Olympic Canoe And Kayak Slalom Center, Athens, 2004 Summer Olympics Venue
Main Swimming Pool, Athens, 2004 Summer Olympics Venue
Its almost as if billions of dollars into multiple one-time use arenas is a bad investment. But the truly bad investment is letting them fall to ruin rather than turn them into public venues for the athletic betterment of your population afterwards. Canada, Atlanta, London, Salt Lake City, Barcelona all did a good job of re-using them, other places, they tore them down or hid them.
Margaret “Gretel” Bergmann-Lambert (née Bergmann; 12 April 1914 – 25 July 2017) was a German Jewish track and field athlete who competed as a high jumper during the 1930’s. Because of her Jewish origins, the Nazis prevented her from taking part in the 1936 Summer Olympics, after which she left Germany and vowed never to return. Bergmann triumphed as a teenager, setting a national record for the high jump in 1931. This photograph was probably taken at this competition.
Das Olympiastadion is a sports stadium in Berlin, originally built for the 1936 Summer Olympics. During the Olympics, the record attendance was thought to be 100,000+. Since renovations in 2004, it has a permanent capacity of 74,475 and is the largest stadium in Germany for international football matches. It’s a UEFA category 4 and one of the world’s most prestigious venues for sporting and entertainment events. Since 1963, it has been home to the Hertha BSC football team. DFB-Pokal (German Cup) final matches are held here annually.
Ruin value (German: Ruinenwert) is the concept that a building be designed such that if it eventually collapsed, it would leave behind aesthetically pleasing ruins that would last far longer without any maintenance at all. The idea was pioneered by German architect Albert Speer while planning for the 1936 Summer Olympics and published as “The Theory of Ruin Value” (Die Ruinenwerttheorie), although he was not its original inventor. The intention did not stretch only to the eventual collapse of the buildings, but rather assumed such buildings were inherently better designed and more imposing during their period of use.
Friday, December 31, 1926:
Tom Marvolo Riddle is born at Wool's Orphanage in London, England, UK.
Tuesday, October 29, 1929:
Tom Riddle is only a few months shy of his 3rd birthday. The stock market on Wall Street in New York City (USA) crashes. The Great Depression begins, ushering in a global recession.
Sunday, August 19, 1934:
Tom Riddle is now 7 years old. Adolf Hitler becomes Führer of Germany.
Monday, January 20, 1936:
Tom Riddle is now 9 years old. King George V dies, and his son ascends the throne as King Edward VIII.
Saturday, March 7, 1936:
Germany invades and occupies the Rhineland, beginning Hitler's conquest of Europe. In May, Mussolini's Italy takes Ethiopia.
Saturday, August 1, 1936:
The Summer Olympic Games in Berlin take place. The games were the first to be televised, and the radio broadcasts reach 41 countries. Over 70 hours of coverage is aired. Blackouts would occur from time to time, and the quality was generally poor. The opening ceremony was held at the Berlin Olympic Stadium. After the parade of nations and a speech by the president of the German Olympic Committee, the games were declared open by Adolf Hitler. Writer Thomas Wolfe, who was there, described the opening as an "almost religious event, the crowd screaming, swaying in unison and begging for Hitler. There was something scary about it; his cult of personality". Germany wins the most medals (89), with the United States placing second in numbers (56). The UK places 10th, with 14 medals.
Friday, December 11, 1936:
King Edward VIII, the eldest son of King George V and Queen Mary, abdicates the British throne. He does so to wed Wallis Simpson, an American divorcee. He famously said, "I have found it impossible to carry the heavy burden of responsibility, and to discharge my duties as king, as I would wish to do without the help and support of the woman I love." His brother, Prince Albert, Duke of York, succeeds to the throne as King George VI. George VI's elder daughter, Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II), becomes first in the line of succession, as heiress presumptive.
