It’s the time of year for summer break, swimming, and oh, yes storms. June 1 marks the beginning of hurricane season on the Atlantic coast, but we’re not alone. Our neighboring planets have seen their fair share of volatile weather, too (like the Cassini spacecraft’s view of the unique six-sided jet stream at Saturn’s north pole known as “the hexagon”).
This week, we present 10 of the solar system’s greatest storms.
1. Jupiter’s Great Red Spot
With tumultuous winds peaking at 400 mph, the Great Red Spot has been swirling wildly over Jupiter’s skies for at least 150 years and possibly much longer. People saw a big spot on Jupiter as early as the 1600s when they started stargazing through telescopes, though it’s unclear whether they were looking at a different storm. Today, scientists know the Great Red Spot has been there for a while, but what causes its swirl of reddish hues remains to be discovered. More >
2. Jupiter’s Little Red Spot
Despite its unofficial name, the Little Red Spot is about as wide as Earth. The storm reached its current size when three smaller spots collided and merged in the year 2000. More >
3. Saturn’s Hexagon
The planet’s rings might get most of the glory, but another shape’s been competing for attention: the hexagon. This jet stream is home to a massive hurricane tightly centered on the north pole, with an eye about 50 times larger than the average hurricane eye on Earth. Numerous small vortices spin clockwise while the hexagon and hurricane spin counterclockwise. The biggest of these vortices, seen near the lower right corner of the hexagon and appearing whitish, spans about 2,200 miles, approximately twice the size of the largest hurricane on Earth. More>
4. Monster Storm on Saturn
A tempest erupted in 2010, extending approximately 9,000 miles north-south large enough to eventually eat its own tail before petering out. The storm raged for 200 days, making it the longest-lasting, planet-encircling storm ever seen on Saturn. More >
5. Mars’ Dust Storm
Better cover your eyes. Dust storms are a frequent guest on the Red Planet, but one dust storm in 2001 larger by far than any seen on Earth raised a cloud of dust that engulfed the entire planet for three months. As the Sun warmed the airborne dust, the upper atmospheric temperature rose by about 80 degrees Fahrenheit. More >
6. Neptune’s Great Dark Spot
Several large, dark spots on Neptune are similar to Jupiter’s hurricane-like storms. The largest spot, named the “Great Dark Spot” by its discoverers, contains a storm big enough for Earth to fit neatly inside. And, it looks to be an anticyclone similar to Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. More >
7. Sun Twister
Not to be confused with Earth’s tornadoes, a stalk-like prominence rose up above the Sun, then split into about four strands that twisted themselves into a knot and dispersed over a two-hour period. This close-up shows the effect is one of airy gracefulness. More >
8. Titan’s Arrow-shaped Storm
The storm blew across the equatorial region of Titan, creating large effects in the form of dark and likely “wet” from liquid hydrocarbons areas on the surface of the moon. The part of the storm visible here measures 750 miles in length east-to-west. The wings of the storm that trail off to the northwest and southwest from the easternmost point of the storm are each 930 miles long. More >
9. Geomagnetic Storms
On March 9, 1989, a huge cloud of solar material exploded from the sun, twisting toward Earth. When this cloud of magnetized solar material called a coronal mass ejection reached our planet, it set off a chain of events in near-Earth space that ultimately knocked out an entire power grid area to the Canadian province Quebec for nine hours. More >
10. Super Typhoon Tip
Back on Earth, Typhoon Tip of 1979 remains the biggest storm to ever hit our planet, making landfall in Japan. The tropical cyclone saw sustained winds peak at 190 mph and the diameter of circulation spanned approximately 1,380 miles. Fortunately, we now have plans to better predict future storms on Earth. NASA recently launched a new fleet of hurricane-tracking satellites, known as the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS), which will use the same GPS technology you and I use in our cars to measure wind speed and ultimately improve how to track and forecast hurricanes. More >
Discover more lists of 10 things to know about our solar system HERE.
Dany is actually the rightful heir of the 7 kingdoms (in the books at least)
I was scrolling through Freefolk and I find a great post by EigengrauDildos. Basically he’s explaining how in the books, Jon is actually NOT the rightful heir of the 7 kingdoms. He is spot on. Now, D&D will probably brush that off but it makes for some good exchanges and conversations. Here what he had to say…
“This has only occurred to me like half an hour ago.
As we know, the Westerosi crown follows agnatic primogeniture as its law of inheritance.
According to agnatic primogeniture, the order of succession is:
0) King 1) Eldest son of King 2) Eldest son of the son of the King, and, in succession, any other sons by order of birth 3) Second son of the King
In other words, the grandson comes before the uncle.
Here’s the snag nobody’s considering. Viserys, the uncle, was crowned King before the grandson, Jon/Aegon was born.
I’ll try to keep it the simplest possible.
