3 billion years!

2

Avatar the Last Airbender AU for anonymous in which Seb is a firebender and Jim is a bloodbender (I think someone suggested that to me but I can’t remember who!!)

Bio professors are weird

So this year I had my first Bio course in college. I had anticipated interesting statements, but I waited to post them until the last day of class, which was today.

Here is the best of out of context quotes from my biology course:

- Next time you get surgery go to a surgeon who will do it outside because hospitals are a DEATHTRAP

- Male ducks just have to look pretty, it’s their job

- Those two groups aren’t going to be swapping gametes, are they?

- Not all insects are bugs!

- I don’t know your name so it’s not going to help your test score

- Jellyfish aren’t good at making fossils.  They die and in 10 seconds they’re like snot.

- All the genes to make a T. Rex are in a turkey.

- You could probably make a Terror Bird out of an ostrich.

- Years in Earth’s history is like dollars to the American government.

- If you were walking around on the surface of the planet back then, you would be dead.

- If you just pretend you’re not breathing oxygen you can pretend you’re on Earth about 3 billion years ago.

- It has -zoic in it because the people making this up just HAPPEN to be zoic.

- By the end of the Cambrian it’s a party!  You’ve got forests, giant centipedes, lizards…

- They’re multicellular but they don’t have any fancy bits

- You’d feel pretty good walking around in the Cambrian.  At least until something comes and tries to eat you.  Probably wouldn’t feel good after that.

- Mammals show up but they’re these pathetic little egg laying things

- Sauropods are walking around, and they keep changing their names, which is frustrating

- YOU SHALL NOT PASS! *strikes the ground with a tree branch*

- Some volcanos are more oozey and some are more explosive.

- It’s hard to fossilize snot

- I’M A LIZARD!  I’m not a lizard, but if I was-

- Am I gonna die in a swamp or a marsh?

- When Motorola first came out with the Razor -  man, that was such a cool flip phone…

- You’ve gone so deep you’re in Hell or something.  I don’t know.

- You’ve done that to poor, defenseless cats before.  Because it’s fun.

- Three years of this slide and I was clueless as to why people were laughing

- … and if you don’t know what I’m talking about good for you.

- Let’s talk about fly sex!

- Now I’m not an expert on fly sex, but–

- I dunno what’s with science books and sexual behavior but they like that!  Now let’s look at rats!

- Next time you have calamari just remember you’re eating seafood with an I.Q.!

- Plants don’t move they prefer to put down roots.  *silence*  I thought that would be funnier.

- Don’t let anyone tell you that you’ll never amount to anything because you’re single handedly increasing the entropy of the universe.

- When I was a grad student I figured out what the metal in a human was worth on the market and it was about $1.87.  Probably around $5 now.

- You don’t want to take a long nap on the wet forest floor you might wake up recycled.

- Something happened, it was explained, I don’t remember.

- If it’s GREEN, YELLOW, or RED, it’s gotten more acidic! *while pointing at a map of the ocean that is entirely green, yellow, and red*

- If I put you on a NASA rocket sled and accellerated you to 300 mph in 3 seconds you’d be DEAD but while you were dying you’d be saying ‘oh but I’ve been faster on an airplane’

- Maybe we should introduce mutagens to increase our rate of evolution.  Like alcohol.  Or at least that will just make you forget.

The rise of consciousness

by Samsaran

This may be the most profound and fundamental truth I have ever posted. All other truths flow from it. It is phrased in metaphysical terms but it could just as easily be expressed in mathematics:

The universe came into being so the One could know itself and consciousness, not matter, not energy is its substance.

This, of course, is not my wisdom.  It is a universal truth which has been glimpsed many times by science, mathematics, philosophy, and religion.  It is the product of 3.8 billion years of evolution and countless trillions of lives struggling ever upward toward self-awareness. Knowing this … understanding this … places you at the pinnacle of existence.  There are seven billion people on this planet. How many have even thought about such things?  Most lives are spent striving, seeking and grasping but as the Buddha said: “there will be some that understand”.

