66 years ago

How Frogs Benefited From The Dinosaurs' Extinction
Frogs are "master survivors," able to take advantage of the ecological vacuum left behind by extinct animals. Scientists say 9 in 10 frog species descended from three surviving frog lineages.

The asteroid that hit Earth 66 million years ago spelled disaster for the dinosaurs.

But scientists say they’ve found one silver lining to the mass extinction — turns out, it was really good for frogs.

How Frogs Benefited From The Dinosaurs' Extinction
Frogs are "master survivors," able to take advantage of the ecological vacuum left behind by extinct animals. Scientists say 9 in 10 frog species descended from three surviving frog lineages.

The asteroid that hit Earth 66 million years ago spelled disaster for the dinosaurs.

But scientists say they’ve found one silver lining to the mass extinction — turns out, it was really good for frogs.

The resilient animals date back some 200 million years. And in the aftermath of the extinction event, they survived and thrived, taking advantage of an ecological vacuum other animals left behind.

About 9 in 10 frog species today evolved from three frog lineages that survived the event, which occurred at the boundary between the Cretaceous and Paleogene periods, according to research published Monday in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.

Mesozoic landscape in gouache paint. The Mesozoic Era spans 252-66 million years ago, famous for being the age of dinosaurs. This landscape here is a super brief summary of everything that happened in that time.
There is the ancient mammal Sinodelphis hiding amongst one of the first flowering plants Magnolia, an early bird Ichthyornis that still had teeth, and other reptiles such as the flying pterosaur Dimorphodon and the ocean dwelling Ichthyosaur.


Genus Araripesuchus - Cretaceous crocodyliforms that existed 125 to 66 million years ago. 5 species are documented in this genus, including the “boar croc” (my favorite), “dog croc”, and “rat croc” illustrated here.

With their fast, long legs but still distinctly crocodilian bodies and heads, these are some of the most dragon-like creatures, extant or extinct, that I’ve ever seen.

Check out this incredible shot of the Old Harry Rocks in Dorset, England. These rock formations consist of chalk stalks were formed approximately 66 million years ago that have gradually eroded and collapsed over the centuries.

Photo by Jack Boothby

Learn more about our book here: http://amzn.to/2aND71C


July 5th 1948: NHS launched

On this day in 1948, the National Health Service came into effect in the United Kingdom. Ideas for a nationalised health system had been around for decades before 1948, but it was not until then that they became a reality for British citizens. The Labour government of Clement Attlee, elected in 1945, were committed to the principles of the welfare state. They were greatly influenced by the 1942 Beveridge Report, which recommended social reform to tackle the five ‘Giant Evils’ of squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. Thinkers around Britain thus came to see healthcare as a fundamental universal right, not a privilege held by a few. Working with these ideas, the government passed the National Health Service Act in 1946, which came into effect on July 5th 1948 and created the NHS in England and Wales (Scotland’s was created separately). The creation of the NHS led to universal health care in the United Kingdom, paid for through central taxation, ending the requirement that patients pay directly for their own healthcare. It radically restructured the British health care system, with the NHS taking control of the almost half a million hospital beds in England and Wales and placing almost all hospitals and staff under its jurisdiction. Despite ongoing debates over the efficiency, cost and structure of the NHS, it remains a central feature of the British welfare state. As seen with its celebration during the London 2012 Olympic Opening Ceremony, the NHS is a point of national pride for Britain. Indeed, according to a recent study, thanks to the NHS Britain has the best healthcare system out of eleven of the world’s wealthiest nations, with the United States in last place.

