3rd century b.c

Alexander the Great and Bucephalus in Battle. Greek, Hellenistic period, late 3rd-mid-2nd century B.C. limestone metope.    http://hadrian6.tumblr.com


In the 3rd century B.C. , Carthage is the most powerful state in the Western world. It builds its wealth through trade, and uses its advanced naval force to dominate the Mediterranean. Carthage really was Rome’s only competitor as an empire in the central and western Mediterranean. There were no other great states that could compete with it. Rome is a small but growing republic with outsized ambition. It knows that to defeat Carthage is to control the ancient world. The conflict between Rome and Carthage escalated into a life-and-death struggle between the two principle powers in the western Mediterranean.

When the two sides clash over Sicily, Rome is the rising power. And it’s also adaptable, building a navy from the ground up that deals Carthage a shocking defeat. Rome forces Carthage to sign a crippling peace treaty in an attempt to break its enemy. It’s implications for Carthage are pretty stark. Among other things, Carthage is effectively de-militarized or de-navalized. It is also subject to paying a substantial indemnity.

The defeat is a personal humiliation for the Carthaginian General in Command, Hamilcar Barca. His oldest son, Hannibal, is only nine years old. Hamilcar forced his young son, essentially, to dedicate his entire life to one purpose, the destruction of Rome. ~Barbarians Rising, episode 1

…if we are ever to liberate ourselves from the bonds of white supremacy. We must launch a cultural revolution to unbrainwash an entire people.“ A cultural revolution. Why, brothers, that’s a crazy revolution. When you tell this black man in America who he is, where he came from, what he had when he was there, he’ll look around and ask himself, "Well, what happened to it, who took it away from us and how did they do it?” Why, brothers, you’ll have some action just like that. When you let the black man in America know where he once was and what he once had, why, he only needs to look at himself now to realize something criminal was done to him to bring him down to the low condition that he’s in today.  

- Malcolm X  (1964) Malcolm X’s Speech at the Founding Rally of the Organization of Afro-American Unity 

In determining itself as an entity, Dasein always does so in the light of a possibility which it is itself and which, in its very being, it somehow understands…this is the formal meaning of Dasein’s existential constitution…We are always answering the question of identity by being (or living) some possibility of human life: who I am is more fundamental than what I am accountable for

When Sartre says: “We are condemned to be free.” We are “condemned” or delivered over to confronting the question of identity- ourselves!

- William BlattnerHeidegger’s ‘Being and Time’: A Reader’s Guide

I am a man and what I have to recapture is the whole past of the world, I am not responsible only for the slavery involved in Santo Domingo, every time man has contributed to the victory of the dignity of the spirit, every time a man has said no to an attempt to subjugate his fellows, I have felt solidarity with his act. In no way does my basic vocation have to be drawn from the past of peoples of color. In no way do I have to dedicate myself to reviving some black civilization unjustly ignored. I will not make myself the man of any past. My black skin is not a repository for specific values. Haven’t I got better things to do on this earth than avenge the blacks of the 17th century?

I as a man of color do not have the right to hope that in the white man there will be a crystallization of guilt towards the past of my race. I as a man of color do not have the right of stamping down the pride of my former master. I have neither the right nor the duty to demand reparations for my subjugated ancestors. There is no black mission. There is no white burden. I do not want to be victim to the rules of a black world. Am I going to ask this white man to answer for the slave traders of the 17th century? Am I going to try by every means available to cause guilt to burgeon in their souls? I am not a slave to slavery that dehumanized my ancestors. It would be of enormous interest to discover a black literature or architecture from the 3rd century B.C, we would be overjoyed to learn of the existence of a correspondence between some black philosopher and Plato, but we can absolutely not see how this fact would change the lives of 8 year old kids working the cane fields of Martinique or Guadeloupe. I find myself in the world and I recognize I have one right alone: of demanding human behavior from the other.

- Frantz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks