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The Last Emperor of Rome,

The traditional date for the fall of the Western Roman Empire is set at 476 AD.  Other dates can be arguably used, but 476 is a good date to use when looking at Roman history from a simple viewpoint.  The last Roman Emperor was Romulus Augustus, ironically named after Romulus, the founder of Rome, and Augustus the first Roman Emperor.  The interesting thing about the story of the last Roman Emperor was that it had little to with Romulus Augustus.  Rather, the de facto last Roman ruler was his father, a military man named Orestes.

By 475 AD the Western Roman Empire had almost crumbled away to dust.  The empire consisted of little more than Italy, with some isolated territories in northwestern Gaul which had declared independence decades before, and some territories in North Africa which again were so far out of reach from the Imperial court that by that point they were managing their own affairs.

The Roman Army was barely Roman, mostly being made up of Germanic mercenaries which the empire could barely afford to pay. The capital of the empire wasn’t even Rome,having been moved to Ravenna in the year 402 because it was a more defensible location.  The Roman Emperor ruled over nothing, rather being a puppet of Germanic rulers such as Ricimer and Gundobad.  Orestes was the Roman magister militum appointed by the Empror Julius Nepos, basically the chief general of the army.  Orestes date of birth is unknown but he had a long military career, at one point being ambassador to and secretary of Attila the Hun, then working his way up the ranks until he became a Roman general.  Orestes wanted to restore the glory of Rome, to bring Rome back to the good old days when emperors were gods, the empire stretched across Europe and Africa, and no one dared mess with the legions.  

On the 31st of October, 475 AD Orestes orchestrated a coup resulting in the overthrow of Nepos.  Orestes had cultivated the loyalty of the mercenaries which made up the Roman Army, but also added some important incentives such as cash bonuses and Italian land.  Orestes sent Nepos packing to Dalmatia, where Nepos would carve out a small rump state in exile until his death in 480 AD.  Rather than naming himself emperor, Orestes chose his 16 year old son Romulus as emperor.  Orestes was half German and believed the Roman people would be more accepting of a new emperor who had more Roman blood.  However, the Roman people didn’t really take the young Romulus Augustus seriously, nicknaming him “Momyllus Augustulus”, Momyllus meaning “little disgrace” and Augustulus meaning “little Augustus”. While Orestes looked to restore the Roman Empire, the truth of the matter was that most Roman commoners were sick and tired of Imperial rule and all the bullshit that went with it such as overbearing taxes, rampant corruption, civil war, idiotic leaders, and a stagnant economy.  In addition, the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno also refused to recognize Romulus Augustus as a legitimate emperor, the blessings of the east being necessary for a stable reign.

Neither Orestes nor the “emperor” could really get anything done during their short reign, by that point the Imperial government was so powerless and crippled by lack of funds and corruption it might as well have not existed at all.  Worse yet, the Germanic mercenaries who made up the ranks of the Roman Army were beginning to complain that Orestes wasn’t living up to his promises.  Unfortunately for Orestes, the empire had no cash to spare and no patricians were willing to give up their lands for a bunch of barbarians.  In anger, the mercenaries revolted against Orestes, naming an officer among their ranks named Odoacer to be their leader.  Orestes gathered what few Italian troops he could that were still loyal to him and fled to Piacenza.  However, Orestes small army was no match against Odoacer and his army.  The last loyal Roman forces were easily crushed. Orestes was quickly captured and executed on the 28th of August.  On the 4th of September, 476 Odoacer marched on Revenna and took the city without resistance.  Romulus Augustus also abdicated without a fight. 

Odoacer chose not to name another emperor, instead naming himself King of Italy and dispensing with the old Imperial system entirely.   As for Romulus Augustus, the remainder of his life is unknown to history, but it is rumored that he was granted a state pension by Odoacer and lived out the rest of his life in peace. The Eastern Emperor Zeno gave Odoacer the title of Patrician and demanded that he recognize the rule of Julius Nepos.  Odoacer refused to allow Nepos to return to Italy, and the Eastern Romans were to occupied dealing with the Ostrogoths to do anything about it. Thus, the Western Roman Empire came to an end.

Lost to the West: The Forgotten Byzantine Empire That Rescued Western Civilization

In 476 AD the Roman Empire fell–or rather, its western half did. Its eastern half, which would come to be known as the Byzantine Empire, would endure and often flourish for another eleven centuries. Though its capital would move to Constantinople, its citizens referred to themselves as Roman for the entire duration of the empire’s existence. Indeed, so did its neighbors, allies, and enemies: When the Turkish Sultan Mehmet II conquered Constantinople in 1453, he took the title Caesar of Rome, placing himself in a direct line that led back to Augustus.


