Our Voyager 1 spacecraft officially became the first human-made object to venture into interstellar space in 2012.
Whether and when our Voyager 1 spacecraft broke through to interstellar space, the space between stars, has been a thorny issue.
In 2012, claims surfaced every few months that Voyager 1 had “left our solar system.” Why had the Voyager team held off from saying the craft reached interstellar space until 2013?
Basically, the team needed more data on plasma, which is an ionozied gas that exists throughout space. (The glob of neon in a storefront sign is an example of plasma).
Plasma is the most important marker that distinguishes whether Voyager 1 is inside the solar bubble, known as the heliosphere. The heliosphere is defined by the constant stream of plasma that flows outward from our Sun – until it meets the boundary of interstellar space, which contains plasma from other sources.
Adding to the challenge: they didn’t know how they’d be able to detect it.
No one has been to interstellar space before, so it’s like traveling with guidebooks that are incomplete.
Additionally, Voyager 1’s plasma instrument, which measures the density, temperature and speed of plasma, stopped working in 1980, right after its last planetary flyby.
When Voyager 1 detected the pressure of interstellar space on our heliosphere in 2004, the science team didn’t have the instrument that would provide the most direct measurements of plasma.
Voyager 1 Trajectory
Instead, they focused on the direction of the magnetic field as a proxy for source of the plasma. Since solar plasma carries the magnetic field lines emanating from the Sun and interstellar plasma carries interstellar magnetic field lines, the directions of the solar and interstellar magnetic fields were expected to differ.
Voyager 2 Trajectory
In May 2012, the number of galactic cosmic rays made its first significant jump, while some of the inside particles made their first significant dip. The pace of change quickened dramatically on July 28, 2012. After five days, the intensities returned to what they had been. This was the first taste test of a new region, and at the time Voyager scientists thought the spacecraft might have briefly touched the edge of interstellar space.
By Aug. 25, when, as we now know, Voyager 1 entered this new region for good, all the lower-energy particles from inside zipped away. Some inside particles dropped by more than a factor of 1,000 compared to 2004. However, subsequent analysis of the magnetic field data revealed that even though the magnetic field strength jumped by 60% at the boundary, the direction changed less than 2 degrees. This suggested that Voyager 1 had not left the solar magnetic field and had only entered a new region, still inside our solar bubble, that had been depleted of inside particles.
Then, in April 2013, scientists got another piece of the puzzle by chance. For the first eight years of exploring the heliosheath, which is the outer layer of the heliosphere, Voyager’s plasma wave instrument had heard nothing. But the plasma wave science team had observed bursts of radio waves in 1983 and 1984 and again in 1992 and 1993. They determined these bursts were produced by the interstellar plasma when a large outburst of solar material would plow into it and cause it to oscillate.
It took about 400 days for such solar outbursts to reach interstellar space, leading to an estimated distance of 117 to 177 AU (117 to 177 times the distance from the Sun to the Earth) to the heliopause.
Then on April 9, 2013, it happened: Voyager 1’s plasma wave instrument picked up local plasma oscillations. Scientists think they probably stemmed from a burst of solar activity from a year before. The oscillations increased in pitch through May 22 and indicated that Voyager was moving into an increasingly dense region of plasma.
The above soundtrack reproduces the amplitude and frequency of the plasma waves as “heard” by Voyager 1. The waves detected by the instrument antennas can be simply amplified and played through a speaker. These frequencies are within the range heard by human ears.
When they extrapolated back, they deduced that Voyager had first encountered this dense interstellar plasma in Aug. 2012, consistent with the sharp boundaries in the charged particle and magnetic field data on Aug. 25.
In the end, there was general agreement that Voyager 1 was indeed outside in interstellar space, but that location comes with some disclaimers. They determined the spacecraft is in a mixed transitional region of interstellar space. We don’t know when it will reach interstellar space free from the influence of our solar bubble.
Voyager 1, which is working with a finite power supply, has enough electrical power to keep operating the fields and particles science instruments through at least 2020, which will make 43 years of continual operation.
Voyager 1 will continue sending engineering data for a few more years after the last science instrument is turned off, but after that it will be sailing on as a silent ambassador.
In about 40,000 years, it will be closer to the star AC +79 3888 than our own Sun.
And for the rest of time, Voyager 1 will continue orbiting around the heart of the Milky Way galaxy, with our Sun but a tiny point of light among many.
World Junior Champs who became World Champions in Men’s Figure Skating
Back in 1976 the World Junior Figure Skating Championships were first held. Today the 40th World Junior Championships 2017 start. The question always is who could get to be not only the Junior World Champion but also can achieve that in the Senior ranks. Here are those skaters who made it!
Viktor Petrenko (USSR/UKR) - 1984 Junior World Champion & 1992 World Champion
Todd Eldredge (USA) - 1988 Junior World Champion & 1996 World Champion
Alexei Yagudin (RUS) - 1996 Junior World Champion & 1998,1999, 2000 and 2002 World Champion
Evgeni Plushenko (RUS) - 1997 Junior World Champion & 2001,2003 and 2004 World Champion
Daisuke Takahashi (JPN) - 2002 World Junior Champion & 2010 World Champion
Yuzuru Hanyu (JPN) - 2010 World Junior Champion & 2014 World Champion
Only 6 figure skater ever achieved a Gold in both the Junior and the Senior World Championship!
Good luck to all the competitors at the World Junior Championships 2017!
In Hawai'i, the destruction of our land and the prostitution of our culture is planned and executed by multinational corporations (both foreign-based and Hawai'i-based), by huge landowners (such as the missionary-descended Castle & Cook of Dole Pineapple fame), and by collaborationist state and county governments. The ideological gloss that claims tourism to be our economic savior and the “natural” result of Hawaiian culture is manufactured by ad agencies (such as the state-supported Hawai'i Visitors Bureau) and tour companies (many of which are owned by the airlines) and spewed out to the public through complicitous cultural engines such as film, television and radio, and the daily newspaper. As for the local labor unions, both rank and file and management clamor for more tourists, while the construction industry lobbies incessantly for larger resorts.
The major public educational institution, the University of Hawai"i, funnels millions of taxpayer dollars into a School of Travel Industry Management and a business school replete with a Real Estate Center and a Chair of Free Enterprise (renamed the Walker Chair to hide the crude reality of capitalism). As the propaganda arm of the tourist industry in Hawai'i, both schools churn out studies that purport to show why Hawai'i needs more golf courses, hotels, and tourist infrastructure and how Hawaiian culture is “naturally” one of giving and entertaining…
Despite our similarities with other major tourist destinations, the statistical picture of the effects of corporate tourism in Hawai'i is shocking:
Fact: Nearly forty years ago, at statehood, Hawai'i residents out numbered tourists by more than 2 to 1. Today, tourists outnum ber residents by 6 to 1 ; they outnumber Native Hawaiians by 30 to 1.2
Fact: According to independent economists and criminologists, “tourism has been the single most powerful factor in O'ahu’s crime rate,” including crimes against people and property.3
Fact: Independent demographers have been pointing out for years that tourism is the major source of population growth in Hawai'i" and that “rapid growth of the tourist industry ensures the trend toward a rapidly expanded population that receives lower per capita income."4
Fact: The Bank of Hawai'i has reported that the average real incomes of Hawai'i residents grew only one percent during the period from the early seventies through the early eighties, when tourism was booming. The same held true throughout the nineties. The census bureau reports that personal income growth in Hawai'i during the same time was the lowest by far of any of the fifty American states.5
Fact: Groundwater supplies on O'ahu will be insufficient to meet the needs of residents and tourists by the year 2000.6
Fact: According to The Honolulu Advertiser, "Japanese investors have spent more than $7.1 billion on their acquisitions” since 1986 in Hawai'i. This kind of volume translates into huge alien ations of land and properties. For example, nearly 2,000 acres of land on the Big Island of Hawai'i was purchased for $18.5 mil lion and over 7,000 acres on Moloka'i went for $33 million. In 1989, over $1 billion was spent by the Japanese on land alone.7
Fact: More plants and animals from our Hawaiian Islands are now extinct or on the endangered species list than in the rest of the United States.8
Fact: More than 29,000 families are on the Hawaiian trust lands list, waiting for housing, pastoral, or agricultural lots.9
Fact: The median cost of a home on the most populated island of O'ahu is around $350,000.10
Fact: Hawai'i has by far the worst ratio of average family income to average housing costs in the country. This explains why families spend nearly 52 percent of their gross income for housing costs.11
Fact: Nearly one-fifth of Hawai'i’s resident population is classi fied as near-homeless, that is, those for whom any mishap results in immediate on-the-street homelessness.12
From a Native Daughter: Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawaii by Haunani-Kay Trask
2. Eleanor C. Nordyke, The Peopling of Hawai'i, 2nd ed. (Honolulu:
University of Hawai'i Press, 1989), pp. 134-172.
3. Meda Chesney-Lind, “Salient Factors in Hawai'i’s Crime Rate,”
University of Hawai'i School of Social Work. Available from author.
4. Nordyke, The Peopling of Hawai'i, pp. 134-172.
5. Bank of Hawai'i Annual Economic Report, 1984.
6. Estimate of independent hydrologist Kate Vandemoer to community organizing group Kapa'a He'eia, February 1990. Water quality and groundwater depletion are two problems much discussed by state and county officials in
Hawai'i but ignored when resort permits are considered.
7. The Honolulu Advertiser, April 8, 1990.
8. David Stannard, Testimony against West Beach Estates. Land Use
Commission, State of Hawai'i, January 10, 1985.
9. Department of Hawaiian Home Lands, phone interview, March 1998.
10. Honolulu Star-Bulletin, May 8, 1990.
11. Bank of Hawai'i Annual Economic Report, 1984. In 1992, families probably spent closer to 60 percent of their gross income for housing costs.
Billion-dollar Japanese investments and other speculation since 1984 have
caused rental and purchase prices to skyrocket.
12. This is the estimate of a state-contracted firm that surveyed the
islands for homeless and near-homeless families. Testimony was delivered to
the state legislature, 1990 session.
You can never make that crossing that she made, for such Great Voyages in this world do not anymore exist. But every day of your lives the miles that voyage between that place and this one you cross. Every day. You understand me? In you that journey is. -Angels in America
Jeannette Rankin first woman elected to Congress, 1917
Margaret Chase Smith first woman elected to the US Senate in her own right, 1948, first woman to run for a major party nomination for President, 1964
Patsy Mink the first non-white woman elected to Congress, 1964, first Asian American woman to run for President 1972
Shirley Chisholm first black woman elected to Congress 1968, first black woman to run for President 1972
Geraldine Ferraro first woman on a major party ticket for Vice-President, 1984
1992 “The Year of the Women” in 1991 there were just 2 women in the US Senate, inspired by the sight of an all male panel of Senators addressing the Anita Hill sexual harassment allegations, Petty Murray (standing far left), Dianne Feinstein (sitting right) and Barbara Boxer (standing far right) decided to run for Senate, elected along side Carol Moseley Braun (sitting left) it would be the first time 4 women were elected to the Senate in a single year, they would join Barbara Mikulski (standing center) and Nancy Kassebaum (Republican, not in the picture) making it the most women that had sat in the Senate to date
Nancy Pelosi, first woman leader of a party in either house of Congress 2003, first woman Speaker of the House, 2007
Hillary Clinton, first woman to win state wide Primaries in a Presidential nominating contest 2008
Hillary Clinton, first woman nominee of a major political party, first woman to win the popular vote, first woman to earn electoral votes for President of the United States, 2016
Woman members of the US Senate 2017, from left to right sitting: Tammy Duckworth, Tammy Baldwin, Mazie Hirono, Jeanne Shaheen, Amy Klobuchar, Maggie Hassan. L to R Standing: Joni Ernst, Kamala Harris, Deb Fischer, Maria Cantwell, Catherine Cortez Masto, Elizabeth Warren, Shelley Moore Capito, Lisa Murkowski, Dianne Feinstein, Susan Collins, Debbie Stabenow.
Thesis statement: The cartoon/toy franchises of the 1980s remain so enduring in the memories of the now-adult children who grew up during that decade precisely because they simulated a microcosm of a generational wave.
G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero began in 1982 and ended in 1994, with an animated film in 1987.
He-Man and the Masters of the Universe began in 1982 and ended in 1987, with a live-action film that same year.
Challenge of the GoBots began in 1983 and ended in 1987.
