3rd dynasty


Extremely Rare Neo-Sumerian Palace Messenger Tablet from Iri-Sagrig, Dated 2027 BC

A clay pillow-shaped messenger tablet from an important palace archive of the Sumerian city Iri-Saĝrig, dated to 2027 BC, with cuneiform text on both sides: “1 roasted mutton, 5 sila soup Ur-šu-suen, chancellor’s assistant when he came for the ’secretary’ of Nana’s field; 3 sila soup, 2 fish Laqipum, cup bearer, royal messenger when he went for royal offerings; 1 sila soup, 1 fish Suškin, royal messenger when he came from Der to the king’s place; 1 sila soup, 1 fish Kuganum, royal messenger; /REVERSE/ 1 sila soup, 1 fish Ilianum, royal messenger when they went to Der; 1 sila soup, 1 fish Namhani, royal messenger; 1 sila soup, 1 fish Lu-šulgira, royal messenger when they came to the governor’s place; 2 sila soup, 2 fishŠugatum, royal messenger when he came to capture fugitive soldier-workers, servants of Ninhursag; 1 sila soup, 1 fish Pululu, eguary when he went for the sikum-mules; A disbursement for the month Nigenlila, 19th day.”

This text dates to the second year of King Ibbi-Sin, the last king of the Ur III. The text is particularly rare because almost all of the named messengers are followed by a description their mission: “Suškin, royal messenger when he came from Der to the king’s place.” The tablet records rations of food and drink distributed by the government to royal messengers. According to Prof. David Owen the Iri-Saĝrig archive is probably the archive of the governor whose office was in the local palace. The king and other members of the royal family occasionally traveled to Iri-Saĝrig, perhaps on their way to or from Nippur or other towns. No town in Sumer was visited more often by the king than Iri-Saĝrig. This may explain the presence of so many royal functionaries associated with the town.

Ancient Chinese knotted dragon pendant in jade, dated towards the end of the Warring States period in the 3rd century BCE. More specifically, the pendant dates to the Eastern Zhou dynasty, which lasted until 249 BCE. The pendant is currently located in the Met.

The Tomb of Hesy-re

The tomb has a solid mud brick superstructure, which included a niched palace façade. Like elite tombs of the 2nd dynasty, the southernmost east niche was the most significant, giving way to a doorway leading into a painted corridor with more niches. At the rear of these niches,  a carved wooden panel was placed (that’s a lot of times to say niche in one paragraph!). These panels are probably the most significant element of the tomb, and they are gorgeous. But more on those later.

The palace façade was similar to Djoser’s funerary complex at Saqqara.
Palace façades in elite tombs during the 3rd Dynasty were a throwback from the 1st Dynasty, and recalled the funerary architectural features of the Pharaoh. However, only some tombs had them - this suggests that a façade could have been a costlier and unnecessary part of tomb architecture for nobility at the time that could have served as an indicator of status, and linked the deceased with the pharaoh by emulating their tombs. Hesy-re was certainly favourable to the Pharaoh, with the quality of the art within his tomb suggestive of royal craftsmanship, as well as the many titles bestowed upon him and his prestigious status.

Painted patterns that imitated reed matting were still preserved on the façade - this patterning emulated earlier textures when reed matting was used to form the walls.

Burial Chamber

The chamber had been robbed in antiquity, and was half full of stone. Quibell discovered the fragmentary remains of 1-2 human skeletons, however they were eventually lost after the man sent down to retrieve them was attacked by a swarm of fleas and left the bones there. Now that’s a new excuse to use for the next uncompleted assessment! Some grave goods and pottery were, despite the fleas, recovered.

Wooden Panels

Keep reading

Divorced, Beheaded, Died, Survived, Beheaded, Survived 

One of a pair of bracelets found on Shoshenq II’s body with representations of the Wadjet eye upon a basket. The eyes are depictions of the eyes of the god Horus with the right equated with the sun and the left equated with the moon. By wearing these bracelets the king would be protected and guided by the god into eternity.

