300 meters

anonymous asked:

Lance with rescued prisoners. Bonus points if they're Galra.


I wasn’t really sure what to do but I hope you like it!! 

Also a small hint of Langst cause I had too 

Lance checked his map and turned down another corner. He was running as fast as he could and he could still hear the fighting that was happening outside the ship. Lance silently prayed that no Galra would notice that he was out of his lion and come find him. 

“Lance how are you doing?” Shiro called over the coms and Lance could hear bullets hitting the Black Lion. 

“Almost there, roughly 300 meters.” Lance ran around another corner keeping his gun aimed at anything that could pop out at him. 

“Okay try to be fast, we may need to form Voltron soon.” Shiro started saying something to Keith and Lance tuned him out. 

Almost there, come on. Lance willed his legs to push through the burn that consumed them and finally reached what he was looking for. Prisoners. 

Lance immediately shot the lock off the door and scared everyone in the cell. 

Lance swung the door opened and looked around at all of the occupants of the cell. Some of them looked scared of him while others put on a strong mask. 

Lance immediately recognised some of the species that were in the cell. There were three Balmeras, two Arusians and four Galrans? Lance’s first thought is that they were undercover spies that were meant to keep the prisoners in order and keep them from rebelling or something like that, but there was no way they were still serving the emperor. They all looked skinny and weak, one of them had a scratched up face and another only had one arm. 

Lance shook his head, remember what mama said, staring is not socially acceptable. Lance cleared his throat and held his head higher. “My name is Lance, I’m the Blue paladin of Voltron. I was sent here to rescue all of you.” 

The aliens all smiled, some even cheered and they all stood up and surrounded him. Lance smiled at all of them and started to direct them out of the cell, he turned when he felt a tap on his shoulder. 

Lance attempted to not screamed when he came face to face with one of the Galra that were in the cell. “Yes?” Lance cursed at how weak his voice sounded.

The Galra that tapped his shoulder looked scared and she quietly spoke “are you saving us as well?” She motioned to the other three Galra.  

Lance looked at the other three who didn’t even bother to stand up, most likely assuming that Lance didn’t want to save them and he looked back at the girl. “Didn’t I say all of you?” 

The Galran smiled and Lance directed them out of the cell. 


Lance followed the escape pod in Blue and ran out as soon as it landed in Blue’s hanger. I want to talk to all of them before anyone sees them. Lance opened the pod door and escorted everyone out, stopping the Galrans. He heard everyone else enter the hanger and Lance pushed them farther into the pod. One of them opened their mouth in protest but Lance shushed them 

“Listen,” Lance’s voice was barely above a whisper, “I don’t know how everyone will react to having Galras in our castle. Let me talk to them first, I don’t want them to hurt you.” 

The Galrans nodded and Lance walked out of the pod. He saw his team along with Allura and Coran helping the newly freed aliens out of the room. Lance inhaled until his lungs ached and walked over to Allura, quickly tapping her shoulder. 

She turned and faced Lance and smiled, “you did well.” 

“Thank you Princess, but there is something you need to see before you leave.” Lance started to make his way back to the pod and Allura hesitantly followed him.  

When Allura reached his Lance stopped her from entering, “can you just promise me that you won’t freak out?” 

Allura gave Lance a sceptical look. “Lance what are you talking about?” 

“Look, I save more prisoners but they aren’t our normal prisoners.” Lance looked back into the pod, seeing what Allura couldn’t see. 

“Lance, just show me what you’re talking about.” Allura pushed passed him and gasped when she saw the Galrans. 

Allura attempted to run out of the pod but Lance stopped her and begged her to listen. “Lance! Are you insane? You brought the Galra right to us? They could be spies or assassins. You put the entire team at risk, I told you to just rescue prisoners not save the wounded!” 

Lance shook his head and held Allura’s arms down in fear that she would hurt him or someone else. “They were prisoners, like I said. Believe me I was sceptical at first but look at them.” Allura turned and looked at them. “See how malnourished that are? See how that one only has one arm? I don’t think they are still serving the emperor. That’s why I brought them here. I was completing my mission.” 

Allura nodded at what Lance said and slowly made her way over the them. She paused in front of them and examined them. After a few moments she reached out her hand and introduced herself and Lance sighed with relief. That could have ended badly. 

I had no idea what to do tbh 

I hope you like it!!!

Sorry it took so long!!!

Thank you! 


Holiday House in Gargnano

This Holiday House by Titus Bernhard Architekten sits on a steep slope about 300 meters above the west shore of Lake Garda, in the park-like outdoor area with a view of the lake, in the ground area of ​​an old rustico Guest quarters. So in order to obtain a building permission, the ancillary uses are under the ground and thus do not appear as part of the building volume. A spectacular infinity pool follows the contours. The rustico and the “limonaia” are rebuilt with traditional dry stone walls, but double with a cavity, and therefore retain an explicitly rough, haptic character. The ensemble conveys a warm, distinguished, rustic atmosphere. Landscape and building, nature and artifact: a symbiosis to feel at home in.

Follow the Source Link for images sources and more information.

Galra Keith theory - I hear your heartbeat and I see how hot you are

Galra Keith senses are way different from Human Keith senses and he takes advantages of this ; in combat, he switches from both forms to get the best view of the situation :

Human Keith is good sighted, he sees pretty far and has good reflexes as we saw. Boxing uses sight more than earing so he’s human here.