Transformers: Generation 1 began in 1984 and ended in 1992, with an animated film in 1986.
Voltron: Defender of the Universe began in 1984 and ended in 1986.
The original (American) Robotech TV series began and ended in 1985.
Sectaurs: Warriors of Symbion began and ended in 1985.
Jayce and the Wheeled Warriors began in 1985 and ended in 1986.
She-Ra: Princess of Power began in 1985 and ended in 1987.
Jem and the Holograms began in 1985 and ended in 1988.
M.A.S.K. began in 1985 and ended in 1988.
ThunderCats began in 1985 and ended in 1989.
SilverHawks began and ended in 1986.
Inhumanoids began and ended in 1986.
Centurions: Power Xtreme began and ended in 1986.
Rock Lords began in 1986 and ended in 1987.
Bionic Six began in 1986 and ended in 1987.
Defenders of the Earth began in 1986 and ended in 1987.
The Real Ghostbusters began in 1986, two years after the first live-action film in 1984, and ended in 1991, two years after the live-action sequel in 1989.
Filmation’s Ghost Busters began and ended in 1986.
Visionaries: Knights of the Magical Light began and ended in 1987.
BraveStarr began in 1987 and ended in 1988.
And Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (the first iteration of the cartoon/toy franchise, not the comic) began in 1987 and ended in 1996, with live-action films in 1990, 1991 and 1993.
Setting aside The Real Ghostbusters and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, you don’t need to be Charles Murray to see a bell curve in these results. The earlier the cartoon/toy franchise emerged during the Eighties, the longer it tended to last, and the further along in the decade that it made its debut, the more protracted its lifespan usually proved to be (again, with those two big aforementioned exceptions).
Like the rolling tides, they came in right around the same times, and they went out around about the same times. The fact that so many of them didn’t last was not the aberration that we might regard it as today, but it was instead the accepted, unquestioned norm. Unless you were Sesame Street, Looney Tunes or Scooby Doo, you played out your few years onscreen, raked in your merchandising dollars and then moved on to your next cash cow.
Filmation’s Blackstar cartoon began and ended its original run on CBS in 1981, but it wasn’t until that same animation studio saw He-Man and the Masters of the Universe blow up in popularity that they brought back Blackstar in syndication from 1983 to 1985, this time with an accompanying toy line from Galoob, and even then, no one cared, because its window of eligibility had already passed.
So, if you were just the right age during the 1980s, this boom-and-bust cycle of so many cartoon/toy franchises, from 1982 to 1987, couldn’t help but feel like a reflection of your own waxing and waning interests in those same properties, as childhood gave way to adolescence. I’m hardly the first to note that we don’t see things as they are, but we instead see them as we are, and yet, it’s worth pointing out that materialistic kids are especially solipsistic in that regard, so it’s perhaps no surprise that we recall our younger years through the lens of syndicated animated shows with colorful plastic action figure tie-ins, because their rise, and fall, was ours as well.
RIP Omar Sharif (1932-2015) - The Egyptian star of classic epics Lawrence of Arabia (1962) and Doctor Zhivago (1965) died today at age 83. His film debut was in Devil of the Sahara (1954) and from there it took 21 more movies until he rose to fame as Sherif Ali in Lawrence of Arabia, role that earned his first Golden Globe and his only Oscar nomination. The 2nd Globe came for the title role in Doctor Zhivago, and by that time he was already established as a movie star appearing with Anthony Quinn and Gregory Peck in Behold a Pale Horse (1964), with Sophia Loren and Stephen Boyd in The Fall of the Roman Empire (1964), Ingrid Bergman and Shirley MacLaine in The Yellow Rolls-Royce (1965). Later on, he starred in Genghis Khan (1966), The Night of the Generals (1967), Funny Girl (1968), Mackenna’s Gold (1969), Juggernaut (1974), The Tamarind Seed (1974), Funny Lady (1975), Bloodline (1979), Inchon (1981), Green Ice (1981), Top Secret (1984), Beyond Justice (1992), 13th Warrior (1999), Monsieur Ibrahim (2003) - winning a Cesar for his performance, Hidalgo (2004) and most recently Rock the Casbah (2013). He was also an accomplished World-class bridge player, and of that he said “I’d rather be playing bridge than making a bad movie.”.