No star knows it is a star any more than the stones in my garden know that they are stones. We are the mirror by which the universe, the One, views itself. How many lives were necessary from an evolutionary perspective before the first creature looked at a sunrise and saw beauty? No lizard, fish or bird looks at starlit night and wonders. You are the universe become self-aware.

Consciousness, like the lotus, grew upward out of the murk and darkness to blossom in the sunlight of the soul … our soul.

anonymous asked:

What's all the discourse with Wonder Woman? It's just suddenly popped out of nowhere and so I just wanted to know more about it.

Absolutely! I’ll post what I know, since this is has come to my attention recently as well.

During the invasion of Gaza in 2014, Gal Gadot showed her support for the IDF (Israel Defense Forces, which she was formerly enlisted in) on Facebook. A lot of people were disappointed she was cast as such a huge feminist icon, since the IDF routinely and brutally kills Palestinian women and children. The IDF also bombed Lebanon in 2006 (and most Lebanese killed were civilians), and the US provides the Israel military with foreign aid of at least $3 billion a year (because the US wants an aggressive ally to help control the Middle East). Israel has been condemned worldwide for war crimes against Palestine.

My previous post about Gadot being in and supporting the IDF

Another of my posts on why Lebanon banned Wonder Woman (again because of the IDF dropping bombs on them in 2006, not because she’s Jewish)

Gadot has also spoken highly of former Israel President Shimon Peres, who was responsible for horrible atrocities such as the bombing of a 1996 UN refugee camp in Lebanon, where 106 civilians (half of them children) were killed (x) (x)

“Here’s why Gal Gadot shouldn’t be considered a person of color” - by journalist and artist S.I. Rosenbaum (I included this link because people on Tumblr are lauding Gal Gadot as a lead actress of color, and other Ashkenazim Jewish people are pushing back against that, saying they aren’t “white,” but they aren’t people of color either, and actually fit outside that dichotomy)

More info about the Israel/Palestine apartheid state:

Best of the Left Podcast episode - The continuing quagmire of an apartheid state (Israel/Palestine)

Jewish Voice for Peace - Israel Palestine Conflict 101

anonymous asked:

luke in #18?

took me SO MUCH self control to not make this a whole thing because this colour palette was fun to work with!!! (but i didnt because i didnt wanna make u wait for 3 billion years since this was supposed to be a quick thing because thats how palette challenges are) sorry that the lightsaber colour is inaccurate but I couldn’t use green since it wasn’t a part of the palette!! thank u for requesting i hope u like it!!

Ya know what time isn’t even fucking real. Time is a manmade concept. God created this universe in 7 days and no one even knows how long gods 7 days are like 1 days could be 1 million years. And evolution??? How do we know the earth was formed 4.6 billion years ago???? How do we know the first bacteria arrived 3.8 billion years ago??? how do we even know about the Permian Triassic extinction??? How do we even know earth was a primordial soup??? HOW?? WHO DECIDED ALL THESE THINGS??

3

Post-College Daze Rhys and Jack :3c

(College AU)

Annnd 3 billion years later… I finally finish the second page. This project is worth the time, though, and I’m determined to keep going no matter how long it takes. And how often things stop me from working on it.

…HAH I came through on my promise to post art by the end of the week! That feels good.

Edit: Tumblr kills the photo quality as usual, so please expand the image to see it better c:

The nine-member council unanimously approved an ordinance to end its nearly two-decade relationship with its primary financial services provider, Wells Fargo, which is an investor in the pipeline and the company building it, Energy Transfer Partners of Texas. The bank handles about $3 billion a year for the city.

Yet questions over how effective such a move might be rose even before the hearing began, when the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, following instructions from President Trump, informed Congress earlier Tuesday that it planned to issue the final easement for the pipeline as soon as Wednesday.

The $3.8 billion, 1,170-mile pipeline would travel from North Dakota to Illinois, with the most controversial segment running beneath a dammed section of the Missouri River just north of the reservation of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe. The tribe, which says the pipeline threatens its water supply and sacred sites, said Tuesday it would continue to fight the project’s completion.

Hundreds of protesters remain in snowy camps near the planned river crossing in North Dakota — a fact noted by many people in the far more comfortable City Council chambers.