66 years ago today


For the last year I have been working on a big personal project, Mesozoic - Age of Dinosaurs, an art exhibition and book launch. The exhibition is booked for October and I can’t wait to share more details! As well as creating a series of artworks I have also been writing and illustrating a book, a kind of introduction to dinosaurs, palaeontology and what Earth was like during the Mesozoic Era, which ended 66 million years ago. 🌏

The art exhibition is going ahead as planned, but the book launch has been postponed until early next year. I was working hard to have the book finished and printed for October, but realised I will need a lot more time to finish it. I had been stressing out too much over the book, neglecting other commitments in life. Then I decided to postpone the launch and complete the book at a more relaxed, realistic pace and I’m feeling so much better already! I have been sharing pictures of my progress, both artworks to be displayed in the gallery as well as illustrations for the book, but will now focus for the time being on finishing artworks for the exhibition in October. 🎨

I wanted to say a big thanks to everyone who has been so supportive of my crazy dream, I’ve had feedback on my artwork, help with design and typesetting, even editing and proof reading from a dear friend who just finished their thesis. If you’ve read this far, THANKYOU!!! You are amazing. Much love - Cam. 💚

Nostalgic questions time!
  • 1) What did you like watching the most on TV when you were a kid?
  • 2) Did you like shows or cartoons more?
  • 3) What was your favorite TV show (series) when you were 10?
  • 4) Who was your favorite character in it and why?
  • 5) What was your favorite cartoon?
  • 6) Pick a favorite episode of any cartoon you have ever seen and describe it.
  • 7) Cartoon Network or Disney Channel?
  • 8) Old Disney or new Disney?
  • 9) That's So Raven or Sonny With a Chance?
  • 10) Disney Selena or Disney Demi?
  • 11) Who is your favorite Disney star?
  • 12) Do you still watch any of the shows and cartoons you watched as a kid? Have you ever re-watched any of them cause you felt nostalgic?
  • 13) Did your family ever watch your shows with you?
  • 14) Dexter's Laboratory, Cow and Chicken or Codename Kids Next Door?
  • 15) Johnny Bravo or Totally Spies?
  • 16) Powerpuff Girls or Ed, Edd n Eddy?
  • 17) Xena or Hercules?
  • 18) The X Files or Roswell?
  • 19) Potential Breakup Song or Paranoid?
  • 20) Nick or Joe Jonas?
  • 21) Britney Spears or Christina Aguilera?
  • 22) ...Baby One More Time or Toxic?
  • 23) Genie in a Bottle or Fighter?
  • 24) Justin and Britney or the Beckhams?
  • 25) Spice Girls or Backstreet Boys?
  • 26) Wannabe or Everybody (Backstreet's back)?
  • 27) Clueless or American Pie?
  • 28) Titanic or Fight Club?
  • 29) Black Eyed Peas or solo Fergie?
  • 30) What is your favorite song from a Disney theatrical animated feature?
  • 31) Who is your favorite Disney princess/heroine?
  • 32) What is the one trend from your past that you will not miss?
  • 33) Is there something or someone you wish would make a comeback?
  • 34) Did you like musicals as a kid?
  • 35) How about now?
  • 36) What did you like more, playing outside or watching TV?
  • 37) What was your favorite game when you were a kid?
  • 38) Were you afraid of the dark? Are you now?
  • 39) Did you collect anything and if you did, what?
  • 40) Did you have any pets? Or were you one of those kids who wanted pets but their parents would never allow them to have one?
  • 41) Were you social as a child?
  • 42) Describe the worst hairstyle you ever had.
  • 43) Do you like card games?
  • 44) Who is your favorite comic book character?
  • 45) Did you read comics growing up?
  • 46) What was your favorite book when you were a preteen?
  • 47) What is your favorite book now?
  • 48) Who is your favorite character from any book you've ever read?
  • 49) Harry Potter or the Hunger Games?
  • 50) Draco or Harry?
  • 51) If the Harry Potter Books were written from Draco's POW, who do you think he would have dated and why? Do you think things would have been different if he was the main character (let's assume Harry is still the chosen one but Draco is the central character)?
  • 52) Lord of the Rings or Chronicles of Narnia?
  • 53) If you could live in any period in history and be guaranteed fame, fortune and a long and prosperous life, what time would you choose and why?
  • 54) If you could be born as famous person from the past, anyone really, who would you be? You can't choose something corny like your mom or anything like that, it has to be somebody you read about in history books or online or heard about in movies or on TV. Why would you pick that person?
  • 55) What is your favorite ice cream flavor?
  • 56) What kind of cakes do you like?
  • 57) What was your favorite food when you were little?
  • 58) Did your parents let you eat what you want or did they restrict your food intake/kept junk food away from you?
  • 59) What was your favorite thing to eat for breakfast when you were younger?
  • 60) If you could have one talent in which you would be better than anybody else in the world, what would you choose?
  • 61) Do you think you changed a lot in the past 10 years?
  • 62) Do you think the future you will like the kind of person you are now?
  • 63) Is there anyone in your life who you want to keep there forever?
  • 64) Did you ever lost somebody important?
  • 65) Are you still friends with the same people you were friends with 10 years ago?
  • 66) Do you have any regrets from the past?
  • 67) Skinny jeans or boyfriend jeans?
  • 68) Flannels or pastel sweaters?
  • 68) Skirts or pants?
  • 69) Dresses or onesies?
  • 70) Winter or summer?
  • 71)What was your favorite time of year when you were younger? Is it the same as now?
  • 72) Do you like snow? How about snow fights?
  • 73) Did you like swimming in the summer when you were younger?
  • 74) What was your favorite summer pastime when you were younger?
  • 75) When did you have your first kiss?
  • 76) Was it any good?
  • 77) What job did you want to do when you were a kid? What career did you see yourself in?
  • 78) How close are you to becoming that person now? Or are you somebody completely different?
  • 79) Are you close to your parents and grandparents?
  • 80) Were you close to them before?
  • 81) If you could tell one thing to your former self, what would that be?
  • 82) Write down your favorite quote.
  • 83) Write down your favorite line from a song.
  • 84) Tell a joke.
  • 85) Give a message to all of your followers, something you want all of them to know.