But Galra Keith. To me, he’s mostly based on a bat and here is why it’s fun :
Bats are nocturnal animals. Galra don’t have pupils and seem to be more accomodated to purple ranging lights.

So what if Keith can’t see shit in galra form, but hears anything ? Like, litteraly. His big ears rotate and can receive any sounds around 300 meters or so, because his vision is very different and he needs to compensate and balance.
He also has paws that makes him silent as a cat and a pretty good sense of air tension and vibes emitted by other beings.
He mostly goes galra in infiltration missions, because it’s better for spying.
His balance is way better too, as he’s more dense than in Human form

Made for differents wavelenghts of lights, his eyes are suited for dark areas and he can’t see anything with the castles bright lights.
His visual cones can receive higher ranging wavelenghts. Like infrared.
Basically what i mean is :

Keith can hear you breath and sees your temperature. Also he feels how you feels.

So i get klancy here.

Imagine Keith shapeshifting but partially. Only some furry ears and glowy eyes, the rest is human. He’s training because he needs to get used to half-shifting and double sword wielding.
He’s also a lot more easily sweaty and exhausted because it’s tiring™ and he overheats in furry mode.

As he’s taking the training bots down one by one, Lance walks in because he needs to fix his aiming with double guns and ice lasers.

They make a contest out of anything and as Lance doesnt move that much to stay precise and concentrated, his temperature stays low and he pauses his breath a lot. Keith sees him in blue and practically doesnt hears him. He feels nothing but a deep concentration, very calming and slow.
Basically Lance is almost invisible, it’s very bugging Keith because he can’t take the risk to wield both swords all around.

Lance takes down a bot coming from behind Keith for the last round, and Keith lets a “we are a good team”/“ swift work, cowboy” of any sort split out, still in galra form. They end training session and Keith wipes sweat off his forehead with his shirt before throwing a space Capri sun at Lance.

He doesnt find the blue paladin in his vision tho, no blue form are to be seen, but he clearly ears a muffled squeal and a really loud, fast paced heartbeat.
The calm vibes are replaced by a mess of emergency signals too, as some hurt animals.
At first he fears he hit Lance without noticing by throwing his Blade.
Then he catches him back.
Lance’s form is in bright red in the corner, barely catching his pouch of juice. He doesn’t look hurt at all. But…

- You look pretty hot, Lance.
- You… You too !
- I mean you’re at least 40 degrees from what i see.

Aaand as drums of heartbeats are playing solos like in a metal concert in his brain, Keith shapeshift back to human.

- Did I miss it ?
- What ?
- My transformation…
- No, you look fine as heck. I mEAN YOu LoOK huMAn that’s it.
- But you’re still all reddish ?
- Frog off Kogane.

So that’s how Keith learned how to mess with Lance and decode human temperature changes.

Also I raise you all the applications like :
- Hunk, I think it’s burnt
- Pidge, your computer is overheating
- Shiro, your arm… How does it not melt ?
- Allura have you thought about resting, but like, not in the cryomod of the pods ? (Turns out alteans are as cold as galras are hella warm)


- Lance ? Are you okay ?
- Yeah i’m, ATCHAA, i’m good.
- You just sneeze-scared me. Also you’re too hot.
- You said it baby ! *sneezes* Hey Kitty, looks like don’t need your pretty eyes *ATChOU* to see how i got your heart burnin’ right ?? *sneezes again and hits his heads on the couch*
- *screams internally*
(Allura : - Please stop them) //sickfic hohoho//
Advice from an (Amateur) Archer on Writing About Archers and Archery

Admittedly, I don’t have the widest range of experience when it’s come to archery. I’ve only been shooting for a year now, and the time that I do take to shoot have long months between them. Still, I think it’s important to outline the basics for anyone who wants to write an archer in their book and wants to save themselves the embarrassment of having the archer do something that an archer would never do in a million years.

- Archers usually unstring their bow after battle. Unstringing a bow is exactly what it sounds like: removing the string from the bow’s limbs. Usually, archers then wrap the string around the now-straightened bow so they don’t lose it as easily. Archers unstring bows because everytime the limbs are bent by the string, there is a large amount of tension in the limbs. If the string is on too long and the bow has not been shot for a while, the limbs will start to wear down and lose their power, resulting in an archer needing to buy new limbs or an entirely new bow.

- Archers always retrieve their arrows after battle. Arrows are expensive and take a long time to make, so archers want to conserve as many arrows as possible. Sometimes they have a repair kit with them at the ready, in case they find an arrow with a loose arrowhead or broken fletching that can easily be repaired. 

- Training arrows are not the same as battle arrows. Training arrows have thinner shafts and usually blunted tips so they can easily be removed from targets. Thinner shafts break more easily, and the blunted tips – whilst they can pierce skin – usually won’t get very far in the flesh. They’re also easier to make. Battle arrows are thicker, and their heads are pointed at the tip and have two pointed ends at its sides. This arrowhead is designed to easily pierce through flesh, and is incredibly difficult to pull out because its two pointed ends snag onto flesh. If you want to pull it out, you’d have to tear the flesh away with it, which can lead to an even larger wound.