The Timeline of Musicals

I had a request today for a post organizing musicals by their time period rather than by when they were actually written.  So, here you go!  Some of these dates are estimated, some are based on their source material, and some are actually said in the musical.  (Ex. “This is 1922!”, Thoroughly Modern Millie)  

If you have any musicals you’d like to add, just message me!  There were so many I wasn’t sure about, and so I left out for safety–if you are an expert on the show and want it added, let me know!  I’d love to fill this list out even more.  If you think I’ve gotten a date wrong or think you could specify a date that is listed broadly here (Ex. you know a more defined time period than generalized 20th century), send me a message as well–I want this to be as accurate as humanly possible, and I am ready and willing to correct any mistakes.   Enjoy!

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history meme — italian version // two wars: caesar’s civil war

The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar’s Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. It began as a series of political and military confrontations, between Julius Caesar (100–44 BC), his political supporters (broadly known as Populares), and his legions, against the Optimates (or Boni), the politically conservative and socially traditionalist faction of the Roman Senate, who were supported by Pompey (106–48 BC) and his legions.

After a four-year-long (49–45 BC) politico-military struggle, fought in Italy, Albania, Greece, Egypt, Africa, and Hispania, Caesar defeated the last of the Optimates in the Battle of Munda and became Dictator perpetuo (Perpetual Dictator) of Rome. The changes to Roman government concomitant to the war mostly eliminated the political traditions of the Roman Republic (509–27 BC) and led to the Roman Empire (27 BC–AD 476).

After the Fall — The Kingdom of Soissons

After the official fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, the Roman Imperial tradition continued with the Eastern Roman Empire with Constantinople as its capital.  However in the West there were a few Roman rump states (remnant states) that continued to hang on after the dissolution of the empire.  One of those rump states was the Kingdom of Soissons, which was mostly located in what is now Northern France.

The Kingdom of Soissons was founded in 457 by Aegidius, then the supreme military commander of Roman forces in the region.  Aegidius realized that the Roman Emperor no longer had any real power, rather being a puppet of the Gothic warlord Ricimer.  Thus Aegidius decided to separate from the Empire, carving out his own domain which he ruled over using the legions he commanded.  Over the years, Germanic tribes conquered most of Gaul (France), leaving Soissons isolated from Italy.

Aegidius died in 464, and the kingdom was inherited by his son Syagrius.  Even after Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed in 476, Syagrius claimed he was merely the governor of a Roman Province.  In truth, Soissons was entirely independent of Rome, and Syagrius held the powers of a military dictator.  The Germanic kingdoms and tribes that surrounded Soissons even referred to him as “King of the Romans”.

For almost three decades the Kingdom of Soissons was able to successfully fend of invasion after invasion.  Then in 486 it was invaded by an army led by Clovis I, King of the Franks.  The Franks overwhelmed the Romans, defeating Syagrius’ army at the Battle of Soissons.  Syagrius fled to the Visigothic King Alaric II, but Alaric II turned him over to the Franks, where he was promptly executed.

anonymous asked:

Are there any good books about the Romans that you would suggest?

Oh gosh, I have not read all that much on Ancient Rome in book format recently. I have read a fair number of books on Ancient Rome over the years, but none of the ones that come to mind stand out for recommendation. For example, many years ago, I acquired a book titled The Revolutions of Ancient Rome from my high school library because they were removing it from circulation, but… it’s… pretty… meh??? I still have it by my bedside, mainly as a sleep aid.

I received The Ruin of the Roman Empire for Christmas a while back, and enjoyed it generally, but honestly I am not well read enough to say whether I agree or not with its conclusions. Frankly, there is so much out there on the decline and fall that it was purely random which book was chosen for me as a gift (this one just happened to be on the shelves at the bookstore since it had been published recently). I would suggest not bothering with Gibbon on this subject, since there’s been so much new scholarship and archaeology between his time and no, but what do I know? I haven’t read him beyond synopses.

So… after that long aside on what I can’t recommend, let me try answering your question:

Two authors I’ll recommend, despite me not having read any of their work, are Mary Beard and Tom Holland. They are the “big names” among current authors who bring ancient Roman history to a lay audience. My recommendation is basically just passing along everything I’ve heard about them from other history fans. That said, I have heard them both speak on history podcasts, either as panelists or interview subjects, and they are both absolutely charming and interesting. They have a lot of work to their names, so there’s quite a lot to pick from.

