28th dynasty

~ Receipt for a Grain Loan.
Culture: Aramaic
Medium: Papyrus, ink, mud
Date: December, 402 B.C.E.
Period: XXVIII Dynasty, Late Period

From the source: In the fifth century B.C.E., Egypt’s Elephantine Island was home to Egyptians, Persians, and Jews. This document comes from the archive of a Jewish family whose first language was Aramaic rather than Egyptian. It states that in December 402 B.C.E., Ananiah, son of Haggai, borrowed two monthly rations of grain from Pakhnum, son of Besa, an Aramaean with an Egyptian name. This receipt would have been kept by Pakhnum and returned to Ananiah when he repaid the loan. No interest is charged on the loan, but there is a penalty for failing to repay it on the appointed date.


Extremely Rare Gold Coin of the Pharaoh Nektanebo II: One of Few Examples of the Only Truly Egyptian Coin

This is a gold daric or stater from Egypt under the rule of Nectanebo II, struck circa 395-340 BC. It has the image of a prancing horse on the obverse. The reverse bears two hieroglyphs: a collar with six beads (nub = gold) and a heart and windpipe (nefer = good). Extremely rare, among the finest of few specimens known. A fascinating issue of great interest and about extremely fine/extremely fine. It sold at auction in 2009 for 120,810 USD.

Perhaps the most advanced of all ancient civilizations, Egypt, was among the most resistant to the use of coinage. The first indications of its use do not occur until late in Egyptian history, roughly the latter part of the 26th Dynasty (672-525 BC).

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Hieroglyphs were the formal writing system in Ancient Egypt. It combined logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood. The use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC, with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty (28th century BC). Egyptian hieroglyphs developed into a mature writing system used for monumental inscription in the classical language of the Middle Kingdom period; during this period, the system made use of about 900 distinct signs. The writing system continued to be used throughout the Late Period, as well as the Persian and Ptolemaic periods. Late survivals of hieroglyphic use are found well into the Roman period, extending into the 4th century AD.