

From 1871 to 1923, the society arranged 48 mobile exhibitions in St. Petersburg and Moscow, after which they were shown in Kiev, Kharkov, Kazan, Oryol, Riga, Odessa and other cities.

  • Abram Efimovich Arkhipov
  • Alexander Karlovich Beggrov
  • Alexey Petrovich Bogolyubov
  • Mikhail Konstantinovich Clodt
  • Nikolay Dubovskoy
  • Alexander Kiselev
  • Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi
  • Arkhip Kuindzhi
  • Isaac Ilyich Levitan
  • Alexander Dmitrievich Litovchenko
  • Konstantin Yegorovich Makovsky
  • Vladimir Yegorovich Makovsky
  • Grigory Grigoryevich Myasoyedov
  • Nikolai Vasilyevich Nevrev
  • Leonid Pasternak
  • Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov
  • Ilya Yefimovich Repin
  • Konstantin Apollonovich Savitsky
  • Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin
  • Vasily Ivanovich Surikov
  • Nikolai Alexandrovich Yaroshenko