“It really moves me to think of the people who are hundreds of miles away from us today, waiting in the cold for our vote,” Lisa Herbold, a council member, said shortly before the vote.

Seattle, which is thriving on science and technology a thousand miles west of the pipeline’s route, would not seem to suffer obvious impacts if the pipeline were completed. But the city is deeply liberal, environmentally minded and riding a wave of activism that has put it at the forefront of social and economic causes — most recently as the location where state lawyers persuaded a federal judge, appointed by George W. Bush, to order a stay of President Trump’s travel ban.

The area also has a large Native American community that has actively opposed the pipeline, and one member of the council, Debora Juarez, is an enrolled member of the Blackfeet Nation tribe in Montana. Another council member, Kshama Sawant, is a socialist.

Read more: http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-seattle-divests-from-wells-fargo-20170206-story.html

Future, Meet Past

Day One fic for the Empty Child/Doctor Dances anniversary celebration! By Clare Hope, aka Admin Ianto at We-Are-Torchwood


“Ughhhhhh.”

That sounded like Owen. Why was Owen groaning? Wasn’t it night? Night was usually when Gwen was asleep.

“Owen? Gwen? Are you there?”

And that was Ianto. What was going on? Gwen sat up and rubbed her eyes.

“Gwen, you’re awake. Look, we’re in this room. I can’t find any doors or weaknesses in the walls,” Ianto said. The only light was coming from a small torch that he was carrying. “You and Owen have been out for about 20 minutes.”

“Where are we? How did we get here?” Gwen groaned.

“Well, we were investigating Rift activity, so I’m guessing the Rift brought us here.” Ianto tapped the wall. “It seems to be some sort of high-strength metal alloy.”

Gwen crawled over to Owen and shook him roughly. “Wake up. We’re trapped.”

“Great. You know, I think I’m gonna stay asleep,” he mumbled.

“What’s that noise?” Ianto said suddenly.

Gwen knew that noise. So did Ianto, though he would prefer not to remember it. It was the whirring, wheezing sound of one space-time ship that had once whisked Jack away from them for three months. Their best guess as to the occupant of the ship was whoever Jack’s “doctor” that he kept referring to was, but they didn’t know for sure.

“What the hell is going on?” Owen snapped.

There was a thud, and another, higher pitched whirring. Part of the wall swung inwards, almost hitting Ianto in the face. “Hey!” he cried.

Keep reading

The Watery Past of Mars

A new study led by Northern Illinois University geography professor Wei Luo calculates the amount of water needed to carve the ancient network of valleys on Mars and concludes the Red Planet’s surface was once much more watery than previously thought.

The study bolsters the idea that Mars once had a warmer climate and active hydrologic cycle, with water evaporating from an ancient ocean, returning to the surface as rainfall and eroding the planet’s extensive network of valleys.

Keep reading

Add GW170104 to the chart of black holes with known mass. The extremely energetic merger of two smaller black holes corresponds to the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory’s (LIGO) third detection of gravitational waves. The newfound black hole has a mass about 49 times that of the Sun, filling a gap between the masses of the two merged black holes detected previously by LIGO, with solar masses of 62 (GW150914) and 21 (GW151226). In all three cases, the signal in each of the twin LIGO detectors was unambiguously identified as coming from black hole mergers while a fourth case (LVT151012) resulted in a lower confidence detection. GW170104 is estimated to be some 3 billion light-years away, more distant than present estimates for GW150914 and GW151226. The ripples in spacetime were discovered during LIGO’s current observing run, which began November 30, 2016 and will continue through the summer. 

Illustration Credit: LIGO, NSF, Aurore Simonnet (Sonoma State U.)

LIGO detects gravitational waves for third time

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) has made a third detection of gravitational waves, ripples in space and time, demonstrating that a new window in astronomy has been firmly opened. As was the case with the first two detections, the waves were generated when two black holes collided to form a larger black hole.

The newfound black hole, formed by the merger, has a mass about 49 times that of our sun. This fills in a gap between the masses of the two merged black holes detected previously by LIGO, with solar masses of 62 (first detection) and 21 (second detection).