Thursday, May 27, 1937:
King George VI and Queen Elizabeth are coronated at Westminster Abbey in London. The return procession to Buckingham Palace was over six miles in length, making it the longest coronation procession up to that time; crowds of people lined the streets to watch it, over 32,000 soldiers took part, and 20,000 police officers lined the route. The event was designed to be a public spectacle, which was also planned as a display of the British Empire. May 1937 included a programme of royal events lasting nearly the entire month to commemorate and mark the occasion. In the lead up to the coronation, guests from across the Empire and around the world assembled on Buckingham Palace, and official receptions were held to welcome them; amongst those attending were Indian princes, and, for the first time, native African royalty. For the event itself, the prime ministers of each Dominion took part in the procession to the abbey, while representatives of nearly every country attended. Contingents from most colonies and each Dominion participated in the return procession through London's streets. It was also the first coronation to be filmed, as well as the first to be broadcast on radio.
Monday, December 12, 1937:
The Daily Express reports that Lloyd's of London was "quoting 32 to 1 odds against Britain being involved in a war before December 31, 1939".
Tuesday, December 21, 1937:
The Walt Disney animated film "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" premieres at the Carthay Circle Theatre in Los Angeles, California (USA). It is the first full-length, cel animated feature film. The film goes on to be featured on the cover of TIME magazine, 6 days later. The film opens to a tremendous critical success, with many reviewers hailing it as a genuine work of art, recommended for both children and adults. By May 1939, its total international gross of $6.5 million made it the most successful sound film of all time. Noted filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein and Charlie Chaplin praised the film as a notable achievement in cinema; Eisenstein went so far as to call it "the greatest film ever made". The film inspired Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to produce its own fantasy film, "The Wizard of Oz", in 1939. Within two years, Disney completes "Pinocchio" and "Fantasia", and had begun production on features such as "Dumbo", "Bambi", "Alice in Wonderland", and "Peter Pan".
Thursday, December 22, 1937:
A strange fish was found on a fishing trawler in East London, South Africa, part of the British Empire (Commonwealth). It was later identified as a coelacanth, previously thought to be extinct.
Saturday, December 25, 1937:
George VI delivers his first Royal Christmas Message. At four minutes, it was the shortest Message to date.
Wednesday, December 29, 1937:
The new Constitution of Ireland goes into effect. The Irish Free State was abolished, and the country was renamed simply "Ireland", or "Éire".
Friday, December 31, 1937:
Tom Riddle turns 11 years old, and is visited by Albus Dumbledore, the Transfiguration Professor at Hogwarts, at Wool's Orphanage. Tom learns that he is a wizard.
Sunday, February 20, 1938:
Tom Riddle is 11 years old, several months shy of his 12th birthday. Hitler gives a three-hour internationally broadcast speech in the Reichstag, Berlin (Germany), vowing to protect German minorities outside of the Reich, and reiterating demands for "restoration of German colonies". Later on, the House of Commons continues to endorse Neville Chamberlain's policy of appeasement towards Germany.
Thursday, March 10, 1938:
Hitler orders his generals to prepare for an invasion of Austria.
Saturday, March 12, 1938:
The German army crosses the Austrian border at 8:00 AM, completing "Anschluss" (union) with Austria.
Monday, March 14, 1938:
Hitler visits Vienna. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain makes a speech in the House of Commons on "the Austrian situation", saying the government "emphatically" disapproved of Germany's deed, but that "nothing could have prevented this action by Germany, unless we and others with us had been prepared to use force to prevent it."
Sunday, March 20, 1938:
Thousands of demonstrators march in London to protest the Bombing of Barcelona, and the Chamberlain government's refusal to allow arms to the Republicans [in the Spanish Civil War].
Sunday, April 10, 1938:
50,000 attend a "Save Spain" rally in Hyde Park, protesting the British government's policy on the Civil War.
Tuesday, April 26, 1938:
On Budget Day in the United Kingdom, Chancellor of the Exchequer Sir John Simon introduces the biggest peacetime budget in the nation's history. Taxes on income, gasoline and tea were increased to help pay for the national rearmament program.
