1994!rivaille

RUSSIA. Chechnya. September 1994. Novi Atagi. Chechen Independence day celebrations. Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudayev (with a papakha) at a site commemorating the origins of the Chechen people, three months before the beginning of the First Chechen War. He was a prominent Chechen leader and the first president of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, of whom he unilaterally declared the sovereignty and its independence from the Soviet Union in September 1991. He was killed in 1996 during the First Chechen war.

Photograph: Thomas Dworzak/Magnum Photos

RUSSIA. Chechnya. September 1994. Grozny. Chechen Independence day celebrations in a stadium, three months before the start of the First Chechen War (1994-1996). Several of the people attending were wounded or killed by stray bullets; Chechens like to punctuate joyous occasions with celebratory gunfire.

Photograph: Thomas Dworzak/Magnum Photos