This may not be what you’re looking for, but I one book I can really strongly recommend is A History of Western Philosophy by Bertrand Russell, or more specifically Part I (of III) which discusses the philosophy of the Ancients (Greeks and Romans, but mostly Greeks).

Can I recommend to you podcasts instead of books? I don’t have a lot of time for sitting down and reading in my life, but I absolutely devour podcasts because I can listen to them while doing tedious adult chores:

  • The History of Ancient Rome (finished at 476 AD) - the creator of this podcast is currently writing a book on the decline of the Republic (stopping before Julius Caesar comes into the picture since his life & times are already quite sufficiently covered by other books)
  • The History of Byzantium (picked up the torch from THoR and is current in early 9th century)
  • History of the Ancient World (originally was about lots of different civilizations, mostly in the Fertile Crescent or nearby, but now they are currently doing a series on the descendants of Cleopatra among the Romans).

Sorry if this isn’t terribly helpful! Perhaps my followers will reblog this and add their recommendations…

Character Development: Medieval Heir

Anonymous asked:

Hi, I stumbled across your blog while Googling Medieval royalty and I love it. I am actually trying to piece together a story about Medieval royalty - hence the research - mainly focusing around the heir to the throne. Could you tell me anything about the heir? For example: responsibilities, education, their value to the kingdom, level of power compared to that of the reigning monarch, etc. Thanks, and again great blog.

Thanks! I’m glad you found it. :)

Well, the details surrounding the heir depend on exactly when and where your story takes place. The medieval era spanned about 1000 years, from around 476 AD to 1450 AD, so needless to say, things changed a lot during that time. Plus, you would see some differences from place to place. For example, the life of an English heir might differ slightly from that of a Russian heir. Here are some general details that could apply, especially in the western world. Also, in most places, the rule of succession skipped past girls, so only boys were considered to be heirs. When women inherited the throne, it tended to be an exception to the rule and only because there were no favorable male heirs. So, if I say “he” a lot here, that’s why. ;)

The main responsibility of a royal heir was to learn how to be a monarch. Most of their education and daily life would be focused on preparing them for that eventual role. Earlier in the medieval era, most of the heir’s education would focus on military strategy, laws of the kingdom, combat skills, horsemanship, hunting, and diplomacy. But as the era advanced, you began to see more emphasis on “book learning” and the arts. By the middle or end of the medieval era, you could potentially see heirs learning to read and write, geography and history, politics and economics, and even more cultural subjects like art, dancing, music, and foreign languages. The most important thing they could learn, however, was to do what their father does.

Most heirs wouldn’t have had too much power. It wasn’t uncommon for heirs to inherit the throne when they were still very young, so there wasn’t necessarily time for them to acquire or exert any sort of power prior. In the event that an heir reached young adulthood while their father was still on the throne, he might be given a title such as “the Duke of Cornwall” which often came with a castle and a duchy to rule over on behalf of his father. If the kingdom was at war, and if there were other sons in line behind the heir, it’s possible he might be sent to lead the troops–though he would have been kept out of danger and combat whenever possible. An adult heir could potentially be named to his father’s privy council, which would make him one of the king’s advisers. And, you would imagine that to some degree, a son should probably have at least some influence with his father, and at the very least would probably have more access to him than the average person. That, in and of itself, would present the heir with a little bit of power. In any case, an heir would not have anywhere near the amount of power as a ruling monarch.

As far as value to the kingdom, there’s a certain amount of value just in being the next in line to the throne. Also, presumably, the king and queen would be especially proud of their firstborn son. The value of an heir would go up if he was the only son, and would go even higher if he was the only favorable heir. Likewise, an heir with several brothers in line behind him might not be valuable in the same way. After all, if something happens to him, there are others who can take his place.

I hope that answers all of your questions!

NATM Discussion - Sexuality in Ancient Rome and how it affects Octavius

This was in the back of my mind, but I didn’t plan to go anywhere with it until Just-Another-Madman brought the subject up, and I think it’s something worth talking about.

Again, I will talk. A lot. Sorry. ^^


In the movies, Octavius is I believe based off Gaius Octavius (also known as Augustus), though he could also be based off his father, Gaius Octavius (yes they share the same name), but this is not important. What is important is their era of the Roman Empire (753 BC-476 AD).