- Arrows are fatal, and one can incapacitate a soldier for the rest of his life. Arrows are not easily snapped off like you see in movies. The draw weight is too strong, and they can sometimes be as strong as bullets. They will pierce through bone and tendons, which do not easily heal. Furthermore, if you want to remove an arrow, you either have to go through surgery, parting the flesh away from the arrowhead so it doesn’t snag onto anything, or you have you push – not pull – it all the way through the body.

- Bows are not designed for hitting people with in close combat. The limbs are specifically made to flex. Imagine hitting someone with a flexing piece of wood. If you hit with the middle of the bow, it still does very little because there is no weight behind the bow, and so you might as well be hitting them with a pillow. It might be annoying to the opponent, but it won’t save you. Archers need a secondary blade in close combat. They cannot strike people with their bows and expect to win.

- Draw weight affects speed, range, and impact. Draw weight is measured in pounds, at least in America, and it is measured in how much weight must be pulled when you draw back the string. A high draw weight means stiffer, thicker limbs that can shoot further and hit harder. But, this is at the cost of speed. A low draw weight means thinner, more flexible limbs that can shoot smaller distances and have low impact, but can be shot faster. Before you acrobatic fanatics immediately seize the smaller bow for its speed, understand that a bow’s advantage is in its range. No one can hit an archer from 300 meters away with their spear or sword. The archer has complete dominance over the battlefield in this way, and their arrows can kill anyone who gets too close. Not hurt. Not annoy. Kill. And a higher draw weight means a better chance of piercing through specific armor, then flesh, then bone. A lower draw weight means less range and, even worse, a lower chance that the arrow would even pierce through armor if the arrow even hits its target. 

- Bows will always be outmatched in close combat against any other weapon. Bows take too long to draw and shoot, and at such close range, the opponent has an easier chance to dodge oncoming arrows. I already explained that the bows themselves cannot be used to take down a foe. 

- Bowmen on horseback are utterly terrifying. Archers usually can’t move from their spot because range is more important than mobility, and at such a long range, you usually don’t need to move from your spot anyways. Bowmen on horses, however, are closer to the battle, and worse, they are faster than almost anyone on the battlefield. Not only are they difficult to hit, you have no way of predicting where they will shoot next because they can circle around you in confusing ways. If you want an interesting archer character, I’d advise trying these guys out.

- Never underestimate armor and padding. Arrows will never be able to pierce through plate armor because its curved surface will always deflect oncoming arrows. Arrows can pierce through maille because maille is made out of metal rings that can be bent and can fall away. However, padding usually lies underneath, which is surprisingly durable and can stop an oncoming arrow, as well as absorb some of its impact. Because of this, make certain that the archer is focusing on gabs in the armor. To know this, you MUST study armor. Gabs usually lie where the joints are because soldiers need those gabs open so they can move. Typical gaps lie in the neck, the armpit, the inner-elbow, the knees, and the palm of the hand. Impact is also an archer’s friend. A war arrow shot by a hundred pound bow, hurtling at incredible speeds and gaining momentum the further it travels, can evoke serious damage. To be hit by one of these arrows will feel more like being hit by a horse than being hit by someone’s fist. 

DAY 3358

Malta                   June 7,  2017                Wed 8:14 PM local time

Birthday - EF - Tejas Mankodi …  Thu, June 8 … to Tejas our love and greetings for his Birthday .. all happiness and success from the Ef family  

The world communicates at such alarming rates times and connection facilities, it astonishes and brings great surprise ..

I am happy to be and privileged too, that I survive in this extremely exciting days of this generation .. where connectivity is such a boon .. rapid almost akin to sitting across the table and having a chat, when we are thousands of miles apart and distant … where this shall lead to is beyond comprehension .. Abhishek keeps egging me on to travel to the ‘Valley’ .. the Silicon Valley, for an experience of a lifetime .. to know and to gauge where we are heading ..

Quite quite remarkable really .. and filled each day with incredible surprises and inventions and a mastery that one could only have dreamt when we were growing up .. 

Growing up .. growing nostalgic .. growing in the remembrance of the days of Allahabad .. the years being in the 50′s .. yes the 50′s .. when none of you perhaps were even thought of being brought to this world ..

Getting a phone in the home was an unbelievable celebration .. the rotating numbers phones, black in colour, situated and placed at that special place in the house .. a place of eminence and pride .. one that almost decided for you your social status in the city and among the friends .. the digits within rounded circles, enough spaced for the index finger to occupy it .. for men .. for the ladies, who did not wish to damage those well manicured fingers, it was the wrong end of a pencil, the rubber end, that was used for dialling !!

For long we did not have one .. we could not afford it .. but when we could a long waiting period was announced and we waited anxiously for that mechanic with the black machine to walk into our house and fix the instrument .. and having done that, the first activity was to call that special friend and boast the presence of the ‘telephone’ in the home .. and of course limiting the speaking time, because we could not afford the bills that accumulated at the end of the month ..

At times there was always the thoughts of an emergency .. that is when we did not have a phone .. an illness, a medical need, a robbery, a connect with the Police .. !!?? how was it all to be managed ?

And then one day it happens. You have no phone and your Mother falls desperately ill .. Babuji is in England for his thesis and his Doctorate studies, and you are the elder son matured by the age of 10-12, to deal with such a situation. It is the middle of the night, and Mother is in serious condition .. cannot speak, walk, communicate .. nothing .. you are the man of the house and there is need to act .. so ..