Friday, June 24, 1938:
The Royal Air Force launches a new recruitment campaign, and receives 1,000 inquiries on the first day alone.
Saturday, June 25, 1938:
Douglas Hyde becomes the 1st President of Ireland.
Sunday, July 5, 1938:
The famous psychoanalysist Sigmund Freud, 82 and frail, arrives in Paris on the Orient Express, having fled persecution by the Nazis in his homeland of Austria. After a few hours of rest, he continues on his way to London, where he had been granted asylum. The next day, he establishes a residence at a rented home near Regent's Park in London. Freud was also made a British citizen upon his arrival in Britain, despite normally requiring five years' residence.
Monday, July 18, 1938:
Queen Marie of Romania [Princess Marie of Edinburgh], 62, last Queen consort of Romania, and wife of Romanian King Ferdinand I, dies of pancreatic cancer. She was one of Queen Victoria's five crowned granddaughters and one of three to retain their position as consort after the conclusion of World War I, alongside the Queens of Norway and of Spain.
Thursday, July 28, 1938:
The Cunard White-Star liner RMS Mauretania is launched.
Sunday, August 7, 1938:
The RMS Queen Mary sets a record for east-to-west Atlantic crossing of 3 days, 23 hours and 48 minutes. On August 14, the RMS Queen Mary sets a record for the eastbound Atlantic crossing of 3 days 20 hours 42 minutes.
Friday, August 26, 1938:
Germany sent notes to Britain and France asking them to compel Czechoslovakia to accept the demands of the Sudeten Germans, including giving them the right to autonomy. The British government announces the mobilization of the Royal Navy in response to German military exercises.
Saturday, August 27, 1938:
Winston Churchill makes a speech in Theydon Bois, saying that war was not inevitable, "But the danger to peace will not be removed until the vast German armies which have been called from their homes into the ranks have been dispersed. For a country which is itself not menaced by anyone, in no fear of anyone, to place over 150,000 soldiers upon a war footing is a very grave step." Churchill said that Europe's fate lay in the hands of "the extraordinary man at the summit of Germany. He has raised the country from defeat; he has brought it back again to the foremost ranks of power. It would indeed be a fatal act if he were to cast away all he has done for the German people by leading them into what would almost certainly become a world war."
Tuesday, August 30, 1938:
The British cabinet holds a meeting on the Sudeten crisis, and then issues a vague statement to the public: "At the conclusion of the meeting the ministers expressed their entire agreement with the action already taken and the policy to be pursued in the future."
Wednesday, August 31, 1938:
Winston Churchill writes the Foreign Secretary, Lord Halifax, urging the formation of a united front with France, the Soviet Union and the United States.
Thursday, September 1, 1938:
At 11:00 AM, Tom Riddle boards the Hogwarts Express for the first time. He sets off from King's Cross Station in London. Later that evening, he is Sorted into Slytherin.
Sunday, September 4, 1938:
A Royal Air Force plane crashes into a residential area in the Edmonton region of London, killing the pilot and twelve other people.
Saturday, September 10, 1938:
Alfonso, Prince of Asturias, heir apparent to the throne of Spain from 1907 to 1931, dies at the age of 31 in a car accident. He crashed into a telephone booth, and appeared to have minor injuries, but his haemophilia led to fatal internal bleeding.
Monday, September 12, 1938:
Hitler makes a bombastic speech in Nuremberg, declaring that "the oppression of Sudeten Germans must end". The speech was broadcast live to the United States by CBS Radio and was the first time that many Americans had ever heard Hitler speak. The British cabinet held a meeting almost as soon as Hitler was finished speaking. They were relieved that Hitler had only demanded "justice" for Sudeten Germans, and had not committed himself to war.