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List of paintrist by Isme

First part: Prehistoric art to Perednizhniki

Ism is is a derived word used in art, philosophy, politics, religion or other areas pertaining to an ideology of some sort, sometimes with a derogatory sense. In art it ussally discribes a group of artist with a common style.

Prehistoric Art

In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning somewhere in very late geological history, and generally continuing until that culture either develops writing or other methods of record-keeping, or makes significant contact with another culture that has, and that makes some record of major historical events. At this point ancient art begins, for the older literate cultures. The end-date for what is covered by the term thus varies greatly between different parts of the world.

The very earliest human artifacts showing evidence of workmanship with an artistic purpose are the subject of some debate; it is clear that such workmanship existed by 40,000 years ago in the Upper Paleolithic era, however there is evidence of artistic activity dating as far back as 500,000 years ago performed by Homo Erectus. From the Upper Palaeolithic through the Mesolithic, cave paintings and portable art such as figurines and beads predominated, with decorative figured workings also seen on some utilitarian objects. In the Neolithic evidence of early pottery appeared, as did sculpture and the construction of megaliths. Early rock art also first appeared in the Neolithic. The advent of metalworking in the Bronze Age brought additional media available for use in making art, an increase in stylistic diversity, and the creation of objects that did not have any obvious function other than art. It also saw the development in some areas of artisans, a class of people specializing in the production of art, as well as early writing systems. By the Iron Age, civilizations with writing had arisen from Ancient Egypt to Ancient China.

Many indigenous peoples from around the world continued to produce artistics works distinctive to their geographic area and culture, until exploration and commerce brought record-keeping methods to them. Some cultures, notably the Maya civilization, independently developed writing during the time they flourished, which was then later lost. These cultures may be classified as prehistoric, especially if their writing systems have not been deciphered.


any period before the Middle Ages (476–1453), but still within the period of Western civilization-based human history or prehistory. The term is most often used of Classical antiquity, the classical civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa and Southwestern Asia.

Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer (8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD). It ends with the dissolution of classical culture at the close of Late Antiquity (300–600), blending into the Early Middle Ages (600–1000). Such a wide sampling of history and territory covers many disparate cultures and periods. “Classical antiquity” may refer also to an idealised vision among later people of what was, in Edgar Allan Poe’s words, “the glory that was Greece, and the grandeur that was Rome.”

The culture of the ancient Greeks, together with some influences from the ancient Near East, prevailed throughout classical antiquity as the basis of art,  philosophy, society, and educational ideals.  These ideals were preserved, imitated and spread over Europe by the Romans.  This Greco-Roman cultural foundation has been immensely influential on the language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, science, art, and architecture of the modern world: From the surviving fragments of classical antiquity, a revival movement was gradually formed from the 14th century onwards which came to be known later in Europe as the Renaissance, and again resurgent during various neo-classical revivals in the 18th and 19th centuries.

“Ancient history” generally, and may be used of any historical period before the Middle Ages.

Ancient history is the aggregate of past events from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Postclassical Era. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC.
The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to history in the Old World from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC (First Olympiad). This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece. Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD (the most used), the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD, the coming of Islam or the rise of Charlemagne as the end of ancient and Classical European history.
In India, ancient history includes the early period of the Middle Kingdoms, and, in China, the time up to the Qin Dynasty.

Medieval period

In European history, the Middle Ages, or Medieval period, lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: Antiquity, Medieval period, and Modern period. The Medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, the High, and the Late Middle Ages.

  • Jan van Eyck
  • Hans Memling
  • Albert van Ouwater
  • Geertgen tot Sint Jans
  • Rogier van der Weyden

Renaissance (Italy)

Italian Renaissance painting is the painting of the period beginning in the late 13th century and flourishing from the early 15th to late 16th centuries, occurring in the Italian peninsula, which was at that time divided into many political areas. The painters of Renaissance Italy, although often attached to particular courts and with loyalties to particular towns, nonetheless wandered the length and breadth of Italy, often occupying a diplomatic status and disseminating artistic and philosophical ideas.
The city of Florence in Tuscany is renowned as the birthplace of the Renaissance, and in particular of Renaissance painting.

  • Sofonisba Anguissola
  • Francesco Bassano
  • Jacopo Bassano
  • Leandro Bassano
  • Giovanni Bellini
  • Ambrosius Benson
  • Joachim Beuckelaer
  • Sandro Botticelli
  • Michelangelo Buonarroti
  • Bernardino Campi
  • Jan Wellens de Cock
  • Albrecht Dürer
  • Lavinia Fontana
  • Giorgione
  • El Greco
  • Catharina van Hemessen
  • Hans Holbein the Younger
  • Filippo Lippi
  • Andrea Mantegna
  • Antonello da Messina
  • Francesco Pesellino
  • Piero del Pollaiuolo
  • Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis
  • Raphael
  • Levina Teerlinc
  • Paolo Veronese
  • Leonardo da Vinci

Manierism (Italy)

Mannerism is a period of European art that emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. It lasted until about 1580 in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it, but Northern Mannerism continued into the early 17th century. The word mannerism derives from the Italian maniera, meaning “style” or “manner”.

  • Pieter Aertsen
  • Lucia Anguissola
  • Giuseppe Arcimboldo
  • Hendrik Goltzius
  • Bartholomeus Spranger
  • Tintoretto
  • Vincenzo Campi
  • Joachim Wtewael

Baroque  (Italy)

The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe.

The popularity and success of the Baroque style was encouraged by the Catholic Church, which had decided at the time of the Council of Trent, in response to the Protestant Reformation, that the arts should communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement. The aristocracy also saw the dramatic style of Baroque architecture and art as a means of impressing visitors and expressing triumph, power and control. Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. However, ‘baroque’ has resonance and application that extend beyond a simple reduction to either style or period.

  • Caravaggio
  • Agostino Carracci
  • Annibale Carracci
  • Antonio Carracci
  • Lodovico Carracci
  • Juan del Castillo
  • Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra
  • Anthony van Dyck
  • Domenichino
  • Gerrit Dou
  • Justus van Egmont
  • Georg Flegel
  • Francesco Furini
  • Artemisia Gentileschi
  • Orazio Gentileschi
  • Hendrik Goltzius
  • Abraham Janssens
  • Jacob Jordaens
  • Claude Lorrain
  • Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
  • Josefa de Óbidos
  • Rembrandt
  • Guido Reni
  • Francisco Ribalta
  • Hyacinthe Rigaud
  • Peter Paul Rubens
  • Karel Skréta
  • David Teniers the Younger
  • Tiberio Tinelli
  • Georges de la Tour
  • Diego Velazquez
  • Simon Vouet
  • Francisco de Zurbarán

Dutch Golden Age (Netherlands)

The Dutch Golden Age (Dutch: Gouden Eeuw) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. The first half is characterized by the Eighty Years’ War which ended in 1648. The Golden Age continued in peacetime during the Dutch Republic until the end of the century.
The Netherlands’s transition from a possession of the Holy Roman Empire in the 1590s to the foremost maritime and economic power in the world has been called the “Dutch Miracle” by historian K. W. Swart.

Dutch Golden Age painting was among the most acclaimed in the world at the time, during the seventeenth century. There was an enormous output of painting, so much so that prices declined seriously during the period. From the 1620s, Dutch painting broke decisively from the Baroque style typified by Rubens in neighboring Flanders into a more realistic style of depiction, very much concerned with the real world. Types of paintings included historical paintings, portraiture, landscapes and cityscapes, still lifes and genre paintings. In the last four of these categories, Dutch painters established styles upon which art in Europe depended for the next two centuries. Paintings often had a moralistic subtext. The Golden Age never really recovered from the French invasion of 1671, although there was a twilight period lasting until about 1710.

  • Ferdinand Bol
  • Hans Bollongier
  • Gerrit Dou
  • Frans Hals
  • Pieter de Hooch
  • Sir Godfrey Kneller
  • Gabriël Metsu
  • Willem van Mieris
  • Pieter  Mulier the Elder
  • Rembrandt van Rijn
  • Jacob van Ruisdael
  • Godfried Schalcken
  • Jan Steen
  • Abraham Storck
  • Johannes Vermeer
  • Jacob Ferdinand Voet
  • Gaspar van Wittel
  • Joachim Wtewael

Veduta (Italy)

A veduta (Italian for “view”; plural vedute) is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting or, actually more often print, of a cityscape or some other vista. The painters of vedute are referred to as vedutisti.

As the itinerary of the Grand Tour became somewhat standardized, vedute of familiar scenes like the Roman Forum or the Grand Canal recalled early ventures to the Continent for aristocratic Englishmen. By the mid-18th century, Venice became renowned as the centre of the vedutisti. The genre’s greatest practitioners belonged to the Canal and Guardi families of Venice. Some of them went to work as painters in major capitals of Europe, e.g., Canaletto in London and his nephew Bernardo Bellotto in Dresden and Warsaw. In other parts of 18th-century Italy, idiosyncratic varieties of the genre evolved.