Parasaurolophus with little ones in gouache paint. Better against icy blue-grey than my earlier photo on black.

Why dinosaurs? I wanted to do an art project focusing on life from Earth’s distant past. 4.6 billion years of our planet’s history is a huge topic, so I decided to narrow the project down to the Mesozoic Era, spanning 252-66 million years ago. Dinosaurs are well known, so I thought it would be good to paint prehistoric creatures that people are at least a little familiar with.

In its 4.6 billion years circling the sun, the Earth has harbored an increasing diversity of life forms:

for the last 3.6 billion years, simple cells (prokaryotes);
for the last 3.4 billion years, cyanobacteria performing photosynthesis;
for the last 2 billion years, complex cells (eukaryotes);
for the last 1 billion years, multicellular life;
for the last 600 million years, simple animals;
for the last 550 million years, bilaterians, animals with a front and a back;
for the last 500 million years, fish and proto-amphibians;
for the last 475 million years, land plants;
for the last 400 million years, insects and seeds;
for the last 360 million years, amphibians;
for the last 300 million years, reptiles;
for the last 200 million years, mammals;
for the last 150 million years, birds;
for the last 130 million years, flowers;
for the last 60 million years, the primates,
for the last 20 million years, the family Hominidae (great apes);
for the last 2.5 million years, the genus Homo (human predecessors);
for the last 200,000 years, anatomically modern humans.

Periodic extinctions have temporarily reduced diversity, eliminating:
2.4 billion years ago, many obligate anaerobes, in the oxygen catastrophe;
252 million years ago, the trilobites, in the Permian–Triassic extinction event;
66 million years ago, the pterosaurs and nonavian dinosaurs, in the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event.

Dates are approximate.

Credit: PBS.org

My grandma died this morning. Here she is with my grandpa on their wedding day, 66 years ago. She was one of many strong women in my family. When she was 18 her house caught on fire, trapping two of her younger siblings inside. She ran into the burning building and rescued them. There were also some newly hatched chicks on the stove, and she would have run into rescue them if she hadn’t been prevented from it (likely wisely). In the 1950s she became the first person in her family to attend and graduate college. She felt it was more important for women to go to college then men because men could get good jobs as construction workers and other manual labor fields that were barred to women, and she never wanted to be in a situation where she could not support herself. Even in the 1950s when a lot of women stayed home, my grandma taught school, even being the breadwinner for the family when my grandpa decided to get his master’s degree.