Thursday, September 15, 1938:
Thomas Wolfe, 37, an American writer and playwright, dies of miliary tuberculosis of the brain, after a bout of pneumonia. The next day, The New York Times wrote: "His was one of the most confident young voices in contemporary American literature, a vibrant, full-toned voice which it is hard to believe could be so suddenly stilled. The stamp of genius was upon him, though it was an undisciplined and unpredictable genius.... There was within him an unspent energy, an untiring force, an unappeasable hunger for life and for expression which might have carried him to the heights and might equally have torn him down." TIME wrote: "The death last week of Thomas Clayton Wolfe shocked critics with the realization that, of all American novelists of his generation, he was the one from whom most had been expected."
Monday, October 3, 1938:
Irish troops take over the forts of Dunree and Leenan on Lough Swilly, ending 247 years of British military presence in Ireland.
Wednesday, October 5, 1938:
Winston Churchill delivers a now-famous speech to the House of Commons, calling the Munich Agreement "a total and unmitigated defeat". In the British periodical "The Week", Claud Cockburn writes that Charles Lindbergh, the famous American airman, had recently told a meeting of the Cliveden set that "the Luftwaffe could defeat the British, French, Soviet and Czechoslovak air forces combined".
Sunday, October 16, 1938:
Winston Churchill gives a radio address to the United States, outlining the threat of Nazi Germany, and the need of both Britain and the United States to arm themselves. The speech was titled "The Defence of Freedom and Peace", but subtitled "The Lights are Going Out", an allusion to the famous comment attributed to Sir Edward Grey at the beginning of the First World War, "The lamps are going out all over Europe".
Sunday, October 30, 1938:
A radio drama performance of "The War of the Worlds", directed and narrated by Orson Welles, airs over the CBS radio network in the USA. It becomes famous for allegedly causing a nationwide panic among people who thought the drama about an alien invasion by Martians was a real news broadcast, but such accounts have been wildly exaggerated.
Tuesday, November 1, 1938:
Seabiscuit defeats War Admiral in a special race at Pimlico Race Course in front of a crowd of 40,000.
Wednesday, November 16, 1938:
The Halifax Slasher scare begins in West Yorkshire, England, when two young women reported being attacked by "an unseen assailant with a mallet or hatchet". Scotland Yard is called to assist as reports of the "slasher" grow. The case is dropped on December 2, when it is revealed to have been a mass hoax.
Sunday, November 20, 1938:
Queen Maud of Norway ["Maud of Wales"], consort of Norwegian King Haakon VII, and the youngest daughter of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom and Queen Alexandra; the aunt of King George VI, dies from heart failure.
Thursday, December 1, 1938:
Britain introduces a "national register" for war service.
Saturday, December 31, 1938:
Tom Riddle turns 12 years old.
Tuesday, March 15, 1939:
Tom Riddle is now 12 years old, and is set to attend his second year at Hogwarts in September. The Nazis take Czechoslovakia. Over the course of the next few months, Nazi Germany allies with Italy, as well as Soviet Russia.
Friday, August 25, 1939:
Britain signs a Mutual Assistance Treaty with Poland.
Thursday, August 31, 1939:
It is the day before Tom Riddle is set to take the Hogwarts Express from King's Cross in London. The British fleet mobilizes; Operation Pied Piper begins in London. On the morning of Thursday, August 31st 1939, news outlets across Britain were all reporting the same thing. In the coming days, millions of vulnerable civilians would be evacuated from the country's centers of industry and shipping for their own safety. The government feared aerial bombardment of cities and towns, something the world had so recently witnessed during the horror of the Spanish Civil War. "Evacuation Begins To-Morrow," were the words printed in large type across the front page of newspapers like the Express and Echo in Devon, which quoted the government announcement on evacuation: "It has been decided to start evacuation of the school-children, and other priority classes, as already arranged under the Government's scheme, to-morrow, Friday September 1st. No one should conclude that this decision means war is now regarded as inevitable."