Keep reading

youtube

Keyhole Surgery Not Recommended for Degenerative Knee Disease:

“Keyhole” arthroscopic surgery should rarely be used to repair arthritic knee joints, a panel of international experts say in new clinical guidelines.

Clinical trials have shown that keyhole surgery doesn’t help people suffering from arthritis of the knees any more than mild painkillers, physical therapy or weight loss.

Keyhole surgery is one of the most common surgical procedures in the world, with more than 2 million performed each year. The United States alone spends about $3 billion a year on the procedure.

The new guidelines – published online in the BMJ – were issued as part of the journal’s initiative to provide up-to-date recommendations based on the latest evidence. The guidelines make a strong recommendation against arthroscopy for nearly all cases of degenerative knee disease. This includes osteoarthritis as well as tears of the meniscus. However, arthroscopic surgery still can help people with joint movement problems caused by meniscus tears who have not developed moderate or severe knee osteoarthritis.

HOT ROCKS, NOT WARM ATMOSPHERE, LED TO
RELATIVELY RECENT WATER-CARVED VALLEYS ON MARS

** Synopsis: Some scientists have interpreted water-carved valleys on Mars formed within the last few billion years as a sign of either an active groundwater system or of transient warm periods in the atmosphere. But new research shows that snow and ice melted by hot impact ejecta could have produced enough water to carve those valleys with no groundwater or heat wave required. **

Present-day Mars is a frozen desert, colder and more arid than Antarctica, and scientists are fairly sure it’s been that way for at least the last 3 billion years. That makes a vast network of water-carved valleys on the flanks of an impact crater called Lyot – which formed somewhere between 1.5 billion and 3 billion years ago – something of a Martian mystery. It’s not clear where the water came from.

Now, a team of researchers from Brown University has offered what they see as the most plausible explanation for how the Lyot valley networks formed. They conclude that at the time of the Lyot impact, the region was likely covered by a thick layer of ice. The giant impact that formed the 225-kilometer crater blasted tons of blazing hot rock onto that ice layer, melting enough of it to carve the shallow valleys.

“Based on the likely location of ice deposits during this period of Mars’ history, and the amount of meltwater that could have been produced by Lyot ejecta landing on an ice sheet, we think this is the most plausible scenario for the formation of these valleys” said David Weiss, a recent Ph.D. graduate from Brown and the study’s lead author.

Weiss co-authored the study, which is published in Geophysical Research Letters, with advisor and Brown planetary science professor Jim Head, along with fellow graduate students Ashley Palumbo and James Cassanelli.

There’s plenty of evidence that water once flowed on the Martian surface. Water-carved valley networks similar to those at Lyot have been found in several locations. There’s also evidence for ancient lake systems, like those at Gale Crater where NASA’s Curiosity rover is currently exploring and at Jezero Crater where the next rover may land.

Most of these water-related surface features, however, date back to very early in Mars’ history – the epochs known as the Noachian and the Hesperian, which ended about 4 billion and 3 billion years ago respectively. From about 3 billion years ago to the present, Mars has been in a bone-dry period called the Amazonian.

The valley networks at Lyot therefore are a rare example of more recent surface water activity. Scientists have dated the crater itself to the Amazonian, and the valley networks appear to have been formed around the same time or shortly after the impact. So the question is: Where did all that water come from during the arid Amazonian?

Scientists have posited a number of potential explanations, and the Brown researchers set out to investigate several of the major ones.

One of those potential explanations, for example, is that there might have been a vast reservoir of groundwater when the Lyot impact occurred. That water, liberated by impact, could have flowed onto the surface along the periphery of the crater and carved the valleys. But based on geological evidence, the researchers say, that scenario is unlikely.

“If these were formed by deep groundwater discharge, that water would have also flowed into the crater itself,” Weiss said. “We don’t see any evidence that there was water present inside the crater.”

The researchers also looked at the possibility of transient atmospheric effects following the Lyot impact. A collision of this size would have vaporized tons of rock, sending a plume of vapor into the air. As that hot plume interacted with the cold atmosphere, it could have produced rainfall that some scientists think might have carved the valleys.

