300s bce

9

Ancient leaf wreaths

1. Ancient Macedonian golden leaf wreath

2/3. Blossoming myrtle wreath, 350-300 BCE, Greece

4. Golden wreath diadem from the tomb of a woman, possibly a wife of Phillip II of Macedon, excavated in Vergina, Imathia, central Macedonia

5. Laurel leaf diadem from Anatolia

6. Golden Oak Crown, 4th c. BCE, Archaeological Museum of Thessalonika

7. Crown from the tomb of Philip II of Macedon and the Scythian princess Meda in Aigai, Macedonia. Crown of Meda.

8. Headdress of Queen Puabi of Ur, Mesopotamia, 2550 BC

9. Golden wreath of a Thracian aristocrat (circa 4th century BC) from Golyamata Mogila (Bulgaria)

Graeco-Roman gold ring in the form of a snake, dated to c. 300-100 BCE. Found in Egypt, the ring is currently located in the British Museum.

Unknown artist, Pair of gold earrings with Ganymede and the eagle (330-300 BCE), gold, height 6 cm, The Metropolitan Museum of Art (Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1937), New York, NY. Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art

2

Ancient Egyptian steatite scarab set in a modern gold ring. The scarab dated to anywhere between 2000-300 BCE. From the source, Galerie Golconda:

The ray-like antenna on the beetle’s head and its practice of dung-rolling caused the beetle to also carry solar symbolism. The scarab-beetle god Khepera was believed to push the setting sun along the sky in the same manner as the beetle with his ball of dung. In many artifacts, the scarab is depicted pushing the sun along its course in the sky.

During and following the New Kingdom, scarab amulets were often placed over the heart of the mummified deceased. These “heart scarabs” were meant to be weighed against the feather of truth during the final judgement. The amulets were often inscribed with a spell from the Book of the Dead which entreated the heart to “not stand as a witness against me.”

Ζεὺς δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἐνὶ Κρήτῃ τρέφετο μέγας, οὐδ᾽ ἄρα τίς νιν
ἠείδει μακάρων: ὃ δ᾽ ἀέξετο πᾶσι μέλεσσι.
τὸν μὲν ἄρα τρήρωνες ὑπὸ ζαθέῳ τράφον ἄντρῳ
ἀμβροσίην φορέουσαι ἀπ᾽ Ὠκεανοῖο ῥοάων:
νέκταρ δ᾽ ἐκ πέτρης μέγας αἰετὸς αἰὲν ἀφύσσων
γαμφηλῇ φορέεσκε ποτὸν Διὶ μητιόεντι.
τὸν καὶ νικήσας πατέρα Κρόνον εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς
ἀθάνατον ποίησε καὶ οὐρανῷ ἐγκατένασσεν.
ὣς δ᾽ αὕτως τρήρωσι πελειάσιν ὤπασε τιμήν,
αἳ δή τοι θέρεος καὶ χείματος ἄγγελοί εἰσι.
-
Great Zeus was raised in Crete, and none of the blessed gods
knew of him; and he grew strong in all his limbs.
Shy doves nourished him in a sacred grotto,
bearing ambrosia from the streams of Ocean;
and a great eagle, ever drawing nectar from a stone,
brought to and fro in its beak a drink for Zeus the wise-counselor.
Far-seeing Zeus, after conquering his father, Kronos,  
made this eagle immortal, and gave it a place in heaven.
Even so he granted honor to the shy doves,
who are the messengers of summer and winter.
—  Moero (fl. 300 BCE). This is the sole surviving fragment of her epic, Memory, quoted in Athenaeus’ Deipnosophistae 11.80.
The Zodiac as Historical Eras:

[I decided to do this as I wanted eras beyond the 20th century]

Aries: Classical India (700 BCE - 350 BCE)
-urbamism, Jainism, iron, trade, Buddhism

Taurus: Ancient Egypt (3000 BCE - 300 BCE)
-pharoahs, the Nile, Hatshepsut, pyramids, hieroglyphs

Gemini: The Enlightenment (1650s - 1780s CE)
-intellectualism, salons, Isaac Newton, philosophy, Voltaire

Cancer: Victorian (1837 - 1907 CE)
-imperialism, Pax Brittanica, Disraeli and Gladstone, industirialization

Leo: Ancient Rome (8th century BCE - 476CE)
-emperors, res publica, Caesar, aqueducts, SPQR, Punic Wars, Caligula

Virgo: Medieval Era (5th century - 15th century CE)
-Dark Ages, rise of Islam and Christianity, 100 Years War, feudalism, Crusades, Black Plague

Libra: Ancient Greece (8th century BCE - 0CE)
-democracy, Socrates, city-states, Pythagoras, literature, Homer, Olympics

Scorpio: Revolutionary Era (1750 - 1917 CE)
-liberty, American and French Revolutions, Terror, romanticism, Napoleon

Sagittarius: The Renaissance (1350s - 1650s CE)
-rebirth, reformation, the Big Four, science and art, Galileo, Elizabethan

Capricorn: Islamic Golden Age (750 - 1300 CE)
-science, math, classical writings, Ibn Sina, House of Wisdom, caliphs

Aquarius: Six Dynasties (220 CE - 581 CE)
-Three Kingdoms, Xu Ling, Buddhism, Daoism, pagodas

Pisces: Edwardian Era (1901 - 1910 CE)
-fashion, Edward VII, reform, Boer War, suffrage, theatre, Beatrix Potter

5

Tomb of Thessalonike of Macedon

Vergina, Greece

300 BCE


Thessalonike (352 or 345 – 295 BC) was a Macedonian princess, the daughter of king Philip II of Macedon by his Thessalian wife or concubine, Nicesipolis, from Pherae. History links her to three of the most powerful men in Macedon—daughter of King Philip II, half sister of Alexander the Great and wife of Cassander.