The nearest doctor friend is miles away .. what does one do how to contact him  .. as note written in great desperation (and somewhere the doctor has given that note to my Mother, which I cannot find) is quickly scribbled, with the best grammar at my young aged command and the house help is put on a bicycle and told to deliver it to the doctor .. !! The doctor comes several hours after and attends to my Mother, delivers some medications which have to be got again by the help from the market in the middle of the night .. a nightmare .. because nothing is open in small towns .. at least not then in the 50′s .. doctors often stocked important medication in case of an emergency such as this .. and that has to be thanked for  ..

Or .. the thought of a dacoity .. a dacoity was a most prevalent occurrence, in those times .. we would hear stories of Man Singh Daku, the dreaded dacoit, who had a kinder side as well .. he raided the rich to feed the poor .. but for us at that age it was looked upon as a terror .. so ..

What if Man Singh Daku decided to invade our little home ..Daku is not a surname it is the Hindi word for dacoit …  so … yes what if he decided to attack us .. at that young age you imagine all kind of ghosts and evil … what would I do .. I the elder and only male personified, my younger brother was there but just that .. young .. very young ..

So what ..

The Police station or a small outfit for the region was a good 300 meters away from our home, luckily .. but getting to those 300 meters and seeking help, was that task which kept playing the mind .. RUN .. that was it .. run .. run from the back of the house and reach the police chowki .. on many an occasion, during the day I had practiced and timed the 300 meter run .. just to be acquainted with the process and the terrain  .. OR 

RUN .. another 500 meters to dear Sushil Uncle, head of the fire brigade in the city .. a large well built Bengali, most dear to the family .. living nearby .. and breathlessly give him the news of the extenuating circumstance, or the dacoity, or whatever ..

WHY ..

Because there was no phone in the house .. not capable of having one !!

BUT .. the most exciting was that most important phone call, being made by my Father from Cambridge .. a month or so in advance letters were exchanged from him to us, from us to him .. this took about a month or two .. a date was fixed as to when he would attempt a call .. a luxury for him from his very limited financial state .. and for us an unbelievable event .. being able to hear Father’s voice after almost 2 years .. !!!

And where would the call come .. at a dear friend’s place some miles away in the city .. planned and waiting to be executed after a wait of two months ..

The days went by slowly .. anticipation and the excitement unabated .. comes the day and the sleepless night before .. it is by the evening .. the entire day is spent in deciding what must be worn to attend this most important and unbelievable telephone call .. the travel to the home of our friend with phone .. me cycling it .. Mother and brother, in another mode of transport .. and the call .. and the voice of Babuji .. and the emotion and the joy .. and ..

OH ahhhhh .. it is difficult to describe those times ..

ALL because there was no possibility for us to possess a phone, a telephone !!

And time has passed .. and time came for me to hold up the first mobile phone in my possession to my Father’s ear, as he sat in his wheel chair in the evening by the lawn of Prateeksha .. to tell him to talk to a friend on the other side ..

I can never forget the absolute look of bewilderment on his face as he spoke hesitantly, on to that portable mobile telephone !!

“ ye kaise hota hai” , he asked still not prepared to accept the contraption ..

And a journey 40 odd years just flashed by ..

Good night 

Amitabh Bachchan


Drone video explores the Salto del Nervión, a 300 meter high waterfall on the border of Basque Country in northern Spain. This waterfall is described in some of the text I found as the highest waterfall in Spain and one of the highest single-plunge waterfalls in all of Europe. Spectacular views of carved sediments on the edge of the Delika Canyon surround the falls.

Video tipe came from http://konradothing.tumblr.com/

Our First and Last (Ch. 2)

Ch. 1 | Ch. 2 | Ch. 3 | Ch. 4 | Ch. 5 | Ch. 6 |  Ch. 7 | Ch. 8 | Ch. 9 | Ch. 10 | 

Ch. 11 | Ch. 12 (Final)

  • Pairings: Jeon Jungkook x Reader (MAIN) | Park Jimin x Kim Taehyung | Jung Hoseok x Min Yoongi | Kim Namjoon x Kim Seokjin
  • Genre: angst and fluff, soulmate au, scifi
  • Words: 4,462
  • Description: That year, Jungkook was twenty-three and undoubtedly hot as hell, and that’s not an attempt to describe his temperature. He was always handsome, with chiseled features, a tall nose, plump lips, and that pair of dark chocolate doe eyes that you’ve known since the first day you saw him. In all honesty, his appearance hasn’t really changed all that much from the first time you met him seven years ago, but it was your attraction to him that did. 

The second time you saw Jungkook was on the morning of your eleventh birthday.

Your parents had been in shock when you begged them to forget about throwing you a birthday party and you just wanted to spend a day at the park alone. They even questioned if you were feeling sick, in which you vigorously shook your head and told them you were actually feeling better than ever.

It was the honest truth, or at least part of it.

As much as you wanted to at the time, you didn’t tell anyone about the life-changing event that happened on your tenth birthday. No one you knew in the Yin Dimension would even believe you anyways. Being able to come in contact with anything, let alone anyone, from the Yang dimension was blasphemous, and you were not planning on becoming a laughing stalk or have your parents worry about your mental well being at such a young age.

Besides, keeping such a secret just made you feel giddy and excited on the inside, and you figured it was probably the way some kids feel when they had an imaginary friend that only they could see.

Keep reading

Tourism is no less interesting, located on the border between Banyuwangi and Bondowoso East Java province is the mountain or crater of Ijen. Ijen is one of the active volcano in Indonesia. Mount Ijen has 2,368 meters above sea level high. Kawah Ijen crater which is a tar-acid in the world has a depth of about 200 meters and wide crater about 5,466 hectares. To enjoy the beauty of Ijen crater takes about 2 hours, but it was comparable to what can be obtained for the Ijen crater offers the charm of outstanding natural beauty, especially when watching the blue flame / Ijen BlueFire / Tourism bluefame phenomenal crater.

The crater has a depth of approximately 300 meters below kalderaKawah wall with an area of 20 sq km caldera surrounded by walls as high as 300-500 meters. Additionally, acids which exist in craters near zero with temperatures reaching 200 degrees Celsius, which means the water crater enough to melt even the clothes of the human body in a short time.

Underwater City: Unveiling The Secrets At The Bottom Of Fuxian Lake

A mystery lies scattered on the unexplored bottom of Fuxian Lake, stretching out through Chengjiang County, Jiangchuan County and Huaning County in Yunnan Province, about 60 kilometers to Kunming City, China. The lake is rising 1,720 meters above sea level and encompassing 212 square kilometers of land.

The deepest part of the lake descends 157 meters; the Fuxian Lake is the second deepest freshwater lake in China.

One day, Geng Wei, a specialized diver, accidentally found a strange phenomenon under the lake, in form of stone materials including flagstones and stone strips with thick moss above them, could be seen.

According to an ancient local legend, a city-like silhouette under the lake from the nearby mountains can be clearly seen on a fine, calm day. To find out if there is something hidden in the calm waters of the lake, a Chinese submarine archaeology team stationed in Fuxian Lake carried on surveys and with advanced use of detectors, discovered lots of blocks scattered on the lake bottom, stones that formed a wall seen on a sonar display along with various flagstones.

High stairs appeared in front of them and flagstones covered with moss seemed to reveal an ancient sunken city. The team members found the scope of the site under Fuxian Lake was extremely big, and the traces of construction were everywhere along with earthenware.

Could the underwater site be the ancient city of Yuyuan, which disappeared mysteriously many hundreds of years ago?

Was the site under the lake the city recorded in The Book of Han (Hanshu), a classic Chinese historical writing covering the history of the Western Han Dynasty, 206 BCE-9 CE, that once recorded that Yuyuan City was north of Fuxian Lake?

After several days of observation, sonar scans and analyses, experts estimated the scope of the area is between 2.4 square kilometers to 2.7 square kilometers, and the site was possibly from the Warring States (475-221 BC) to the Eastern Han Dynasty. However, in order to find a more exact time, they had to find a subject that could be used for carbon 14 testing.

Additionally as reported, eight main buildings were found all under the water, including a round, colosseum-like building with a 37 meter wide base and a gap to the northeast and two large high buildings with floors, similar to the Mayan pyramids.
One of the large, high buildings has three floors, a 60 meter wide base and lots of small steps linking the floors. Another is even larger, with a 63 meter wide base standing five floors (totally 21 meters high).
A 300 meter long and 5 to 7 meter wide rock road connects the two buildings.

Carbon-14 dating of some shells attached to blocks they were 1750 years old, which means the site sunk during the Han period. However in the Tang Dynasty, there were still records about Yuyuan City remaining on land.

Therefore, the lost city was not Yuyuan, but rather the ancient unidentified structure of the under-lake construction, could represent the remains of the ancient Dian Country – a country with a high level of civilization that after 86 BC – mysteriously disappeared.

Fuxian Lake is a very large body of water – is still unexplored, so various legends have prevailed for more than 1,000 years and unfortunately their credibility cannot be confirmed.

According to one story mentioned in “Cheng Jang Fu Zhi”, a book in the region of Emperor Daoguang, a horse-like animal lived in the lake. Its body was pure white with red spots on its back. Sometimes it rapidly flew out of the water.
Was this strange animal perhaps a vehicle which modern ufologists today call – uso (unidentified submerged object)?


We are a race with amnesia. There is so much out there forgotten, unfortunately. There were amazing civilizations here from every single cultural groupings. Humanity has a history untold as of yet.


** Synopsis: Some scientists have interpreted water-carved valleys on Mars formed within the last few billion years as a sign of either an active groundwater system or of transient warm periods in the atmosphere. But new research shows that snow and ice melted by hot impact ejecta could have produced enough water to carve those valleys with no groundwater or heat wave required. **

Present-day Mars is a frozen desert, colder and more arid than Antarctica, and scientists are fairly sure it’s been that way for at least the last 3 billion years. That makes a vast network of water-carved valleys on the flanks of an impact crater called Lyot – which formed somewhere between 1.5 billion and 3 billion years ago – something of a Martian mystery. It’s not clear where the water came from.

Now, a team of researchers from Brown University has offered what they see as the most plausible explanation for how the Lyot valley networks formed. They conclude that at the time of the Lyot impact, the region was likely covered by a thick layer of ice. The giant impact that formed the 225-kilometer crater blasted tons of blazing hot rock onto that ice layer, melting enough of it to carve the shallow valleys.

“Based on the likely location of ice deposits during this period of Mars’ history, and the amount of meltwater that could have been produced by Lyot ejecta landing on an ice sheet, we think this is the most plausible scenario for the formation of these valleys” said David Weiss, a recent Ph.D. graduate from Brown and the study’s lead author.

Weiss co-authored the study, which is published in Geophysical Research Letters, with advisor and Brown planetary science professor Jim Head, along with fellow graduate students Ashley Palumbo and James Cassanelli.

There’s plenty of evidence that water once flowed on the Martian surface. Water-carved valley networks similar to those at Lyot have been found in several locations. There’s also evidence for ancient lake systems, like those at Gale Crater where NASA’s Curiosity rover is currently exploring and at Jezero Crater where the next rover may land.

Most of these water-related surface features, however, date back to very early in Mars’ history – the epochs known as the Noachian and the Hesperian, which ended about 4 billion and 3 billion years ago respectively. From about 3 billion years ago to the present, Mars has been in a bone-dry period called the Amazonian.

The valley networks at Lyot therefore are a rare example of more recent surface water activity. Scientists have dated the crater itself to the Amazonian, and the valley networks appear to have been formed around the same time or shortly after the impact. So the question is: Where did all that water come from during the arid Amazonian?

Scientists have posited a number of potential explanations, and the Brown researchers set out to investigate several of the major ones.

One of those potential explanations, for example, is that there might have been a vast reservoir of groundwater when the Lyot impact occurred. That water, liberated by impact, could have flowed onto the surface along the periphery of the crater and carved the valleys. But based on geological evidence, the researchers say, that scenario is unlikely.

“If these were formed by deep groundwater discharge, that water would have also flowed into the crater itself,” Weiss said. “We don’t see any evidence that there was water present inside the crater.”

The researchers also looked at the possibility of transient atmospheric effects following the Lyot impact. A collision of this size would have vaporized tons of rock, sending a plume of vapor into the air. As that hot plume interacted with the cold atmosphere, it could have produced rainfall that some scientists think might have carved the valleys.

But that, too, appears unlikely, the researchers concluded. Any rain related to the plume would have fallen after the rocky impact ejecta had been deposited outside the crater. So if rainwater carved the valleys, one would expect to see valleys cutting through the ejecta layer. But there are almost no valleys directly on the Lyot ejecta. Rather, Palumbo said, “The vast majority of the valleys seem to emerge from beneath the ejecta on its outer periphery, which casts serious doubt on the rainwater scenario.”

That left the researchers with the idea that meltwater, produced when hot ejecta interacted with an icy surface, carved the Lyot valleys.

According to models of Mars’ climate history, ice now trapped mainly at the planet’s poles often migrated into the mid-latitude regions where Lyot is located. And there’s evidence to suggest that an ice sheet was indeed present in the region at the time of the impact.

Some of that evidence comes from the scarcity of secondary craters at Lyot. Secondary craters form when big chunks of rock blasted into the air during a large impact fall back to the surface, leaving a smattering of small craters surrounding the main crater. At Lyot, there far fewer secondary craters than one would expect, the researchers say. The reason for that, they suggest, is that instead of landing directly on the surface, ejecta from Lyot landed on a thick layer of ice, which prevented it from gouging the surface beneath the ice. Based on the terrain on the northern side of Lyot, the team estimates that the ice layer could have been anywhere from 20 to 300 meters thick.

The Lyot impact would have spat tons of rock onto that ice layer, some of which would have been heated to 250 degrees Fahrenheit or more. Using a thermal model of that process, the researchers estimate that the interaction between those hot rocks and a surface ice sheet would have produced thousands of cubic kilometers of meltwater – easily enough to carve the valley seen at Lyot.

“What this shows is a way to get large amounts of liquid water on Mars without the need for a warming of the atmosphere and any liquid groundwater,” Cassanelli said. “So we think this is a good explanation for how you get these channels forming in the Amazonian.”

And it’s possible, Head says, that this same mechanism could have been important before the Amazonian. Some scientists think that even in the early Noachian and Hesperian epochs, Mars was still quite cold and icy. If that was the case, then this meltwater mechanism might have also been responsible for at least some of the more ancient valley networks on Mars.

“It’s certainly a possibility worth investigating,” Head said.

IMAGE….Valley NetworksLyot Crater, rendered here with elevations exaggerated, is home to relatively recent water-carved valleys (white streaks). New research suggests the water came from melting snow and ice present at the time of the crater-forming impact.David Weiss/NASA/Brown University

Water on Mars!

Did you hear? New findings from our Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provide the strongest evidence yet that liquid water flows intermittently on present-day Mars.

Using an imaging spectrometer on MRO, we found hydrated minerals on slopes where mysterious streaks are seen on Mars. One thing that researchers noticed was that the darkish streaks appear to ebb and flow over time. During warm seasons, they darken and then fade in cooler seasons.

When discovered in 2010, these downhill flows known as recurring slope lineae (RSL) were thought to be related to liquid water. With the recent spectral detection of molecular water, we’re able to say it’s likely a shallow subsurface flow explains the darkening.

Mars is so cold, how could liquid water flow there? Great question! Since this liquid water is briny, the freezing point would be lower than that of pure water. Also, these saline slopes appear on Mars when temperatures are above minus 10 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 23 Celsius).

The dark, narrow streaks flowing downhill in the below image are roughly the length of a football field.

So there’s water, but how much? Currently we think this area has a very small amount of water, probably just enough to wet the top layer of the surface of Mars. The streaks are around four to five meters wide and 200 to 300 meters long.

Could humans drink this water? The salts in the water appear to be perchlorates, so you probably wouldn’t want to drink the water. It would most likely be very salty and would need to be purified before human consumption.

Perchlorate…What is that? A perchlorate is a salt that absorbs water from the air. Learn more about how it’s helping us unlock the mysteries of Mars in this video:

What’s next? We want to look for more locations where brine flows may occur. We have only covered 3% of Mars at resolutions high enough to see these features.

For more information on the Mars announcement, visit our Journey to Mars landing page. There is also a full recap of the press conference HERE, and a short recap below.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

Requested by @theimaginatorifunny and anonymously

There’s a special place in my heart for Blaziken, the first pokémon I ever received when I started playing my first pokemon game (Look at me now, Professor Birch). Blaziken was the original fire-fighting type starter before it was cool, and with its strong legs, fierce kicks, and recent Mega-evolution it is quite the force to be reckoned with.

According to the pokédex, Blaziken can jump over a 30-story building in one leap. 30 stories is roughly 90 meters, or 300 feet. This is nearly 50 times Blaziken’s own height. The world record high-jump held by a human is a 2.45 meters (8 feet). There must be something going on here other than a simple jump. So what makes Blaziken such a high flier?

We’re going to start small, by looking at a creature with a maximum jump height of 18 cm (7 inches). At first this would seem pathetic, until you realize this creature is flea, who is barely 3mm tall themselves. Fleas can jump 100 times their own height.

Jumping this height takes a lot of energy, and a lot of push. Part of their magic lies in a special pad in their legs, made of a springy protein called resilin. This leg-pad stores energy during their jump. While the flea is bending it’s legs and starting a jump, the energy isn’t going directly into pushing the flea off of the ground. Instead, the energy is being stored in the leg-pads, “charging up” to be released all at once, kicking it high and fast upwards. Some studies report this sudden acceleration to be over 400 times the acceleration of gravity.

The rest of the question, then, is how they get that energy into the resilin. The answer is the flea’s knees, and if you thought bee’s knees were cool, fleas have “multi-jointed” hind legs. It can push with its toe, its shin, and its knees, which together act as a lever to store all of that energy into the resilin pads. It was shown that a flea’s lower leg, the toe and shin, are covered in tiny claws used for gripping the ground. In other words, while jumping, the flea actually holds onto the ground as tightly as it can, which allows it to store up enough energy to jump to great heights.

Blaziken is a bit larger than a flea, but the idea is still the same. In order to jump a 30-story building, Blaziken’s legs must be able to store up a large amount of energy before sudden release – 45,864 Joules (11 Calories) of energy to be exact, if Blaziken wants to jump 30 stories high (assuming perfect efficiency). This is basically the energy you spend from running or weight-training for a minute nonstop, only Blaziken does it in seconds. It can only get that much energy by gripping onto the ground tightly before its launch.

Blaziken’s legs must contain spring-like tendons made of resilin, which stores up energy before a jump. Blaziken grips tightly to the ground when pushing off of it, and while doing so “charges up” the resilin pads, releasing the energy all at once when Blaziken jumps.


Preikestolen | Norway

Hey folks, its been a while.

So we’re currently galavanting around Norway and Sweden, and loving it. As a result of our lack of a credit card, we were not able to hire a vehicle and have consequently journeyed by public transport  - don’t get me started on the ridiculous notion that in a day and age in which debt is rampant and problematic, we are penalised for not having a credit card despite having an ample nest egg. Shame on you rental car companies, shame, on, you. That said, It has been nice to have shirked  the responsibility of driving for this particular exploit.

Our first main destination on this trip was Preikestolen, Forsand, Norway, or in English terms ‘Pulpit Rock’. We stayed in the small town - Jørpeland which is around 10 km from the starting point of the hike to Preikestolen. As our visit fell just short of the tourist season there were no buses running to the beginning of the trail, consequently, in the interest of economy (we’re massive tight arses) we decided upon walking this leg of the trip rather than pay for a cab ride. To our elation, after legging it a mere 300 meters or so, our airbnb host, who happened to be passing by in his van, kindly and somewhat randomly offered to drive us to the hikes outset, an offer we gladly accepted.

As previously mentioned, we were a bit early for the hike to Preikestolen, the upside to this was that we avoided the hoards of tourists than inundate this attraction in the warmer months, the downside was that the trail was quite icy and snow covered in the higher sections - that said, we managed to make it to the top with no ailment worse that dirty knees and wet feet.

The entire trail is skirted by awe-striking views, which are all the more appreciated whilst pausing to catch your breath. Some sections of the trail are breathtaking in a more literal sense.

Thankfully, once we reached the summit, we were able to enjoy a few moments of solitude before others arrived. This is not a view you want to share with strangers.

I feel a special kind of sadness when I visit a place like this, a sadness induced by the prospect that I may never get to visit said place ever again. This feeling has become the measure by which I gauge a places personal significance.

If we could offer any advise pertaining to this particular venture, it would be to endeavour to visit in the off-peak season. Even if it means braving snow/ice covered trails and investing in suitable gear to make the hike safely.

Have you ever visited Preikestolen? If so we’d love to hear about it via the ‘Ask us anything’ tab.

dimittetur replied to your post: ugh drown me in angel lore and sibling threads and…

angel true form concepts as like.. abstract imagery is possibly my fave thing to come from this fandom in all the years ive been in it

s a m e 
like i don’t want any of that pretty boy true form crap 
give me those 300 meter tall terrifying cosmic ancient celestial monsters with burning halos and six giant wings and multiple heads and limbs who sing with the most hauntingly eerie voice
i also love the idea of true forms being vastly different from each other 
i always liked to think that cas has thousands of eyes on his true form wings since he’s an observer ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ i love speculating 

…if you have an AK47:

-It works though you have never cleaned it. Ever.
-You are able to hit the broad side of a barn
-Cheap mags are fun to buy.
-Your safety can be heard from 300 meters away.
-Your rifle comes with a cheap nylon sling
-Your bayonet makes a good wire cutter.
-You can put a .30" hole through 12" of oak, if you can hit it.
-When out of ammo your rifle will nominally pass as a club.
-Recoil is manageable, even fun.
-Your sight adjustment goes to “10”, and you’ve never bothered moving it.
-Your rifle can be used by any two bit nation’s most illiterate conscripts to fight elite forces worldwide.
-You paid $350.
-You buy cheap ammo by the case.
-You can intimidate your foe with the bayonet mounted.
-Service life, 50 years.
-It’s easier to buy a new rifle when you want to change cartridge sizes.
-You can repair your rifle with a big hammer and a swift kick.
-You consider it a badge of honor when you get your handguards to burst into flames.
-After a long day the range you relax by watching “Red Dawn”.
-After cleaning your rifle you have a strong urge for a stiff shot of Vodka.
-You can accessorize you rifle with a new muzzle brake or a nice stock set.
-Your rifle’s finish is varnish and paint.
-Your wife tolerates your autographed framed picture of Mikhail Kalashnikov.
-Late at night you sometimes have to fight the urge to hold your rifle over your head and shout “Wolverines!”

…if you have an M16:

-You have $9 per ounce special non-detergent synthetic Teflon infused oil for cleaning.
-You are able to hit the broad side of a barn from 600 meters
-Cheap mags melt.
-You can silently flip off the safety with your finger on the trigger
-Your rifle has a 9 point stealth tactical suspension system.
-Your bayonet is actually a pretty good steak knife.
-You can put one hole in a paper target at 100 meters with 30 rounds.
-When out of ammo, your rifle makes a great wiffle bat.
-What’s recoil?
-Your sight adjustment is incremented in fractions of minute of angle.
-Your rifle is used by elite forces worldwide to fight two bit nations’ most illiterate conscripts.
-You paid $900.
-You lovingly reload precision crafted rounds one by one.
-Your foes laugh when you mount your bayonet.
-Service life, 40 years.
-You can change cartridge sizes with the push of a couple of pins and a new upper.
-You can repair your rifle by taking it to a certified gunsmith, it’s under warranty!
-You consider it a badge of honor when you shoot a sub-MOA 5 shot group.
- After a long day at the range you relax by watching “Blackhawk Down”.
-After cleaning your rifle you have a strong urge for hotdogs and apple pie.
-Your rifle’s accessories cost eight times as much as your rifle.
-Your rifle’s finish is Teflon and high tech polymers.
-Your wife tolerates your autographed framed picture of Eugene Stoner.
-Late at night you sometimes have to fight the urge to clear your house, slicing the pie from room to room.

…if you have a Mosin Nagant:

-It was last cleaned in Berlin in 1945.
-You are able to hit the broad side of a barn…from two counties away.
-What’s a mag?
-What’s a safety?
-Your rifle has dog collars.
-Your bayonet is longer than your leg.
-You can knock down everyone else’s target with the shock wave of your bullet going downrange.
-When out of ammo, your rifle makes a supreme war club, pike, boat oar, or tent pole
-Recoil is often used to relocate shoulders thrown out by the previous shot.
-Your sight adjustment goes to 12 miles and you’ve actually tried it.
-Your rifle has fought against itself and won every time.
-You paid $59.95.
-You dig your ammo out of a farmer’s field in Ukraine and it works just fine.
-You can bayonet your foe on the other side of the river without leaving the comfort of your fighting hole.
-Service life, 100 years, and counting.
-You believe no real man would dare risk the ridicule of his friends by suggesting there is anything but 7.62x54r.
-If your rifle breaks, you buy a new one.
-You consider it a badge of honor when you cycle 5 rounds without the aid of a 2x4.
-After a long day at the range you relax by watching “Enemy At The Gates”.
-After cleaning your rifle you have a strong urge for shishkabob.
-Your rifle’s accessory is a small tin can with a funny lid, but it’s buried under an apartment building somewhere in Budapest.
-Your rifle’s finish is low grade shellac, cosmoline and Olga’s toe nail polish.
-You’re not sure there WERE cameras to photograph Sergei Mosin.
-Late at night, you sometimes have to fight the urge to dig a fighting trench in the the yard to sleep in.

—  AK47 vs M16 vs Mosin Nagant