But that, too, appears unlikely, the researchers concluded. Any rain related to the plume would have fallen after the rocky impact ejecta had been deposited outside the crater. So if rainwater carved the valleys, one would expect to see valleys cutting through the ejecta layer. But there are almost no valleys directly on the Lyot ejecta. Rather, Palumbo said, “The vast majority of the valleys seem to emerge from beneath the ejecta on its outer periphery, which casts serious doubt on the rainwater scenario.”

That left the researchers with the idea that meltwater, produced when hot ejecta interacted with an icy surface, carved the Lyot valleys.

According to models of Mars’ climate history, ice now trapped mainly at the planet’s poles often migrated into the mid-latitude regions where Lyot is located. And there’s evidence to suggest that an ice sheet was indeed present in the region at the time of the impact.

Some of that evidence comes from the scarcity of secondary craters at Lyot. Secondary craters form when big chunks of rock blasted into the air during a large impact fall back to the surface, leaving a smattering of small craters surrounding the main crater. At Lyot, there far fewer secondary craters than one would expect, the researchers say. The reason for that, they suggest, is that instead of landing directly on the surface, ejecta from Lyot landed on a thick layer of ice, which prevented it from gouging the surface beneath the ice. Based on the terrain on the northern side of Lyot, the team estimates that the ice layer could have been anywhere from 20 to 300 meters thick.

The Lyot impact would have spat tons of rock onto that ice layer, some of which would have been heated to 250 degrees Fahrenheit or more. Using a thermal model of that process, the researchers estimate that the interaction between those hot rocks and a surface ice sheet would have produced thousands of cubic kilometers of meltwater – easily enough to carve the valley seen at Lyot.

“What this shows is a way to get large amounts of liquid water on Mars without the need for a warming of the atmosphere and any liquid groundwater,” Cassanelli said. “So we think this is a good explanation for how you get these channels forming in the Amazonian.”

And it’s possible, Head says, that this same mechanism could have been important before the Amazonian. Some scientists think that even in the early Noachian and Hesperian epochs, Mars was still quite cold and icy. If that was the case, then this meltwater mechanism might have also been responsible for at least some of the more ancient valley networks on Mars.

“It’s certainly a possibility worth investigating,” Head said.

IMAGE….Valley NetworksLyot Crater, rendered here with elevations exaggerated, is home to relatively recent water-carved valleys (white streaks). New research suggests the water came from melting snow and ice present at the time of the crater-forming impact.David Weiss/NASA/Brown University

Am i capable of taking a wounded 3 billion dollar a year company and steering it back to the cutting edge of its industry? No comment.

Would i have liked to be asked? No official comment.

ERAS OF THE EARTH

It wasn’t long ago that our Earth was thought to be only a few thousand years old and having been created in a matter of days. However during the scientific revolution that was taking place in the 18th and 19th centuries, minds like Darwin, Hutton and Lyell were challenging these age old theories. It was Charles Lyell that pioneered the theory that the forces of physics have remained the same throughout history, James Hutton also expressed that we can interpret the ancient past by studying modern day natural processes because the past and present are governed by the same laws. His findings reported that layers of sediment accumulated at around 2cm per year, he deduced that since mountains are sedimentary formations and thousands of metres high that the planet is more than a few thousand years old, but hundreds of millions. 

Our Earth is actually 4600 million years old, this staggeringly long time is almost impossible for the human mind to comprehend. As far as we know, life emerged as single celled organisms around 3800 million years ago, for the next 3 billion years it would remain as these minute unicellular organisms. This is the Precambrian, 4600 - 570 million years ago. 

To help us grasp the immense history of the Earth, a geological timescale was developed with each period marking a milestone in evolution and life.

CAMBRIAN 540 - 488 million years ago
Named after Cambria, an ancient name for Wales where rocks of this age are greatly exposed.
The Cambrian period sees explosive development of multicellular life with all the main modern phyla being established. Complex eyes and food chains evolve as well as active predation. Life is confined to the sea.