  • Bernardo Bellotto
  • Giuseppe Bernardino Bison
  • Canaletto
  • Luca Carlevarijs
  • Francesco Lazzaro Guardi
  • Giovanni Paolo Panini
  • Giovanni Battista Piranesi
  • Gaspar van Wittel

Rococo (France)

Rococo , less commonly roccoco, or “Late Baroque”, is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, affecting many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, and theatre. It developed in the early 18th century in Paris, France as a reaction against the grandeur, symmetry, and strict regulations of the Baroque, especially of the Palace of Versailles. Rococo artists and architects used a more jocular, florid, and graceful approach to the Baroque. Their style was ornate and used light colours, asymmetrical designs, curves, and gold. Unlike the political Baroque, the Rococo had playful and witty themes.

  • François Boucher
  • Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun
  • Jean-Honoré Fragonard
  • Thomas Gainsborough
  • Marguerite Gérard
  • François Lemoyne
  • Jean Antoine Watteau

Academic Classicism

Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies of art. Specifically, academic art is the art and artists influenced by the standards of the French Académie des Beaux-Arts, which practiced under the movements of Neoclassicism and Romanticism, and the art that followed these two movements in the attempt to synthesize both of their styles.

The art influenced by academies in general is also called “academic art.” In this context as new styles are embraced by academics, the new styles come to be considered academic, thus what was at one time a rebellion against academic art becomes academic art.

Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained:.

  • Lawrence Alma-Tadema
  • Albert Aublet
  • Paul Barbier
  • Julius Victor Berger
  • Eugene de Blaas
  • Joseph Paul Blanc
  • Adélaïde Binart
  • William-Adolphe Bouguereau
  • Gustave Boulanger
  • Marie-Geneviève Bouliard
  • Karl Bryullov
  • Alexandre Cabanel
  • Marie-Gabrielle Capet
  • John Singleton Copley
  • Fernand Cormon
  • Jacques-Louis David
  • Paul Delaroche
  • Rose-Adélaïde Ducreux
  • Carolus-Duran
  • Marie Ellenrieder
  • Henri Fantin-Latour
  • Anselm Feuerbach
  • François Flameng
  • Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin
  • Eugène Fromentin
  • François Pascal Simon Gérard
  • Jean-Léon Gérôme
  • Henri Gervex
  • John William Godward
  • Christian Griepenkerl
  • Antoine-Jean Gros
  • Jean Auguste Ingres
  • Paul Joseph Jamin
  • Angelica Kauffman
  • Adélaïde Labille-Guiard
  • Thomas Lawrence
  • Jules Joseph Lefebvre
  • Emanuel Leutze
  • Konstantin Makovsky
  • Auguste Antoine Masse
  • Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier
  • Charles August Mengin
  • Alfred Munnings
  • Léon Bazille Perrault
  • Jean-François Portaels
  • Nicolas Poussin
  • Allan Ramsay
  • Joshua Reynolds
  • Giulio Rosati
  • Guillaume Seignac
  • Alfred Stevens
  • Virgilio Tojetti
  • Horace Vernet
  • Frederik Vezin
  • John Reinhard Weguelin
  • Franz Xaver Winterhalter

The Barbizon School (France)

The Barbizon school of painters were part of an art movement towards Realism in art, which arose in the context of the dominant Romantic Movement of the time. The Barbizon school was active roughly from 1830 through 1870. It takes its name from the village of Barbizon, France, near the Forest of Fontainebleau, where many of the artists gathered. Some of the most prominent features of this school are its tonal qualities, color, loose brushwork, and softness of form.

  • Jean Baptiste Camille Corot
  • Charles-François Daubigny
  • Narcisse Virgile Diaz de la Peña
  • Jules Dupré
  • Henri Joseph Harpignies
  • Charles-Émile Jacque
  • Emile van Marcke
  • Jean-François Millet
  • Théodore Rousseau
  • Constant Troyon
  • Félix Ziem

Düsseldorf school of painting(Germany)

