3200 bc

EGYPT - Important Dates

c. 5,000 BC People begin to settle down to live and grow crops along the banks of the Nile for the first time

c. 3200 BC Writing begins in Egypt.

c. 3100 BC Legendary King Menes (Namer) unites Egypt. Upper and Lower Egypt are joined together under one Pharaoh for the first time

c. 2630 BC Imhotep builds the first pyramid

c. 1500 BC Earliest examples of the Book of the Dead

c. 1380 BC Temple of Luxor by Amenhotep III is built

1367-1350 BC Reign of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) who abandons Egyptian polytheism for monotheism

1347-1339 BC Reign of Tutankhamen

1182-1151 BC Reign of Ramses III; Hebrew migration out of Egypt

1070-712 BC Collapse of the New Kingdom

669 BC Assyrians conquer and rule Egypt

332 BC Alexander the Great conquers Egypt and founds Alexandria. A Macedonian dynasty rules until 31 BC

31 BC Rome conquers Egypt. Cleopatra commits suicide after Octavian’s armies defeat her forces

AD 642 Arab conquest of Egypt. Egypt becomes Islamic

969 Cairo is established as the capital

1250-1517 Mamluk (armies of slaves, often Turks/Cumans) rule

1517 Egypt is absorbed into the Turkish Ottoman Empire

1822 Jean Francois Champollion deciphers the system of Egyptian hieroglyphs from the Rosetta Stone

1882 British troops take control of Egypt

1914 Egypt becomes a British protectorate

1922 Egypt gains independence from Britain

1953 Egypt is declared a Republic

1954 The British leave Egypt

1970 The Aswan High Dam is completed

1971 Egypt’s new constitution is introduced. The country is renamed the Arab Republic of Egypt

1979 Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty is signed in Washington DC, between Anwar El Sadat and Menachem Begin, making Egypt the first Arab country to official recognize “Israel”

1981 President Anwar El Sadat is assassinated; Hosni Mubarak becomes president by a national referendum

2011 President Mubarak steps down amid protests