The rightful king of the Seven Kingdoms was Aerys. At the moment of his death, he had only two kids: Rhaegar and Viserys (Daenerys was still a fetus in Rhaella’s belly).
Rhaegar was dad to Rhaenys and Aegon with Elia, but he annulled his marriage and possibly bastardised his first children. When he died, Lyanna was, unbeknownst to the world, pregnant with his kid (who had 50% chances of being a girl, mind you).
When news came of Rhaegar’s death, Viserys immediately became the heir to Aerys, the Crown Prince. When Aerys was stabbed by Jaime, Rhaella crowned Viserys King of the Seven Kingdoms.
This was absolutely rightful: when Aerys dies, Rhaegar is already dead, and Jon hasn’t been born yet - he literally doesn’t exist, and as a fetus, has 50% chances of being a girl anyway. At the moment of Aerys’ death, Viserys is the only possible heir to the Targaryen crown.
So, Viserys was king before Jon was born.
The timeline went like this: Battle of the Trident (Rhaegar dead) -> Aerys sends Rhaella and Viserys away to Dragonstone -> Aerys dies, Viserys becomes King -> Jon is born.
So, normally, the line of succession now would be:
Viserys -> Jon/Aegon, unless Viserys has a son, in which case the line would look like Viserys -> Viserys’ son -> Jon/Aegon.
Now, grown up, Viserys explicitly nominated Daenerys his heir. Which would mean that the rightful Targaryen heir is Daenerys and not Jon.
One could argue that Viserys didn’t know about Jon, but it’s really, really unlikely that he’d nominate as his heir, as the head of the Targaryen house, a kid raised as a Stark by one of the Usurper’s dogs, instead of his Targaryen born and raised sister, a sister he, even if in a twisted way, loved.
The fact is that Jon’s birth, even with a better claim as son of Rhaegar, wouldn’t dethrone Viserys. Kingship doesn’t get revoked because a baby with a better claim comes along. And if Viserys elected Dany as his heir, that’s a King’s word - it’s law.
To be honest I don’t think we’ll get any treatment of this in the show. The show seems to be going rather mindlessly in the “Jon’s the rightful heir” route, unless all of this gets brought out next season. Which would make for some compelling political drama.
I’m sure though some discussion of this will get brought up in the books.”
As a book fan, I feel a bit ashamed cause I completely forgot thi important element about the books. Element that could change a lot of things in the grand scheme of things.
‘Proprioception’ is the sense of your own body; the understanding of the position of your limbs relative to each other. You can investigate, and fiddle with, this sense with these simple illusions.
1 - Rubber hand illusion
This is a classic experiment to trick your sense of self. Sit someone down with a stuffed rubber glove in front of them, and their actual hand hidden from view. Stroke both the rubber hand and real hand for about a minute, and they should start to feel like the rubber hand is theirs! Test if it’s worked by slamming down on the fake hand.
2 - Working in a mirror
Have you ever tried this? Looking only in a mirror (block your direct view of your hand), try writing your name. Pretty disorientating when your sight doesn’t match what you feel, right?
3 - Extra finger
Try this to give someone the sensation of having six fingers! Set up the participant in front of a mirror like this, and ask them to look at their hand in the mirror. Stroke their fingers, one by one, from the knuckle to the fingernail, on matching digits of each hand, counting each finger as you go. Repeat it again, but this time, on the concealed hand stroke the inside of the little finger on ‘5’, and then add a sixth stroke, stroking top of the concealed hand’s little finger and thin air next to the visible hand. They should feel like they have a sixth digit!
4 - Double nose
This is a simple one, showing the confusion that can be caused when different parts of our bodies feel different things. Cross your fingers like this, and stroke them across your nose. Because the outside edge of your fingers are touching the nose, it might feel like you have two noses!
5 - Confused fingers
Have your participant stick their arms out, cross them over, interlink and pull them towards themselevs, like this. Then, point at a particular finger - they’ll find it hard to move the finger you pointed at because of the tangle.
6 - Cutaneous rabbit
Test how closely we can feel sensations. Get someone to stick their arm out, then tap them like this: four times at the wrist, 3 times at the elbow, and twice higher up. If you do it consistently, they might feel like the taps were all equally spaced up the arm, not in three distinct spots!
7 - Through the floor
This will give the impression that your arms are sinking through the floor. Get your participant to lie down on the floor with their arms straight out and eyes closed. Pull their arms by the wrists and hold them up for about a minute, then very slowly lower them back to the floor. As you slowly drop them, ask what they feel.
8 - Heavy boxes
Get two boxes that weigh about the same, but are different sizes, and put the same weight in each one. Ask people which is the heavier box. They’ll tend to guess the smaller one, although they actually weigh the same, because their expectation is that the small one should be lighter, so their perception of it’s surprising weight is exaggerated.