See Hallucigenia Opabinia Anomalocaris  

ORDOVICIAN 488 - 440 million years ago
Named for an ancient welsh tribe, the ordovices who lived in areas where rocks of this age are well exposed. Th oceans flourish with huge diversity of jawless fish, trilobites and gastropods and arthropods begin to dominate. The period ends with arthropods taking the first steps onto land. The end of the ordovician is marked by the first of the five major mass extinctions to hit the planet.

See Pterygotus Cameroceras 

SILURIAN 444 - 416 million years ago
Named for another welsh tribe, the silures, who inhabited areas where rocks of this age are abundant. Life in the oceans recovered from extinctions, magnificent coral reefs thrive in warm seas. Small plants begin to colonise the land and jawed fishes evolve.

DEVONIAN 416 - 359 million years ago
Named after the English county of Devon which is rich in Devonian age rocks and fossils. The Devonian period is also known as the age of the fishes. Jawed fish and placoderm fish rule the oceans, trilobites still thrive. Plants move from the coastal areas deep into land and the first forests spring up. Shark species increase in numbers and early forms of amphibian begin to spend more time on land.

See Dunkleosteus 

CARBONIFEROUS 359 - 299 million years ago
Known as the age of amphibians and named for the ancient coal deposits which were laid down during this time. The land is overrun with lush forests and swamps, The two main continents of the time, Eurasia and Gondwana are colliding to form the supercontinent Pangea. Winged insects take over the skies, oxygen content is much higher that today allowing insects to reach great sizes and the first true reptiles evolve, these are the first truly terrestrial vertebrates.

PERMIAN 299 - 251 million years ago
Named after Perm in Russia where rocks of the age are well exposed. Pangea is covered in harsh deserts, the number of species goes into decline, eventually 95% of them are wiped out in the worst mass extinction ever seen. Mammal like reptiles evolve. The first dinosaurs evolve towards the end of the Permian, they start as a few isolated groups and begin to increase rapidly in numbers.

See Scutosaurus Helicoprion Dimetrodon Gorgonops 

TRIASSIC 251 - 200 million years ago
Named after the word “Trias” referring to 3 rock divisions in Germany called bunter, muschelkalk and keuper. The climate of Pangea is warm and dry and dinosaurs have gradually assumed dominance in the land, skies and oceans. Mammals only exist as a few small species. Ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs reign in the sea and reach phenomenal size.

See Proterosuchus Tanystropheus 

JURASSIC 200 - 146 million years ago
Named for the Jura mountains. Dinosaurs still dominate the land and the oceans flourish with marine reptiles and ammonites. The first bird start to appear towards the end of the Jurassic.

See Liopleurodon Megalosaurus 

CRETACEOUS 146 - 65 million years ago
Named for the latin “creta” meaning chalk which is laid down during this period and found widely now. Dinosaurs continue to dominate, the first flowering plants evolve. Sea levels are up to 300m higher than today in some areas, much of the land is covered in shallow seas. Carbon dioxide concentrations rise, slowly choking the atmosphere. The end of the cretaceous is marked by the extinction of the dinosaurs due to possible meteor impact.

See Archelon Deinosuchus Ankylosaurus 

PALEOGENE 65 - 23 million years ago
The world begins to recover, mammals and birds begin to flourish and exploit the vacant niches left behind by the dinosaurs, in doing so they grow to incredible sizes. The climate is gradually cooling and will continue to do so bringing the earth into an ice age. In these cooler conditions the first grasses evolve.

See Gastornis Paraceratherium Entelodon Andrewsarchus Ambulocetus

NEOGENE 23 - 2.5 million years ago
The climate is still cooling, ice sheets begin to spread down from the poles, as a result sea levels slowly drop. The size of forests reduce and grasslands take over resulting in vast open planes. Mammals dominate the earth due to their ability to adapt to changing environments and harsh conditions. Towards the end of the period early hominids begin to appear.

See amphicyon Glyptodonts Megalodon

QUATERNARY 2.5 million years ago to present
With an enduring ice age much of the mammalian megafauna have become extinct. Hominids have continued to evolve, only the homo sapiens survive as they are able to adapt.

See Megatherium