Friday, September 1, 1939:
At 11:00 AM, Tom Riddle boards the Hogwarts Express, and sets off for Hogwarts. Operation Pied Piper begins evacuations of London. Nazi Germany invades Poland. On September 1, 1939, Muggle children arrive at their school, clutching their gas masks and rucksacks which they had been required to bring to school for over a week in anticipation of the evacuation. They are organized in squads of fifty, with at least five teachers per squad. A banner giving the school name and colors leads each squad. Teachers wear bright-red armbands with the school numbers in black lettering. They were then marched to the train stations. Some mothers followed behind weeping, and a few had to be restrained by the police, from joining their children or snatching them back. Other children mustered at their local primary school, carrying their gas-mask, toothbrush, change of underclothes and label. Many of the evacuees thought they were going on vacation. In his Mass Observation diary, Joseph Welbank describes a conversation with a school mistress the night before the evacuation. "I said 'I bet the kids feel miserable don’t they?' She said 'No fear, they are looking forward to it. Some of them are sorry there wasn't a war last September. They want the holiday. That's the best way to look at it." This shows that many of the children did not know what was really going on, or why they were being evacuated. Some younger children had even arrived with shovels and pails, having been told by their parents that they were going to the seashore. The biggest problem for the evacuees during the long journey was a lack of food and water. Teachers had forbidden the children from bringing any water, the "official" reason being to avoid broken glass, but in truth, they did not want to worry about children having to use the bathroom. Fruit, such as apples, oranges, and pears, were used as thirst quenchers. When the children arrived at the railway platforms, they were loaded onto whatever train was available, with little effort to control their destinations. School groups and families were broken up in the rush to get everyone on trains. Parents were told that their children would send them a postcard notifying them of where they were once they had reached the reception area. One mother was overheard saying, "She (her youngest child) cried a lot last night…wish I knew where she was going." Other parents saw the disorganization and secrecy as reasons to evacuate their children privately.
Sunday, September 3, 1939:
Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand declare war on Germany. By this point, nearly 1,437,000 people had been moved from British cities without a single casualty or accident. Evacuees are lower in number than anticipated by the British Muggle government. In London, only half of the schoolchildren went at this time. Nationwide, 827,000 schoolchildren, 524,000 mothers and children under five, 13,000 expectant mothers, 7,000 handicapped people, and 103,000 teachers and helpers were all evacuated. Aside from the complaints of mistakes in the evacuation, most of the hosts' grievances regarded child guests who were "verminous, bed-wetters, liars, thieves, had no respect for property, unclean habits, rude, quarrelsome, stuck-up, gave no assistance in the home, and would be too expensive to keep". Most of these problems were "diseases of poverty," which helped to make the middle and upper classes, as well as the poor people of the countryside, aware of the "deep and shameful poverty which exists to-day in the rich cities of England". E.A. Stebbing wrote in his diary for Mass Observation, "If good can come out of evil, then this war is surely doing good in showing people how other people live. There is no doubt that people in this district have been taken aback by the habits and conditions of the life of slum children." The hosts would have been more sympathetic to the conditions of their evacuees had London been bombed, but since it was not, they felt that the exposure to these dirty habits and "diseases of poverty" was unnecessary and their moods quickly changed from sympathetic to hostile. There was also the question of decent clothing. Many slum children were ill prepared for evacuation. Some arrived with little clothing, and others had clothes that were not suited for the wear and tear of country living. Kind foster parents felt it their duty to re-outfit children who came ill prepared. They often did this at their own expense, and then asked the parents to pay later, which caused issues because many parents could not afford new clothes for their children. In some towns, charitable funds were organized for children who had insufficient clothes or shoes and the government secretly distributed thousands of pounds for the poorest and most "necessitous cases". The children in London, who had not been evacuated, were left without school for several months. Since the government had expected more people to take part in the evacuation, they had re purposed many of the schools for the war effort, and sent all of the teachers to the country with the evacuated children. Doctors and social workers began to note the physical deterioration of the children left behind, because of the absence of school supervision, medical services, and school milk. The government was reluctant to re-open the schools in the evacuation areas, because it meant admitting the evacuation had failed.
Monday, September 4, 1939:
British Royal Air Force attacks the German Navy.
Tuesday, September 5, 1939:
United States proclaims its neutrality; German troops cross the Vistula River in Poland.