The Düsseldorf school of painting refers to a group of painters who taught or studied at the Düsseldorf Academy (now the Staatliche Kunstakademie Düsseldorf or Düsseldorf State Art Academy) in the 1830s and 1840s, when the Academy was directed by the painter Wilhelm von Schadow. The work of the Düsseldorf School is characterized by finely detailed yet fanciful landscapes, often with religious or allegorical stories set in the landscapes. Leading members of the Düsseldorf School advocated “plein air painting”, and tended to use a palette with relatively subdued and even colors. The Düsseldorf School grew out of and was a part of the German Romantic movement. Prominent members of the Düsselorf School included von Schadow, Karl Friedrich Lessing, Johann Wilhelm Schirmer, Andreas Achenbach, Hans Fredrik Gude, Oswald Achenbach, and Adolf Schrödter.
The Düsseldorf School had a significant influence on the Hudson River School in the United States, and many prominent Americans trained at the Düsseldorf Academy and show the influence of the Düsseldorf School, including George Caleb Bingham, David Edward Cronin, Eastman Johnson, Worthington Whittredge, Richard Caton Woodville, William Stanley Haseltine, James McDougal Hart, Helen Searle, and William Morris Hunt, as well as German émigré Emanuel Leutze. Albert Bierstadt applied but was not accepted. His American friend Worthington Whittredge became his teacher while attending Düsseldorf.

  • Eugen Dücker
  • James McDougal Hart
  • Hermann Herzog
  • William Stanley Haseltine
  • Emanuel Leutze
  • Adelsteen Normann
  • Lesser Ury
  • Frederik Vezin
  • Heinrich Vogeler
  • Thomas Worthington Whittredge

The Hudson River School (USA)

The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. The paintings for which the movement is named depict the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding area, including the Catskill, Adirondack, and the White Mountains; eventually works by the second generation of artists associated with the school expanded to include other locales in New England, the Maritimes, the American West, and South America.

  • Albert Bierstadt
  • John William Casilear
  • Frederic Edwin Church
  • Thomas Cole
  • Samuel Colman
  • Jasper Francis Cropsey
  • Thomas Doughty
  • Robert Duncanson
  • Asher Brown Durand
  • Sanford Robinson Gifford
  • Régis François Gignoux
  • James McDougal Hart
  • William McDougal Hart
  • William Stanley Haseltine
  • Martin Johnson Heade
  • Hermann Ottomar Herzog
  • Thomas Hill
  • David Johnson
  • John Frederick Kensett
  • Jervis McEntee
  • Thomas Moran
  • Robert Walter Weir
  • Thomas Worthington Whittredge

Luminism (USA)

Luminism is an American landscape painting style of the 1850s – 1870s, characterized by effects of light in landscapes, through using aerial perspective, and concealing visible brushstrokes. Luminist landscapes emphasize tranquillity, and often depict calm, reflective water and a soft, hazy sky.
The term luminism was introduced by mid-20th-century art historians to describe a 19th-century American painting style that developed as an offshoot of the Hudson River school.

  • Sanford Robinson Gifford
  • William Stanley Haseltine
  • David Johnson
  • John Frederick Kensett
  • Fitz Henry Lane
  • Robert Salmon

The Skagen Painters (Denmark)

The Skagen Painters (Danish: Skagensmalerne) were a group of Scandinavian artists who gathered in the village of Skagen, the northernmost part of Denmark, from the late 1870s until the turn of the century. Skagen was a summer destination whose scenery and quality of light attracted northern artists to paint en plein air, emulating the French Impressionists—though members of the Skagen colony were also influenced by Realist movements such as the Barbizon school. They broke away from the rather rigid traditions of the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts and the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts, espousing the latest trends that they had learned in Paris. The group gathered together regularly at the Brøndums Inn.

  • Anna Ancher
  • Michael Ancher
  • Oscar Björck
  • Holger Drachmann
  • Viggo Johansen
  • Christian Krohg
  • Oda Lasson Krohg
  • Johan Krouthén
  • Marie Triepcke Krøyer Alfvén
  • Peder Severin Krøyer
  • Carl Locher
  • Karl Madsen
  • Eilif Peterssen
  • Frits Thaulow
  • Laurits Tuxen

The Hague school (Netherlands)

The Hague School is the name given to a group of artists who lived and worked in The Hague between 1860 and 1890. Their work was heavily influenced by the realist painters of the French Barbizon school. The painters of the Hague school generally made use of relatively somber colors, which is why the Hague School is sometimes called the Gray School.

