Phineas Gage is one of the most famous patients in the history of neuroscience. He was 25 years old when he experienced a serious accident at his work place, where a tamping iron was shot through his head - entering under his eye socket at exiting through the top of his head - after an explosive charge went off. The tamping iron was over a metre long, and after exiting Gage’s head landed 25m away. 

Initially Gage collapsed and went into minor convlusions, but recovered quickly and was able to speak after a few minutes. He walked with little assistance to an ox-cart and was brought to a nearby physician. Initially the physician did not believe his story because he was in such good condition, but was convinced when: 

Mr. G. got up and vomited; the effort of vomiting pressed out about half a teacupful of the brain, which fell upon the floor.

Gage exhibited a number of dramatic behavioural changes following the accident. Harlow, the physician who initially treated Gage, described this change “He is fitful, irreverent, indulging at times in the grossest profanity (which was not pre­vi­ous­ly his custom), manifesting but little deference for his fellows, impatient of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his desires”. However the surgeon Henry Jacob Bigelow described his condition as improving over the course of recovery, stated he was “quite recovered in faculties of body and mind”. This may have been early evidence of neural plasticity. This recovery was also reported by a physician who knew Gage while he lived in Chile, who described his ability to hold on a full time job as a Concord coach driver, a job that required exceptional social skills.

Gage’s neurological deficits following his traumatic brain injury is thought to have been exaggerated and distorted over the course of history, to the point that he is often portrayed as a ‘psychopath’. Scientific analysis of the historical accounts of Gage’s life following his accident, namely by the psychologist Malcolm Macmillan, find that these distorted accounts are most likely untrue, and that Gage made a very good recovery.

Post-mortem analysis of the Gage case concluded that it was the left frontal lobe that was damaged in the accident, although further neurological damage may have resulted from infection. Combined examination of the Phineas Gage case with the other famous cases of Tan and H.M. have concluded that social behaviour, memory, and language are dependent on the co-ordination of a number of different brain areas rather than a single region.


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Trump University con settled for $25 million 10 days after successfully conning America.

**Actual photo of Donald Trump signing his settlement.

Donald Trump has settled three Trump University lawsuits for $25m (£20m), the New York Attorney General has said.

The US president-elect was being sued by former students who paid $35,000 (£28,000) for real estate “secrets” from his “hand-picked” instructors.

Mr Trump had repeatedly said he would not settle the class-action lawsuits.
Attorney General Eric Schneiderman said the settlement was a “stunning reversal” by Mr Trump and a “major victory” for victims.

The businessman faced three fraud lawsuits in California and New York.

(cont. BBC

I’m sure we’ll get a statement soon where Donald Trump says he won, because that’s what he’s been doing since 1973 when the Justice Department sued him for racial discrimination against Black prospective renters.

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Novus Angellite – [Blog: Quintlum] (sideblog to Ophrades)

Age: ???
Height: 7'4" (~2.25M)
Species: Celestial Being
Department: Green
Job: Gardener

Novus is a living star with an interest in the unique ins and outs of what he calls “Surface Worlds”.

He observes and integrates into societies of various planets.

REM seems to have gotten his attention.

So, I’ve made an anatomical study of everyone’s favourite giant hornless rhino.

Paraceratherium lived in Eurasia during the Oligocene epoch, and was one of the largest land mammals ever - its skull alone could reach 1.3m in length*. Exact size of Paraceratherium isn’t known due to lack of complete specimens, but it’s been estimated to be up to 7.4m long, 4.8 to 5.25m tall at the shoulder, and weight between 11 and 20 tonnes.

It was a browser, feeding on relatively soft plants.

I used modern rhinos’ and horses’ muscle systems for reference. And I’ve learned that there exist a shrink-wrapped reconstruction of Paraceraherium, with matchstick legs that in no way would be strong enough to carry animal of that size. Honestly, it’s the stuff of nightmares.

* for reference, I’m 1.58m tall. Sure, that’s not much, but it’s still pretty mind-boggling to think about something’s head only 28cm shorter than me.

Quick mockup of a tool handle I’m designing. Using the latest iPad Pro and Flashforge Printer, my work flow is incredibly efficient and this render and accompanying physical prototype took just under 1h to produce in its entirety:

Autodesk’s sculpt ~> file uploaded to 3D printer and KeyShot ~> KS render imported to Photoshop for lighting effects ~> render imported to lightroom for colour effects ~> render and 3D print ready

Total time from task start: 58m
Printing time: 40m
Render time: 17m
Photo editing time: 25m
CAD modelling time: 15m