She lived for 89 years, had four daughters, six grandchildren, and four great-grandchildren. After years of a slow decline where she developed dementia, lost her mobility, and many of her basic dignities, I believe she was ready to go. She passed along her love of reading and education, pragmatism, determination, and tendency to save people from fires (my mom has also rescued someone from a burning car, so it’s genetic). Till the end she was loved dearly by my grandpa, who would look at her and still see the cute brunette he married 66 years ago and not the frail old lady she became.



15 disturbing images of planet Earth that will leave you speechless

Scientists point towards the destruction of natural environments, and climate change triggered by rising carbon dioxide levels that have kicked off extinction rates to levels eerily similar to mass extinction events on Earth hundreds of millions of years ago. 66 million years after the latest great extinction event on Earth, the cause may be different but experts are worried that the results will be the same.

Below I have selected some of the most impressive photos that show the disheartening panorama with a before and after – that moves in a range of between 5 and 100 years. More images can be viewed in an exclusive section of the official NASA website.

1 Pedersen, Glacier, Alaska. Summer, 1917 – Summer, 2005:

2 Muir Glacier, Alaska. August 1941 – August 2004:

3 Laguna de Mar Chiquita, Argentina. July 1998 – September 2011.

4 Qori Kalis Glacier, Peru. July 1978 – July 2011.

5 Toboggan Glacier , Alaska. June, 1909 – September 2000.

6 Great Artificial River, Libya, April, 1987 – April, 2010.

7 Mount Cervino in the Alps, the border between Switzerland and Italy. August 1960 – August 2005.

8 Dasht River, Pakistan. August 1999 – June 2011.

9 Bear Glacier, Alaska. July 1909 – August 2005.

10 Oroville Lake, California. July 2010 – August 2016.

11 Aral Sea, Central Asia. August 2000 – August 2014.

12 The Brazilian Amazon state of Rondonia, between 1975 and 2009.

13 Mabira Jungle, Uganda. November 2001 – January 2006.

14 McCarty Glacier, Alaska. July 1909 – August 2004.

15 Lake Powell. Arizona and Utah. March 1999 – May 2014.

Source: NASA

Is Earth heading towards the sixth mass extinction?

We are on the verge of a mass extinction since the dinosaurs were wiped out off earth’s surface 66 million years ago, scientists warned. This would be the sixth mass extinction on Earth.

Also Read: “Alien ice” is seen forming on Earth for first time! 

Depletion of more than 30 percent is seen in the population of species including vertebrates, birds, amphibians, fish, reptiles and other mammals as per the first comprehensive analysis.

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“This is the case of a biological annihilation occurring globally,” said Stanford professor Rodolfo Dirzo, co-author of a study published on Monday in the peer-reviewed US journal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), as quoted by AFP.

Researchers were worried about the alarming elimination of species a decade ago. 

The study provides crucial information regarding the danger to wildlife, mapping the dwindling ranges and populations of 27,600 species. Researchers combed through data of 177 mammals covering a period from 1900 to 2015.

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The species examined were found to have lost around one-third of their original habitat.

The research revealed that 40 percent of mammals like orangutans, rhinos, gorillas and many big cats are surviving on 20 percent or less land they once roamed.

“Several species of mammals that were relatively safe one or two decades ago are now endangered,” the study revealed.

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Worldwide, this mass wipeout of animals is believed to be the sixth in the last half-billion years, which is said to be one of the worst since the three-quarters of life on Earth, including the non-avian dinosaurs– wiped out 66 million years ago by a giant meteor impact.

Two vertebrate species are being put out of commission every year.

The depletion is found to be highest in tropical regions. In South and Southeast Asia, large-bodied mammals have lost more than four-fifths of their historical ranges. Lesser species are found to go missing in temperate zones.

As many as half of the number of animals that once shared our planet is no longer here, a loss the authors described as “a massive erosion of the greatest biological diversity in the history of Earth.”

One of the known reasons for the wipe out is – the rise of human species, which has more than doubled to 7.4 billion since 1960s.

According to the statistics provided by this study, there are less than 20,000 lions left in the wild, the number of cheetahs is less than 7,000, only 500 to 1,000 giant pandas, and around 250 Sumatran rhinoceros.