From Tanis. Gold, lapis lazuli, carnelian and white faience. 3rd Intermediate Period, 22nd Dynasty, ca. 887-885 BC. 
Now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. JE 72184B.

Architecture (Part 1): Ancient Egyptian Mastabas

Menes was the first pharaoh of Egypt, uniting Upper & Lower Egypt into a single kingdom.  This was the beginning of the Old Kingdom era (3200-2680 BC, and of the 1st Dynasty.  Egyptian architecture began to flourish during this time.

The Egyptians believed that life on earth was temporary, but the spiritual life was eternal.  Therefore, the religious monuments needed to last.  While Ancient Egyptian palaces and houses have collapsed over the centuries, the religious buildings have endured for longer.  The tomb was the gateway to the afterlife, and the temple housed the gods.

The mastaba was the tomb.  It is Arabic for “stone bench”. They were designed with the same plan as an Egyptian house.

It was a regulated mound with several small rooms, built over a broad pit (so it was underground and above ground).  This gave space for the dead person and their provisions for the afterlife.  The central room had the sarcophagus, and the surrounding rooms contained funerary offerings.

The walls sloped inwards.  Wooden/mud-brick pillars were first built, then covered in rubble, and finally walled in mud-brick.

4th Dynasty mastaba.

Entrance to the Mastaba of Ti (5th Dynasty).

4th & 5th Dynasty mastabas.

Mud-brick was the usual material for domestic buildings in Egypt.  It was made from a mixture of mud and straw.  It was excellent for building in the arid climate, and the Mesopotamians had used it for their ziggurats.

The royal mastaba often had a mud-brick façade around it, with alternating projections & recessions.  This probably copied the timber panelling of the early palaces.  The façade was often painted in bright colours, and traces of this survive.

Reconstructions of 1st Dynasty mastabas.  Both are attributed to Queen Merneith.

But during the 3rd & 4th Dynasties (2780-2565), attention moved away from the mastaba’s exterior and towards its interior, for security reasons.  The exterior became simpler.  The burial chamber was sunk deep into the rock, and security measures such as stone portcullises were added.

A false door was usually on the tomb’s eastern side, facing the Nile. This allowed the deceased’s spirit, or ka, to enter & exit the tomb as it pleased, and travel upon the river.  It was made of mud-brick or stone, as an imitation of the façade’s wooden door.

False door (6th Dynasty).

During the 4th Dynasty (2680-2565), non-royal mastaba cemeteries were built near/around royal mastabas.  These non-royal tombs contained high officials, and the tombs were probably an honour bestowed on them by the pharaoh.  A small chapel was included – often a simple niche with an offering table for dedications to the deceased, on the outside of the mastaba.

The most sophisticated tombs had many chambers inside them, as a full-scale residence for the deceased, as well as a gateway to eternity.  The rooms were decorated with scenes of daily life, and natural motifs.  They depicted the afterlife as an “idealized parallel to Egypt”.  These rooms included storerooms, a chapel, resting places, and dining areas.

The following photos are all from the tomb of Merefnebef (6th Dynasty).

Fishing scene & marsh scene.

Jewellery workshop.

Merefnef sitting with one of his wives, watching harpists & dancers.

Merefnebef (II) and his wife Hemi, seated before offerings.

Hieroglyphic list of offerings.

*spoliers for ep 12*

This partt 😣😣
No words were spoken, nothing(except for the wang so and wang wook part) 💔

I FKING CRIED OUT LOUD FFS 😭 I went frm happy mode the moment the show screened them(when Baek Ah and Woo Hee were practicing, and they LOOKED SO FREAKING PERFECT TGT 😥💕if you all dont ship them, I’ll come find you 👀) to me literally slamming my cushion when she plunged her knife into his body accidentally… CAN YEALL UNDERSRAND HOW I FEEL?!?!?!?!

This is really not cool at all.. Why isit that every episode things dont end happy :(( but yeaa, the directors have to sort of go with the 步步惊心 original ver. BUT THE 13TH PRINCE DID NOT HAVE TO SUFFER LIKE THIS!! It’s very unfairr (cries a river again 😣) my ship is sinking 🚢🚢