  • Gerard Bilders
  • Johannes Bosboom
  • Paul Gabriël
  • Johannes Hubertus Leonardus de Haas
  • Jozef Israëls
  • Jacob Maris
  • Matthijs Maris
  • Willem Maris
  • Anton Mauve
  • Hendrik Willem Mesdag
  • Willem Roelofs
  • Jan Hendrik Weissenbruch

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (UK)

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848. The group’s intention was to reform art by rejecting what it considered the mechanistic approach first adopted by Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo. Its members believed the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art, hence the name “Pre-Raphaelite”. In particular, the group objected to the influence of Sir Joshua Reynolds, founder of the English Royal Academy of Arts, whom they called “Sir Sloshua”. To the Pre-Raphaelites, according to William Michael Rossetti, “sloshy” meant “anything lax or scamped in the process of painting … and hence … any thing or person of a commonplace or conventional kind”. In contrast, the brotherhood wanted a return to the abundant detail, intense colours and complex compositions of Quattrocento Italian art. The group associated their work with John Ruskin, an English artist whose influences were driven by his religious background.

  • Philip Hermogenes Calderon
  • James Collinson
  • John Atkinson Grimshaw
  • William Holman Hunt
  • John Everett Millais
  • Dante Gabriel Rossetti
  • Hans Thoma
  • John Wilson Carmichael

Pre-Raphaelite Painters non-members

  • Henry Meynell Rheam

Macchiaioli (Italy)

The Macchiaioli were a group of Italian painters active in Tuscany in the second half of the nineteenth century, who, breaking with the antiquated conventions taught by the Italian academies of art, did much of their painting outdoors in order to capture natural light, shade, and colour. This practice relates the Macchiaioli to the French Impressionists who came to prominence a few years later, although the Macchiaioli pursued somewhat different purposes.

  • Giuseppe Abbati
  • Vito D’Ancona
  • Odoardo Borrani
  • Vincenzo Cabianca
  • Giovanni Fattori
  • Silvestro Lega
  • Telemaco Signorini
  • Serafino de Tivoli

Peredvizhniki (Russia)

Peredvizhniki (Russian: Передви́жники; IPA: [pʲɪrʲɪˈdvʲiʐnʲɪkʲɪ]), often called The Wanderers or The Itinerants in English, were a group of Russian realist artists who in protest at academic restrictions formed an artists’ cooperative; it evolved into the Society for Travelling Art Exhibitions in 1870.

In 1863 a group of fourteen students decided to leave The Imperial Academy of Arts. The students found the rules of the Academy constraining; the teachers were conservative and there was a strict separation between high and low art. In an effort to bring art to the people, the students formed an independent artistic society; The Petersburg Cooperative of Artists (Artel). In 1870, this organization was largely succeeded by the Association of Travelling Art Exhibits (Peredvizhniki) to give people from the provinces a chance to follow the achievements of Russian Art, and to teach people to appreciate art. The society maintained independence from state support and brought the art, which illustrated the contemporary life of the people from Moscow and Saint Petersburg, to the provinces.

From 1871 to 1923, the society arranged 48 mobile exhibitions in St. Petersburg and Moscow, after which they were shown in Kiev, Kharkov, Kazan, Oryol, Riga, Odessa and other cities.

  • Abram Efimovich Arkhipov
  • Alexander Karlovich Beggrov
  • Alexey Petrovich Bogolyubov
  • Mikhail Konstantinovich Clodt
  • Nikolay Dubovskoy
  • Alexander Kiselev
  • Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi
  • Arkhip Kuindzhi
  • Isaac Ilyich Levitan
  • Alexander Dmitrievich Litovchenko
  • Konstantin Yegorovich Makovsky
  • Vladimir Yegorovich Makovsky
  • Grigory Grigoryevich Myasoyedov
  • Nikolai Vasilyevich Nevrev
  • Leonid Pasternak
  • Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov
  • Ilya Yefimovich Repin
  • Konstantin Apollonovich Savitsky
  • Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin
  • Vasily Ivanovich Surikov
  • Nikolai Alexandrovich Yaroshenko
Signs as time periods/events (part 3)
  • aries: 753 BC-476 AD (founding and fall of Ancient Rome)
  • taurus: The Jurassic Period
  • gemini: 500 BC (Ancient Greece)
  • cancer: 1920s (The great depression)
  • leo: When Pangaea separated
  • virgo: 1918-1920 (Women's right to vote)
  • libra: 1400-1700 (A lot of explorations)
  • scorpio: 2001 (First country legalized Gay marriage)
  • sagittarius: The Big Bang
  • capricorn: 1893 (Chicago World Fair)
  • aquarius: 500-1500 AD (Middle ages)
  • pisces: 1940s (World War II)