The reasons responsible for the fall in the wildlife are:

  • Loss of habitat
  • Overconsumption of resources
  • Rise in pollution
  • Invasive species
  • Poaching of animals for their costly body parts
  • Diseases

Polar bears will bear most of the brunt in comparison to other animals due to climate changes. 

“The massive loss of populations and species reflects our lack of empathy to all the wild species that have been our companions since our origins,” said lead author Gerardo Ceballos of the National Autonomous University of Mexico.

Beyond any moral imperative, there are practical reasons to rue the eclipse of animals, whether megafauna or smaller and less “charismatic” creatures, the researchers cautioned. The vanishing of a top-level carnivore or herbivore can have a cascading effect down the food chain, disrupting entire ecosystems, AFP stated.

Previous research revealed the ecosystems under stress can disintegrate due to rapid alteration.

Related Articles


Geologists Find Clues In Crater Left By Dinosaur-Killing Asteroid

by Goeff Brumfiel / NPR

Scientists have had a literal breakthrough off the coast of Mexico.

After weeks of drilling from an offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico, they have reached rocks left over from the day the Earth was hit by a killer asteroid.

The cataclysm is believed to have wiped out the dinosaurs. “This was probably the most important event in the last 100 million years,” says Joanna Morgan, a geophysicist at Imperial College in London and a leader of the expedition.

Since the 1980s, researchers have known about the impact site, located near the present-day Yucatan Peninsula. Known as Chicxulub, the crater is approximately 125 miles across. It was created when an asteroid the size of Staten Island, N.Y., struck Earth around 66 million years ago. The initial explosion from the impact would have made a nuclear bomb look like a firecracker. The searing heat started wildfires many hundreds of miles away.

After that, came an unscheduled winter. Sulfur, ash and debris clouded the sky. Darkness fell and, for a while, Earth was not itself.

“I think it was a bad few months, really,” Morgan says.

That’s an understatement: Scientists believe 75 percent of life went extinct during this dark chapter in Earth’s history, including the dinosaurs.

Researchers have sampled Chicxulub before, but this expedition by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling precisely targets a key part of the crater yet to be studied: a ring of mountains left by the asteroid.

Read the entire article


When a 6-mile-wide asteroid struck Earth 66 million years ago, it wreaked havoc, showering the planet in hot clouds of sulfur and ash, completely changing the climate and wiping about 75% of the species on Earth at the time. The impact is what likely caused the dinosaurs to go extinct.

We don’t know a lot about this cataclysmic event or how life managed to make a comeback.

Now, after weeks of drilling down into a rock slab in the Gulf of Mexico, a team of scientists has reached the impact crater that the dinosaur-killing asteroid left behind. The rock samples from the crater could teach us a lot about this violent period in Earth’s history.

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Dromaeosaurus albertensis

By Calum O’Halloran at @ridiculouslyphotogenicsinosaurus

Name: Dromaeosaurus albertensis

Name Meaning: Running Lizard

First Described: 1922

Described By: Matthew & Brown

ClassificationDinosauria, Theropoda, Neotheropoda, Averostra, Tetanurae, Orionides, Avetheropoda, Coelurosauria, Tyrannoraptora, Maniraptoriformes, Maniraptora, Pennaraptora, Paraves, Eumaniraptora, Dromaeosauroidea, Dromaeosauridae, Eudromaeosauria, Dromaeosaurinae

Dromaeosaurus is the raptor that gave its name to the group, however we don’t actually know a lot about it. It is known from several not well preserved specimens, and only gave its name to the group by being the first discovered. It was about 1.8 meters long and only about 0.75 meters tall. It was found in Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada; as well as Lance and Hell Creek Formations in Montana. 

By Calum O’Halloran at @ridiculouslyphotogenicsinosaurus

Thus, it lived in a long range of time from 76.5 to as late as 66 million years ago, from the Campanian to Maastrichtian ages of the Late Cretaceous. It had a robust skull and a deep snout, different from most of its relatives, as well as robust teeth that are heavily worn, indicating that it used its jaws to crush and tear rather than slice through flesh. It had a bite force nearly three times as powerful as Velociraptor and thus relied less on its sickle claw than its relatives. 



Shout out goes to punknpatch!