Forbidden Fruit (Le Fruit Défendu) by Auguste Toulmouche, 1865, illustrating how young women have always rebelled against having their access to knowledge policed.
Nineteenth-century French and British families kept a close eye on the literature allowed to pass into the hands of unmarried girls (married women were not automatically exempt, either). While Toulmouche’s painting garnered great acclaim for its aesthetic charms when it was exhibited at the Salon of 1865, a contemporary male art critic’s sour aside summed up the prevailing attitude to independent female minds:
“I do not approve of these silly girls; instead of searching forbidden pages for the knowledge that they lack, they would do better to leave tomorrow’s lover the pleasure of instructing them in the matters of which they are ignorant.”
Paul Mantz quoted in Women Readers in French Painting 1870-1890
by Kathryn J. Brown.
“The term ‘Pre-Raphaelite’ conjures up visions of tall, willowy creatures with pale skin, flowing locks, scarlet lips, and melancholic expressions.”
“Bare chest on full display in unbuttoned silk blouses, razor-blade hip bones peeking out from low-slung, impossibly tight blue jeans, and wild, Pre-Raphaelite blond curls cascading down his back—his onstage look was as disruptive as his heavy-metal falsetto.”
Chinese hair ornament, thought to have been worn by the Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908). Made from gilded copper alloy worked into phoenix-shapes, decorated with pearls, other gemstones, and kingfisher feathers. Now in the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore. Photo credit: Walters Art Museum.