Sunday, September 10, 1939:
Canada declares war on Germany; Battle of the Atlantic begins.
Wednesday, September 27, 1939:
Poland surrenders to Germany. Nazis and Soviets divide up Poland.
Thursday, November 30, 1939:
The Soviets attack Finland.
Monday, January 8, 1940:
Tom Riddle is now 13 years old, and midway through his second year at Hogwarts. Rationing begins in the UK. Great Britain begins issuing ration books containing coupons for bacon, butter and sugar. Shortly after, tea, jam, biscuits, breakfast cereals, cheese, eggs, milk and canned fruit rationing were introduced. Later, as the war continued, many more items of both food and non-food items were introduced including meat, petrol, clothes, tea, and soap were rationed. The Ministry of Health records that 43% of the unaccompanied schoolchildren had returned home. Overall, Operation Pied Piper is considered to have failed, because by the beginning of 1940, almost 700,000 evacuees in England and Wales had returned home.
Hermann von Oppeln Bronikowski was a German Major General during the World War 2.
He was a soldier during the First World war in a Uhlan regiment. At the 1936 Summer Olympics he won the Gold Medal in the team Dressage. He commanded the 20th Panzerdivision during the World war 2 and during the last month of the war he fought with great bravery. After a short captivity he found the freedom in 1947.
he served for the reconstitution of the German army (Bundeswehr) and was a coach in the Canadian Dressage Team (riding) at the Summer Olympics 1964 Tokyo.
Hermann von Oppeln-Bronikowski died in 1966. ————————————— Hermann von Oppeln Bronikowski, général allemand, champion olympique d'équitation.
Il était soldat durant la Première guerre mondiale dans un régiment de Uhlan. Au J.O. de 1936 il remporte la médaille d'or en dressage (équitation) par équipe. Il a commandé la 20eme Panzerdivision durant la Seconde guerre mondiale et durant les derniers mois de la guerre il a combattu avec grande bravoure. Après une courte captivité il retrouve la liberté en 1947.
Il a servi pour la reconstitution de l'Armée allemande (Bundeswehr) et a été entraîneur au sein de l'équipe canadienne de dressage (équitation) lors des Jeux olympiques d'été de 1964 à Tokyo.
Hermann von Oppeln-Bronikowski est décédé en 1966.
For the video, „Stripped“, parts were used from Leni Riefenstahl’s film about the 1936 Olympic Summer Games. That led to Nazi accusations and discussions. Did you get to buy the footage cheaply at the time?
Lorenz: The ferocity of the reactions took us completely by surprise. At the time, we really thought that everything would sort itself out.
Lindemann: We come from the East and we have grown up as socialists. We used to be either punks or Goths – we hate Nazis! And then, such a far-fetched accusation. We are doing exactly the same thing today, but no one in America or in Mexico would even get the idea to come up with something like that. This only happens in Germany. Our reply to this animosity was, “Links 2 3 4”, and with that, we had made it clear where we stand politically.
How important was this clarification?
Lindemann: Very! We are coming from an entirely different culture. We used to beat up those right wing morons, and we still would today.
2011 Rolling Stone interview with Till Lindemann and Flake Lorenz.
I’m posting this because some months ago I was asked by another user about Till’s stance on Nazis,and if Rammstein were far right supporters. Tumblr fucked up and I lost my asks,forgetting about this, so apologies but here you are.This is one of the interviews I mentioned,and when I find the other I’ll post it too.
Eighty years ago track star Jesse Owens won the first of four gold medals at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin on August 3, 1936, running in the 100 meter sprint.
These Olympic games were met with controversy in the United States. Many were concerned that participation would send the message that the US supported Hitler’s regime; and on the other side, many wanted to go to prove the idea of Aryan supremacy wrong. With four gold medals Jesse Owens overwhelmingly showed the world the error in the thought of Aryan superiority.
Liechtenstein and Haiti developed identical national flags independently of each other. No one realized until the two countries competed against each other in the 1936 Summer Olympics under the same flag.