Cisplatin [Pt(NH3)2Cl2] is an metal complex that is used as an antineoplastic agent (anti-cancer drug). It is one of the archetypal transition metal complexes, being well-known and having a long history.
Cisplatin was first synthesised in 1845 by Michele Peyrone, and was known as Peyrone’s salt. Its medicinal effects, however, were not known until the late 20th century, until it was discovered by chance.
In 1961, a physics professor by the name of Barnett Rosenberg at Michigan State University embarked on a project to investigate the effect of electromagnetic radiation on cells during mitotic division. To his surprise, the setup caused the E. coli to elongate instead (below right), without undergoing cell division.
Eventually, the suspicion fell on the platinum electrodes. They were indeed the culprit; in the presence of oxygen, it had produced cisplatin. The researchers then decided to test its effects on mammalian cells by injecting it into mice with tumours; the results are remarkable, as can be seen from the images below. The tumour of the mouse that was injected with cisplatin (2nd row) had completely regressed by day 8, while the mouse that was not (1st row) eventually died on day 21.
Currently, cisplatin is used to treat various, but not all, forms of cancer, such as breast, lung, testicular, and ovarian cancer. When administered, the Cl atoms are displaced by water molecules, which themselves are displaced by guanine or adenine molecules in DNA. Since two ligands can be displaced, cross-linking of DNA occurs, interfering with cellular division.
Interestingly, its geometric isomer, transplatin, does not have any medicinal effect; it is believed to be due to its rapid hydrolysis when administered, causing it to be unable to react with the DNA to cross-link it. Additionally, the inter-strand cross-linking it causes could be more easily repaired by DNA repair mechanisms than the intra-strand cross-linking that cisplatin causes.
Cisplatin is synthesised from potassium tetrachloroplatinate via multiple ligand exchange reactions with potassium iodide, followed by ammonia, silver nitrate, and potassium chloride respectively.
My life has been completely crazy in the last 2-3 months (both personally and professionally) and I was sure I can not make it to Scandal PaleyFest even though I kind of wanted to. I stopped watching Scandal after 508, and I am not planning to watch it ever again (unless they fire Shonda and all the cast extras), but I am still a strong Terry fan even though they both annoy me greatly at times
Last minute, everything kind of fell into place and I decided to jump on the plane and go (I bought the ticket a whiiiiiile back, just in case).
I had a great seat, 2nd row in the middle, and Tony/Kerry were sitting conveniently right in front of me :-)
I did not want to watch any recent episodes and was very happy when the presenter announced we are watching Sweet Baby aka the pilot. It was great to watch the “real” Scandal on big screen, not have Mellie or Joke or Papa Pope pollute the screen, and whoop and cheer at all things Olitz and Olivia Pope with fellow Gladiators.
The panel itself was shorter than the ones I attended before, but it still had its gems and things I will never forget. I am not great at taking pictures throughout the panel, so I don’t have any of Terry hand-holding, knee and back-rubbing or touches and kisses and stuff, but I am sure it is all well documented elsewhere.
I was once again floored by how much love and connection you can sense from Tony and Kerry (I honestly barely paid any attention to anyone else).
My favorite moment was Tony’s speech (of course!) and I also liked Kerry describing Harrison’s funeral scene. I felt it was genuine and touching, and Kerry became a pro at giving us some BS so it was great to hear her speak candidly.
After the panel ended, the mass stampede to the stage began (it is truly crazy how it happens). Since I was right in the middle, I was in front of Kerry and she thankfully didn’t veer left or right to sign and take photos, so I was able to catch her attention. We probably had a 3 second interaction where she said hi while looking at me (which felt incredible!), then she took my phone and asked twice at least if I am in a frame :-) She is SO nice and friendly and warm and GORGEOUS, I was not prepared for that, and I saw her before, just not that up close and personal.
Afterwards I tried to shuffle out of the crowd which was quite a workout and moved to the side of the stage where Tony was. He somehow noticed me too, so I have a selfie with him as well :-)
I also met some of the fellow Gladiators I know from before, so it was great to catch up with them! Even though Scandal is no more for me, I still appreciate the joy I get from interacting with the cast and meeting fans/friends I made though the show.
See how the upper and the lower leg curve and how they relate. Front and side view are male, the right one is female (1st & 2nd row). If you bend the leg, it helps to mark the direction of the cylinders (away or in your direction) with curved lines. When I do that, I get a better feeling of how the leg actually is placed in 3D space. The trousers show that you might not need all the muscles and details for your drawings – but to know how it works inside helps to find the correct shapes anyway.
Quick crappy sketch sorry for the bad quality. Again it’s crunch time so I don’t have time to spend on fan art for a little bit but I just felt like scribbling this idea out.
School AU- Saitama is a perpetually late and laid-back teacher, and Genos is the super-driven ace student who has a huge crush on him. Specifically, there’s this trope in anime/manga where a late character uses the famed shortcut hole through a wall on the way to school. Guess who finds Saitama-sensei on his 2nd day in a row being late? “Hey wait, I’d recognize that butt anywhere!” XD I really just wanted to draw Saitama in an embarrassing situation. Okay I need to go. SHAME.
(sorry if anyone of the owners wanted credit i left some names out.)
the 2nd row of pictures: some people believe that in this scene, it is both mike and eleven. they believe that they switch from mike to eleven and say that if you listen really closely, you’ll hear the sound of their surroundings change.
bottom right: they are talking about the pictures in the second row
So since I’ve gotten @dahm-sub into Michael Jackson, I want to share for her and for everyone some awesome, little known things about him.
1) Michael’s favorite store was the Salvation Army.
2) Michael personally paid for the funeral of a Chicago shooting victim
3) Michael’s daughter, Paris, is named so due to a bet he had with Kathy Hilton. “Whoever has a daughter first names her Paris.” Thus we have Paris Hilton and Paris Jackson.
4) Michael’s “second family” were the Cascios… here he is giving free advertising for their Italian restaurant.
3) In their book, “Defending a King,” Michael’s former bodyguards tell a heartwarming story of when he pulled into a vacant lot in a limousine and handed out handfuls of $100s to homeless people
4) Lisa Marie Presley (who was married to Michael in the early 90s) bragged to her friends that Michael was a freak in bed, and loved standing up, roleplay, and was even a screamer.
5) Related: the 45th President allegedly has a tape of them having sex in one of his hotels
6) Michael’s 2nd wife, Debbie Rowe, was a nurse in his dermatologist’s office, and knew him for several years before she agreed to have his kids. Despite the rumors, she publicly tweeted once that they naturally conceived their children.
7) It’s well-known to Michael’s close friends that he lost his virginity to Diana Ross in the early 80s
8) Michael’s late friend, former husband of Liza Minelli, David Gest, said he had to take care of Michael several times after he got really drunk and started throwing up everywhere
9) Michael was best friends with Ryan White, a boy famous for contracting AIDS and spearheading the movement in the 1980s. He dedicated the song and video “gone too soon” for him.
10) Corey Feldman was friends with Michael for many years and remains to be one of his biggest defenders. He publicly admitted to being sexually abused by a producer, and alleges that Hollywood is full of pedophiles, but that Michael never did anything to him.
11) Michael was also good friends with Emmanuel Lewis of Webster fame.
12) Michael was a Jehovah’s Witness for most of his life and still went door to door during the height of Thriller, although in disguise
13) Michael loved going out in disguise because he could fool just about anyone, including his own family… this is from his brother Jermaine’s book “you are not alone”
14) Michael’s taste in women included: French women, Black/Asian biracial women, women from the Middle East, and Japanese women. The biological mother of Blanket, his 2nd son, was a nurse who was part Italian, part Mexican.
15) Michael once asked Katie Couric on a date, but she turned him down because she was dating someone else at the time
16) MICHAEL LOVED BEYONCE
17) Michael’s favorite meal was fried chicken, mashed potatoes and gravy, and green beans, and this dish was served almost daily at the Neverland cafe
18) Michael obsessively chewed Bazooka Bubblegum, and was in fact buried with some.
19) Michael allegedly tried pot after Barry Gibbs told him it enhanced creativity
20) Michael loved reading about Eastern religion, and was good friends with Deepak Chopra
21) Michael did several commercials for Pepsi, but he never drank it. This photo is also from his brother’s book and was taken backstage at the 1984 Victory tour.
22) Although hotly debated in the fan community, here is Michael in a secret recording (called the Glenda tapes) in which he mentions to a close friend that he had anorexia
23) Michael also suffered from Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), which made it hard for him to heal after suffering third degree burns in 1984.
24) Michael sustained a severe back-sprain during a special concert in Munich in 1999, in which he fell 50 feet from a platform onstage. Despite being in horrible pain, he finished the concert before passing out and being rushed to the hospital.
25) Michael almost died from a stomach illness in 1995
26) Michael experienced an earthquake at his Neverland Rach in 1993, and called a friend panicking that it was the apocalypse
27) Michael is purported to have contacted medium Bonnie Vent after his death in 2009, and gave details which she verified with the help of Brooke Shields. (I’ve personally spoken to her, she’s legit)